Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 45

Philippines Related Abstracts

45 A Literature Review on Community Awareness, Education in Disaster Risk Reduction and Best Practices

Authors: Alwyn John Lim

Abstract:

Philippines is one of the most vulnerable areas to natural disasters in the world. Almost every year different types of natural disasters occur in Philippines and destroy many lives and resources of people. Although it is not possible to prevent the occurrence of disasters influenced by natural causes, proper plan and management such as disaster risk reduction may minimize the damage cause by natural disasters. Based on literature review this paper will analyze literatures on public/community awareness and education in disaster risk reduction that would help promote a country wide public disaster awareness and education program in the Philippines. This will include best practices and importance of community disaster awareness and education. The paper will also tackle ICT tools that will help boost the process and effectiveness of community/public disaster awareness and education.

Keywords: Disaster Risk Reduction, Disaster Education, community awareness, Philippines

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44 Animal Welfare through Stockmanship Competence and Its Relationship to Productivity and Economic Profitability: The Case of Backyard Goat Production in the Philippines

Authors: M. J. Alcedo, K. Ito, K. Maeda

Abstract:

A stockperson has a significant influence on the productivity and welfare of their animals. This influence may be good or bad depending on their stockmanship competence. In this study, stockmanship competence (SC) is defined as the capacity of the stockperson to ensure the welfare of their animals by providing their animal’s needs. The study was conducted to evaluate the stockmanship competence of backyard goat raisers and to examine its relationship to productivity and economic profitability. This was made possible by interviewing 101 backyard goat raisers who have undergone farmer livestock school on integrated goat management (FLS IGM) in Region I, Philippines on September 3-30, 2012 and March 4-17, 2013. Secondary data needed were gathered from the local government agencies involved. Data on stockmanship, goat productivity and farmer’s income before and after attending FLS-IGM were gathered through a semi-structured interview. Questions for stockamnship were based on the Philippine recommends on goat production, tips on goat raising and other scientific literature. Stockmanship competence index score (SCIS) was computed by summing the raw scores derived from each components of SC divided by the total number of components. Pearson correlation through SPSS was used to see the relationship between SC, productivity and income. Result showed that majority raised native and upgraded goats. The computed mean SCIS before and after undergoing FLS-IGM was 38.53% and 75.81%, respectively, an improvement of 49.17%. Both index scores resulted in significant differences in productivity and income. The median mature weight and mortality rate of goats before FLS-IGM, where SC was low, was 14 kg and 50% respectively. On the other hand, after stockmanship had improved, the median mature weight increased to 19 kgs and mortality rate decreased to 11.11%. Likewise, fewer goat diseases were observed by farmers as compared before. With regards to income, there was 127.34% difference on the median net income derived by farmers. Result implies that improved stockmanship competence can lead not only to increased productivity and income of backyard goat raisers but also welfare of the animal.

Keywords: Animal Welfare, Philippines, stockmanship, backyard goat production

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43 Animal Welfare Assessment Method through Stockmanship Competence: The Context of Backyard Goat Production in the Philippines

Authors: M. J. Alcedo, K. Ito, K. Maeda

Abstract:

Measuring animal welfare is a newly emerging area of research and it needs multi-disciplinary way to do it. Due to the diversity of what constitutes the definition of animal welfare, different methods and models were developed and mostly conducted in semi and commercial farms in developed countries. Few studies have been conducted in developing countries and in backyard livestock operation. Recognizing that majority of livestock operations are categorized as backyard in developing countries, it is crucial to come up with parameters that can assess the welfare of the animal in the backyard level. This research had made use of stockmanship competence as the proxy indicator to assess animal welfare. Stockmanship competence in this study refers to the capacity of the animal owner to ensure the welfare of their animal by providing their needs for growth and reproduction. The Philippine recommend on goat production, tips on goat raising and goat scientific literatures were used as references to come up with indicators that are known to be important in meeting the needs of the animal and ensuring its welfare. Scores from -1 to +2 were assigned depending on how close it is of satisfying the animal’s need. It is hoped that this assessment method could contribute to the growing body of knowledge on animal welfare and can be utilized as logical and scientific framework in assessing welfare in backyard goat operation. It is suggested that further study needs to be conducted to refine and standardize indicators and identify other indicators for goat welfare assessment.

Keywords: Animal Welfare, Philippines, backyard goat production, stockmanship competence

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42 Genetic Structure of Four Bovine Populations in the Philippines Using Microsatellites

Authors: Peter James C. Icalia, Agapita J. Salces, Loida Valenzuela, Kangseok Seo, Geronima Ludan

Abstract:

This study evaluated polymorphism of 11 microsatellite markers in four local genetic groups of cattle. Batanes cattle which has never been studied using microsatellites is evaluated for its genetic distance from the Ilocos cattle while Brahman and Holstein-Sahiwal are also included as there were insemination programs by the government using these two breeds. PCR products that were genotyped for each marker were analyzed using POPGENEv32. Results showed that 55% (Fst=0.5501) of the genetic variation is due to the differences between populations while the remaining 45% is due to individual variation. The Fst value also indicates that there were very great differences from population to population using the range proposed by Sewall and Wright. The constructed phylogenetic tree based on Nei’s genetic distance using the modified neighboor joining procedure of PHYLIPv3.5 showed the admixture of Brahman and Holstein-Sahiwal having them grouped in the same clade. Batanes and Ilocos cattle were grouped in a different cluster showing that they have descended from a single parental population. This would presumably address the claim that Batanes and Ilocos cattle are genetically distant from other groups and still exist despite the artificial insemination program of the government using Brahman and other imported breeds. The knowledge about the genetic structure of this population supports the development of conservation programs for the smallholder farmers.

Keywords: Populations, Cattle, Philippines, microsatellites, genetic structure

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41 Exposure to Particulate Matter Taking Various Transportation Modes in Cebu City, Philippines

Authors: Mona Loraine M. Barabad, Duckshin Park, Michael E. Versoza

Abstract:

This study gives a comparison of the commuters’ exposure to particulate matter while taking different transportation mode (jeepney, motorcycle and taxi) in Cebu City, Philippines. A personal aerosol monitor (Sidepak AM510) was used for data collection; in addition, both temperature and humidity were also documented. Analysis was done and showed that Jeepney, which is the most commonly used mode in the country, has the highest PM collected having an average of 358.0μg/m^3, followed by the motorcycle with an average of 244.6 μg/m^3. The taxi recorded to have an average of 50.0 μg/m^3 and the lowest between the microenvironments sampled. The outcome was greatly significant to the traffic volume together with several factors that could possibly affect the result. However, due to the lack of time and resources, the data collected was limited. Further and thorough investigation should be implemented to provide more essential information regarding the subject.

Keywords: Air quality, Transportation, Particulate Matter, Philippines

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40 Paleoproductivity during the Younger Dryas off Northeastern Luzon, Philippines

Authors: Jay Mar D. Quevedo, Fernando P. Siringan, Cesar L. Villanoy

Abstract:

The influence of the Younger Dryas (YD) event on primary production off the northeast shelf of Luzon, Philippines is examined using sediment cores from two deep sea sites north of the Bicol shelf and with varying relative influence from terrestrial sediment input and the Kuroshio Current. Core A is immediately west of the Kuroshio feeder current and is off the slope while Core B is from a bathymetric high located almost west of Core A. XRF-, CHN- and LOI- derived geochemical proxies are utilized for reconstruction. A decrease in sediment input from ~12.9 to ~11.6 kyr BP corresponding to the YD event is indicated by the proxies, Ti, Al, and Al/Ti, in both cores. This is consistent with the drier climate during this period. Primary productivity indicators in the cores show opposing trends during the YD; Core A shows an increasing trend while Core B shows a decreasing trend. The decreasing trend in Core B can be due to a decrease in terrestrial nutrient input due to a decrease in precipitation. On the other hand, the increasing trend in Core A can be due to a swifter Kuroshio Current caused by a swifter and more southerly NEC bifurcation which in turn is due to a southerly shift of the ITCZ during YD. A stronger Kuroshio feeder would have enhanced upwelling induced by steeper sea surface across the current and by more intense cyclonic gyres due to flow separation where the shelf width suddenly decreases north of the Bicol Shelf.

Keywords: Philippines, paleoproductivity, younger dryas, northeastern Luzon

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39 Drop-Out Rate in Leocadio Alejo Entienza High School for SY 2013-2014: Its Causes and Interventions

Authors: Raquel Balon Quintana

Abstract:

This study aims to help the Students-At-Risk of Dropping Out to finish their studies in their grade/year level category for this school year by finding out students’ behavior in and out the school, community involvement in the learning process and the causes or reasons behind drop-out rate that affect the performance level of the school. This study also looked for the intervention measures to reduce the drop-out rate of the school. The Normative Survey Method of research was used to achieve its purpose and objective of conducting interview with students and their parents, subject teachers, classmates and friends; undertaking observation and monitoring to find out the whereabouts of SARDO’s on and off classes hours; using questionnaires; and conducting home visitation to be able to link the community involvement into dropping-out of student. Results of the study revealed that out of 32 Students-At-Risk of Dropping Out, 50% were over age for high school (16 years old to 21 years old) while the other 50% came from the regular high school students. These 16 students came from the 41 students who dropped-out from their classes last school year. All Students-At-Risk of Dropping-Out are single and seventy-eight percent of them are male. Top five (5) among the factors that affect their school performance were peer pressure, self-drive, malnutrition, family problem/support and truancy. The five (5) least factors that affect their schooling were problems within their community, school-administration factor, harassment, teacher factor and distance from the school.

Keywords: Philippines, students-at-risk of dropping-out, drop-out rate, Leocadio Alejo Entienza High School

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38 Impact of Nurses' Migration to Nursing Management in Selected Health Institutions in the Philippines

Authors: Maria Luisa T. Uayan

Abstract:

The global need for qualified nurses to take care of the clients with various health needs is an incessant occurrence that persistently cause migration of nurses from developing to developed countries. The pull-push theory of migration greatly affects health care delivery systems of sending countries which is the same way affects nursing management. The exodus of nurses prepared to provide the much needed leadership at the bedside leaves the country in clusters giving health care institutions limited time to develop the next front-line managers that will assure quality patient care. This paper focuses on the extent and consequences of the massive recurring migration phenomena that is felt ONLY IN THE PHILIPPINE health care arena. It deals with the causes, problems, and effects of the cyclical loss of competent Filipina nurses in terms of emigration. Also, it will highlights the difficulties confronted by nursing service departments and health care teams when more experienced nurses set out for the “greener pastures” and patients are placed under the care of novice nurses. Fundamentally, it will emphasize the impact of suffering the loss of competent nurse managers in the Philippine health care institutions and provide contemporary recommendations on how to responsd accordingly to this very timely issue.

Keywords: Migration, Philippines, Nurse Manager

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37 Factors Determining the Vulnerability to Occupational Health Risk and Safety of Call Center Agents in the Philippines

Authors: Lito M. Amit, Venecio U. Ultra, Young-Woong Song

Abstract:

The business process outsourcing (BPO) in the Philippines is expanding rapidly attracting more than 2% of total employment. Currently, the BPO industry is confronted with several issues pertaining to sustainable productivity such as meeting the staffing gap, high rate of employees’ turnover and workforce retention, and the occupational health and safety (OHS) of call center agents. We conducted a survey of OHS programs and health concerns among call center agents in the Philippines and determined the sociocultural factors that affect the vulnerability of call center agents to occupational health risks and hazards. The majority of the agents affirmed that OHS are implemented and OHS orientation and emergency procedures were conducted at employment initiations, perceived favorable and convenient working environment except for occasional noise disturbances and acoustic shock, visual, and voice fatigues. Male agents can easily adjust to the demands and changes in their work environment and flexible work schedules than female agents. Female agents have a higher tendency to be pressured and humiliated by low work performance, experience a higher incidence of emotional abuse, psychological abuse, and experience more physical stress than male agents. The majority of the call center agents had a night-shift schedule and regardless of other factors, night shift work brings higher stress to agents. While working in a call center, higher incidence of headaches and insomnia, burnout, suppressed anger, anxiety, and depressions were experienced by female, younger (21-25 years old) and those at night shift than their counterpart. Most common musculoskeletal disorders include body pain in the neck, shoulders and back; and hand and wrist disorders and these are commonly experienced by female and younger workers. About 30% experienced symptoms of cardiovascular and gastrointestinal disorders and weakened immune systems. Overall, these findings have shown the variable vulnerability by a different subpopulation of call center agents and are important in the occupational health risk prevention and management towards a sustainable human resource for BPO industry in the Philippines.

Keywords: Philippines, business process outsourcing industry, health risk of call center agents, socio-cultural determinants

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36 Psychosocial Support in Disaster Situations in the Philippines and Indonesia: A Critical Literature Review

Authors: Fuad Hamsyah

Abstract:

Since last two decades, major disasters have happened in the Philippines and Indonesia as two countries that are located in the pacific ring of fire territory. While in Southeast Asian countries, the process of psychosocial support provision is facing various constraints such as limited number of mental health professionals and the limited knowledge about the provision of psychosocial support for disaster survivors. Yet after the tsunami disaster in 2004, many Asian countries begin to develop policies about the provision of psychosocial interventions as an effort for future disasters preparedness. In addition, mental health professionals have to consider the local cultural values and beliefs in order to provide people with effective psychosocial support since cultural values and beliefs play a significant role in the diversity of psychological distress that forms symptoms formation, and people’s way to seek for psychological assistance. This study is a critical literature review on 130 relevant selected documents and literatures. IASC MHPSS guideline is used as the research framework in doing critical analysis. The purpose of this study is to conduct a critical analysis on the mental health and psychosocial support provision in the Philippines and Indonesia with three main objectives: 1) To describe strengths, weaknesses, and challenges in the process of psychosocial supports given by public and private organizations in emergency settings of disaster in the Philippines and Indonesia, 2) To compare psychosocial support practices between the Philippines and Indonesia, and to identify the good practices among these countries, 3) To learn how cultural values influence the implementation of psychosocial supports in emergency settings of disaster. This research indicated that almost every function from IASC MHPSS guidelines has been implemented effectively in the Philippines and Indonesia, yet not in every detail of IASC MHPSS guidelines. Several similarities and differences are indicated in this study also based on the IASC MHPSS guidelines as the analysis framework. Further, both countries have some good practices that can be useful as an example of a comprehensive psychosocial support implementation. Apart from the IASC MHPSS guideline, cultural values and beliefs in the Philippines such as kanya-kanya syndrome, pakikipakapwa, utang na loob, bahala na, pagkaya are indicated as several cultural values that have strong influences towards people’s attitude and behavior in disaster situations. While in Indonesia, several cultural values such as sabar and nrimo become two important attitudes to cope disaster situations.

Keywords: Disaster, Indonesia, Philippines, psychosocial support

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35 Transnational Solidarity and Philippine Society: A Probe on Trafficked Filipinos and Economic Inequality

Authors: Shierwin Agagen Cabunilas

Abstract:

Countless Filipinos are reeling in dire economic inequality while many others are victims of human trafficking. Where there is extreme economic inequality, majority of the Filipinos are deprived of basic needs to have a good life, i.e., decent shelter, safe environment, food, quality education, social security, etc. The problem on human trafficking poses a scandal and threat in respect to human rights and dignity of a person on matters of sex, gender, ethnicity and race among others. The economic inequality and trafficking in persons are social pathologies that needed considerable amount of attention and visible solution both in the national and international level. However, the Philippine government seems falls short in terms of goals to lessen, if not altogether eradicate, the dire fate of many Filipinos. The lack of solidarity among Filipinos seems to further aggravate injustice and create hindrances to economic equity and protection of Filipinos from syndicated crimes, i.e., human trafficking. Indifference towards the welfare and well-being of the Filipino people trashes them into an unending cycle of marginalization and neglect. A transnational solidaristic action in response to these concerns is imperative. The subsequent sections will first discuss the notion of solidarity and the motivating factors for collective action. While solidarity has been previously thought of as stemming from and for one’s own community and people, it can be argued as a value that defies borders. Solidarity bridges peoples of diverse societies and cultures. Although there are limits to international interventions on another’s sovereignty, such as, internal political autonomy, transnational solidarity may not be an opposition to solidarity with people suffering injustices. Governments, nations and institutions can work together in securing justice. Solidarity thus is a positive political action that can best respond to issues of economic, class, racial and gender injustices. This is followed by a critical analysis of some data on Philippine economic inequality and human trafficking and link the place of transnational solidaristic arrangements. Here, the present work is interested on the normative aspect of the problem. It begins with the section on economic inequality and subsequently, human trafficking. It is argued that a transnational solidarity is vital in assisting the Philippine governing bodies and authorities to seriously execute innovative economic policies and developmental programs that are justice and egalitarian oriented. Transnational solidarity impacts a corrective measure in the economic practices, and activities of the Philippine government. Moreover, it is suggested that in order to mitigate Philippine economic inequality and human trafficking concerns it involves a (a) historical analysis of systems that brought about economic anomalies, (b) renewed and innovated economic policies, (c) mutual trust and relatively high transparency, and (d) grass-root and context-based approach. In conclusion, the findings are briefly sketched and integrated in an optimistic view that transnational solidarity is capable of influencing Philippine governing bodies towards socio-economic transformation and development of the lives of Filipinos.

Keywords: Human trafficking, Economic Inequality, Philippines, Filipino, transnational solidarity

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34 Physics Motivation and Research: Understanding the 21st Century Learners of Today

Authors: Von Anthony G. Torio

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Motivation and research are significant determinants of a student’s success in the school and in future careers. This study aimed to give a picture of the physics motivation of students in a tertiary level institution, as well as their research area and working preference, to create a picture of the nature of the representative youths of today. It was found that male students have higher motivation than female students in all components of motivation with intrinsic motivation leading the six components of motivation. In addition, male students (M = 4.27; SD = 0.74) were found to have significantly higher motivation as compared to female students (M = 3.77; SD = 0.89) with a computed t(64) value of 2.41 with p < 0.05 and Cohen’s d of 0.61. The students’ preference to work in groups of three rather than working individually suggests that students of the batch have small working groups that they depend on rather than working alone. The majority of the students also preferred conducting studies on the social sciences.

Keywords: Physics, Physics Education, Research, Motivation, Philippines, physics motivation

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33 The Dilemma of Giving Mathematics Homework from the Perspective of Pre-Service Elementary Teachers

Authors: Myla Zenaida Cabrillas-Torio, Von Anthony G. Torio

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Homework is defined as an additional task that a student does outside of the school. This added activity is in recognition of the necessity to spend additional time for subjects such as Mathematics. The dilemma comes in the form of the advantages and disadvantages that can be derived from homework. Studies have revealed varying effects to students on academic and non-academic areas. Teachers are at the forefront of the decision towards the giving or not of homework. Pre-service teachers at the elementary level represent the future leaders of the educational system and should be acquainted and involved at the onset of the dilemma. The main objective of this study is to determine the perspective of pre-service elementary teachers towards homework. The anatomy of their belief can be key towards addressing the issue via teacher training. Salient results revealed that the subjects favor the giving homework on the following grounds: it helps add knowledge and confidence. Those who do not favor homework find it as an additional burden. Difficulties in complying with homework are usually associated with lack of references and performance of other household chores. Students usually spend late nights to comply with homework and are unable to perform at the best of their potentials.

Keywords: Mathematics Education, pre-service teachers, attitude, Philippines, homework

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32 English 2A Students’ Oral Presentation Errors: Basis for English Policy Revision

Authors: Marylene N. Tizon

Abstract:

English instructors pay attention on errors committed by students as errors show whether they know or master their oral skills and what difficulties they may have in the process of learning the English language. This descriptive quantitative study aimed at identifying and categorizing the oral presentation errors of the purposively chosen 118 English 2A students enrolled during the first semester of school year 2013 – 2014. The analysis of the data for this study was undertaken using the errors committed by the students in their presentation. Marking and classifying of errors were made by first classifying them into linguistic grammatical errors then all errors were categorized further into Surface Structure Errors Taxonomy with the use of Frequency and Percentage distribution. From the analysis of the data, the researcher found out: Errors in tenses of the verbs (71 or 16%) and in addition 167 or 37% were most frequently uttered by the students. And Question and negation mistakes (12 or 3%) and misordering errors (28 or 7%) were least frequently enunciated by the students. Thus, the respondents in this study most frequently enunciated errors in tenses and in addition while they uttered least frequently the errors in question, negation, and misordering.

Keywords: Asia, Philippines, grammatical error, oral presentation error, surface structure errors taxonomy, descriptive quantitative design

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31 Tatak Noy-Pi: The Branding Evolution of Tesoro's Philippine Handicrafts- A Philippines Creative and Cultural Industry

Authors: Regine R. Villanueva

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The study looks into how a cultural industry such as Tesoro’s Philippine Handicrafts underwent the brand revitalization process throughout its 70 years of existence in the Philippine market. This study uses a historical approach which analyzes the changes in product development and promotional strategies. Similarly, its brand identity was determined as well in terms of its internal processes and archival data such as history, mission – vision, customer relations, products, and promotions. The product life cycle model and the brand identity planning model were used as theoretical framework for the study. The life cycle was used in historically tracing the company’s developments and changes in terms of its branding, more specifically the products, promotions, and identity. Interviews were conducted among informants who included the CEO and the heads of each department in the business. The researcher also utilized textual analysis to have an in-depth understanding of Tesoro’s’ brand identity portrayal through its advertisements. The results showed how the company has undergone a progressive and innovative transition in its life cycle. With the changing markets and increased competition, the brand started active promotions and engaged in product development. In terms of identity, they are branded as pioneers of the handicraft industry in the Philippines. They started their brand revitalization to be able to imbibe this identity to their consumers through advertisement communication and identifying their segmented markets.

Keywords: Handicrafts, Case study, Philippines, cultural industry

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30 Impact of Social Media in Shaping Perceptions on Filipino Muslim Identity

Authors: Anna Rhodora A. Solar, Jan Emil N. Langomez

Abstract:

Social Media plays a crucial role in influencing Philippine public opinion with regard to a variety of socio-political issues. This became evident in the massacre of 44 members of the Special Action Force (SAF 44) tasked by the Philippine government to capture one of the US Federal Bureau of Investigation’s most wanted terrorists. The incident was said to be perpetrated by members of the Moro Islamic Liberation Front and the Bangsamoro Islamic Freedom Fighters. Part of the online discourse within Philippine cyberspace sparked intense debates on Filipino Muslim identity, with several Facebook viral posts linking Islam as a factor to the tragic event. Facebook is considered to be the most popular social media platform in the Philippines. As such, this begs the question of the extent to which social media, specifically Facebook, shape the perceptions of Filipinos on Filipino Muslims. This study utilizes Habermas’ theory of communicative action as it offers an explanation on how public sphere such as social media could be a network for communicating information and points of view through free and open dialogue among equal citizens to come to an understanding or common perception. However, the paper argues that communicative action which is aimed at reaching understanding free from force, and strategic action which is aimed at convincing someone through argumentation may not necessarily be mutually exclusive since reaching an understanding can also be considered as a result of convincing someone through argumentation. Moreover, actors may clash one another in their ideas before reaching common understanding, hence the presence of force. Utilizing content analysis on the Facebook posts with Islamic component that went viral after the massacre of the SAF 44, this paper argues that framing the image of Filipino Muslims through Facebook reflects both communicative and strategic actions. Moreover, comment threads on viral posts manifest force albeit implicit.

Keywords: Communication, Social Media, muslim, Philippines

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29 Soil Degradation Processes in Marginal Uplands of Samar Island, Philippines

Authors: Dernie Taganna Olguera

Abstract:

Marginal uplands are fragile ecosystems in the tropics that need to be evaluated for sustainable utilization and land degradation mitigation. Thus, this study evaluated the dominant soil degradation processes in selected marginal uplands of Samar Island, Philippines; evaluated the important factors influencing soil degradation in the selected sites and identified the indicators of soil degradation in marginal uplands of the tropical landscape of Samar Island, Philippines. Two (2) sites were selected (Sta. Rita, Samar and Salcedo, Eastern, Samar) representing the western and eastern sides of Samar Island respectively. These marginal uplands represent different agro-climatic zones suitable for the study. Soil erosion is the major soil degradation process in the marginal uplands studied. It resulted in not only considerable soil losses but nutrient losses as well. Soil erosion varied with vegetation cover and site. It was much higher in the sweetpotato, cassava, and gabi crops than under natural vegetation. In addition, soil erosion was higher in Salcedo than in Sta. Rita, which is related to climatic and soil characteristics. Bulk density, porosity, aggregate stability, soil pH, organic matter, and carbon dioxide evolution are good indicators of soil degradation. The dominance of Saccharum spontaneum Linn., Imperata cylindrica Linn, Melastoma malabathricum Linn. and Psidium guajava Linn indicated degraded soil condition. Farmer’s practices particularly clean culture and organic fertilizer application influenced the degree of soil degradation in the marginal uplands of Samar Island, Philippines.

Keywords: Soil degradation, soil erosion, Philippines, marginal uplands, Samar island

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28 Ata-Manobo Tribe as Stakeholders in the Making of School Improvement Plan: Basis for Policy Recommendation

Authors: Diobein C. Flores

Abstract:

The populace in Municipality of Talaingod is composed of Ata-Manobo. The said lumads enrich their culture, orientation and self because the place is a hive of their tribe. In lieu, the study would analyze the participation of the Ata-Manobo in the making of school improvement plan (SIP). Thus, it recommends alternative policy options that would help strengthen their involvement. The school stakeholders-Ata Manobo representatives from students, parent-teacher association, alumni, basic sector, municipal/barangay government unit, civic/social organizations and other government various agencies are the key participants in this study. The research used descriptive design. The responses of the representatives were analyzed through the criteria involved in employing Rational Model. The technical dimension, administrative, political acceptability and economic are the criteria in revealing decision. The policy alternative option 3- recommends to formulate policy for the purpose of capacitating stakeholders or governing council members in the making of SIP was pointed out as the most preferred option. This could strengthen the participation among Ata-Manobo as stakeholders in planning. Hence, the formulation alternative policy- capacitating stakeholders in the crafting of school improvement plan is recommended. The suggested initiative would assist the Department of Education in forging consensus across neighborhoods during the making of SIP. The appropriation of the definite budget to be used during the conduct of capability building activities is also suggested. Training-workshops are identified as possible intervention to ensure that the stakeholders are equipped with necessary knowledge and skills needed in the making of SIP. Indeed, the equal opportunities for all stakeholders regardless of their life circumstances must be noted. With the belief, people must be empowered to take advantage and spearhead progress in the making of SIP.

Keywords: Stakeholders, Philippines, Ata-Manobo Tribe, school improvement plan, Municipality of Talaingod

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27 Media Engagement and Ethnic Identity: The Case of the Aeta Ambala of Pastolan Village

Authors: Kriztine R. Viray, Chona Rita R. Cruz

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The paper explores the engagement of indigenous group, Aeta Ambala with different media and how this engagement affects their perception of their own ethnic identity. The researchers employed qualitative research as their approach and descriptive research method as their design. The paper integrates two theories. These are communication theory of identity by Michael Hecht and the Uses and Gratification Theory of Katz, Blumler, and Gurevitch. Among others, the paper exposes that the engagement of the Aeta-Ambala with the various forms of media certainly affected the way they perceived the outside world and their own ethnic group.

Keywords: Culture, Philippines, ethnic, Aeta Ambala, media engagement

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26 Local Remedies to Hangover in Iligan City, Philippines: An Alcohol Consumer Welfare-Concerned Study

Authors: Lindsay Crystabelle A. Gillamac, Lemuel Roy Amarillo, Al Leonard Joseph B. Aca-Ac, Felipe V. Lula Jr.

Abstract:

Hangover is the unpleasant psychological and physiologic effects after heavy consumption of alcoholic beverages. In awareness of the need to have a remedy for hangover occurrence in Iligan City, the authors aimed to determine the most preferred and effective local remedy to the hangover and inform people, bars and food establishments that there are available remedies to the hangover in the locality. The study utilizes qualitative data gathered through an interview on four different age groups with 50 random individuals each group as to what symptom determines they are experiencing the hangover. Then, quantitative data gathered through an online and written survey was done as to what local hangover remedy do they intake after drinking to ameliorate the most experienced symptom provided from the first assessment. After data tabulation of hangover symptoms on different age groups, we have found out that the most common determinant that you have a hangover has a headache. Thus, we queried the respondents again to what was effective the most in relieving them of a headache and their other felt symptoms depending on their varying age groups. The results of the evaluations showed that most respondents from different age groups preferred Halang-halang Soup, a spicy beef soup in the locality. As part of the hospitality industry concerned with welfare of customers, Bars in Iligan City should include on their menu these hang-over remedies in anticipation of guest needs given the fact that there are no more stores open at late hours in Iligan City. Placards should also be posted within the bar area to orient the guests about hang-over cures available inside the bar. Bartenders and other staff being directly in-contact with guests should take part in orienting guests about these aforementioned remedies. Added to that, we would like to promote Halang-halang Soup as a Health beneficial cuisine in the Philippines and help in the growth of the Tourism Industry of Iligan City by making the Halang-halang place a tourist destination.

Keywords: Headache, Alcohol, Hospitality Industry, Philippines, alcohol consumption, alcohol hangover, anticipation of needs, bar, cure, hangover, local remedy, menu, menu development, menu improvement, remedy

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25 The Moderating Role of the Employees' Green Lifestyle to the Effect of Green Human Resource Management Practices to Job Performance: A Structural Equation Model (SEM)

Authors: Lorraine Joyce Chua, Sheena Fatima Ragas, Flora Mae Tantay, Carolyn Marie Sunio

Abstract:

The Philippines is one of the countries most affected by weather-related disasters. The occurrence of natural disasters in this country increases due to environmental degradation making environment preservation a growing trend in the society including the corporate world. Most organizations implemented green practices in order to lower expenses unaware that some of these practices were already a part of a new trend in human resource management known as Green Human Resource Management (GHRM). GHRM is when business organizations implement HR policies programs processes and techniques that bring environmental impact and sustainability practices on the organization. In relation to this, the study hypothesizes that implementing GHRM practices in the workplace will spillover to an employees lifestyle and such lifestyle may moderate the impact of GHRM practices to his job performance. Private industries located in the Philippines National Capital Region (NCR) were purposively selected for the purpose of this study. They must be ISO14001 certified or are currently aiming for such certification. The employee respondents were randomly selected and were asked to answer a reliable and valid researcher-made questionnaire. Structural equation modeling (SEM) supported the hypothesis that GHRM practices may spillover to employees lifestyle stimulating such individual to start a green lifestyle which moderates the impact of GHRM to his job performance. It can also be implied that GHRM practices help shape employees to become environmentally aware and responsible which may help them in preserving the environment. The findings of this study may encourage Human Resource practitioners to implement GHRM practices in the workplace in order to take part in sustaining the environment while maintaining or improving employees job performance and keeping them motivated. This study can serve as a basis for future research regarding the importance of strengthening the GHRM implementation here in the Philippines. Future studies may focus more on the impact of GHRM to other factors, such as job loyalty and job satisfaction of the employees belonging to specific industries which would greatly contribute to the GHRM community in the Philippines.

Keywords: Job Performance, Green Lifestyle, Philippines, ISO14001, green human resource management, GHRM practices

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24 Relationship of Level of Knowledge on HIV/AIDS and Attitude towards People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) among Selected Philippine Institution 100 (PI 100) Students of the University of the Philippines Diliman

Authors: John Angelo Labuguen, Sarah Joy Salvio

Abstract:

Despite the low prevalence rate of Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) in the Philippines, the country is one of the seven countries in the world and the only country in Southeast Asia which reported an increasing trend in the number of people infected with HIV. Furthermore, people getting infected with HIV are becoming younger every year. Eighty-five percent (7,103) of the total number of youth (15-24 years old) with HIV were recorded in the past five years. The rising rates of HIV infection suggest the need to understand HIV knowledge, attitudes, and sexual behaviors among the youth in the Philippines. The University of the Philippines (UP), having a population that represents all regions of the country, can be reflective of the current situation of the Filipino youth in the issue of HIV/AIDS. This paper attempted to: (1) assess the level of knowledge on HIV/AIDS; (2) describe the attitude towards people living with HIV/AIDS; (3) identify socio-demographic and sexual behaviors associated with the level of HIV/AIDS knowledge; and (4) determine how knowledge on HIV/AIDS is related with attitude towards people living with HIV/AIDS among tertiary students of the UP Diliman. Self-administered survey was used to collect data from 308 randomly selected respondents. Data was encoded using CS Pro 6.2 and it was exported to SPSS v23 for further analysis. Findings of the study revealed that comprehensive correct knowledge on HIV/AIDS is associated with a somewhat accepting attitude towards PLWHA. Sociodemographic and sexual behavior characteristics do not contribute to the association between level of knowledge about HIV/AIDS and attitude towards PLWHA.

Keywords: university students, Philippines, attitude towards people living with HIV/AIDS, comprehensive HIV/AIDS knowledge

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23 Exploring the Facets of Sexuality among Older Adults

Authors: Vivienne Cloude C. Bersabe, Nuelle Anne Castro, Christy P. Gonzales, Nathalie Ann D. Ocbo, Araceli Chuwaley C. Padcayan, Michelle Gaile Lianne S. Peralta, Cecile A. Perez, Eiden Mae A. Roque, Frances Bea S. Sabaten, Korina Louise A. Saculles, Jada Kristen O. Taska, Jose Reinhard C. Laoingco, Don Leonardo N. Dacumos

Abstract:

The rationale of the study: Since discussion about sexuality is considered taboo in the Filipino culture, provision of quality holistic care often lacks sexuality aspect. This research was conducted to highlight the need for nurses to incorporate sexuality in their care of older adults. Research Objectives: To measure the levels of older adults’ sexual desire, sexual behavior, and sexual intimacy and relate them to sex, living arrangement, educational level, and presence of chronic illness, whether with or without treatment. Methods: This study is of quantitative descriptive design that utilized purposive sampling. 400 older adults of Baguio City participated. The study used a 30 point researcher-made questionnaire, one-on-one interview and focused group discussion to gather data. Data were treated using weighted mean, t-test, F-test, and Scheffe's test. Results and Conclusions: The overall findings revealed that Filipino older adults have a low level of sexuality expressed by the participants’ sexual desire, behavior, and intimacy. Males have significantly higher level of sexual desire, behavior, and intimacy. Living arrangement does not seem to influence the level of sexuality in all its 3 facets. Sexual desire was significantly higher among those with tertiary education and without chronic illness. Recommendation: It is recommended that nurses carry out their assessment of clients to include the exploration of their sexuality especially the older adults. A similar study may be done to explore other variables like demographic location, i.e., rural or urban setting; socio-cultural factors; and functional performance status. It is also recommended that a similar study may be done exploring the different facets of sexuality among homosexual older persons.

Keywords: Sexuality, Geriatrics, Older Adults, Philippines

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22 Design Thinking Activities: A Tool in Overcoming Student Reticence

Authors: Marinel Dayawon

Abstract:

Student participation in classroom activities is vital in the teaching- learning the process as it develops self-confidence, social relationships and good academic performance of students. It is the teacher’s empathetic manner and creativity to create solutions that encourage teamwork and mutual support while dropping the academic competition within the class that hinder every shy student to walk with courage and talk with conviction because they consider their ideas, weak, as compared to the bright students. This study aimed to explore the different design thinking strategies that will change the mindset of shy students in classroom activities, maximizing their participation in all given tasks while sharing their views through ideation and providing them a wider world through compromise agreement within the members of the group, sensitivity to one’s idea, thus, arriving at a collective decision in the development of a prototype that indicates improvement in their classroom involvement. The study used the qualitative type of research. Triangulation is done through participant observation, focus group discussion and interview, documented through photos and videos. The respondents were the second- year Bachelor of Secondary Education students of the Institute of Teacher Education at Isabela State University- Cauayan City Campus. The result of the study revealed that reticent students when involved in game activities through a slap and tap method, writing their clustered ideas, using sticky notes is excited in sharing ideas as it doesn’t use oral communication. It is also observed after three weeks of using the design thinking strategies; shy students volunteer as secretary, rapporteur or group leader in the team- building activities as it represents the ideas of the heterogeneous group, removing the individual identity of the ideas. Superior students learned to listen to the ideas of the reticent students and involved them in the prototyping process of designing a remediation program for high school students showing reticence in the classroom, making their experience as a benchmark. The strategies made a 360- degrees transformation of the shy students, producing their journal log, in their journey to being open. Thus, faculty members are now adopting the design thinking approach.

Keywords: Qualitative, Philippines, design thinking activities, reticent students, Isabela

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21 Optimization of Cacao Fermentation in Davao Philippines Using Sustainable Method

Authors: Ian Marc G. Cabugsa, Kim Ryan Won, Kareem Mamac, Manuel Dee, Merlita Garcia

Abstract:

An optimized cacao fermentation technique was developed for the cacao farmers of Davao City Philippines. Cacao samples with weights ranging from 150-250 kilograms were collected from various cacao farms in Davao City and Zamboanga City Philippines. Different fermentation techniques were used starting with design of the sweat box, prefermentation conditionings, number of days for fermentation and number of turns. As the beans are being fermented, its temperature was regularly monitored using a digital thermometer. The resultant cacao beans were assessed using physical and chemical means. For the physical assessment, the bean cut test, bean count tests, and sensory test were used. Quantification of theobromine, caffeine, and antioxidants in the form of equivalent quercetin was used for chemical assessment. Both the theobromine and caffeine were analyzed using HPLC method while the antioxidant was analyzed spectrometrically. To come up with the best fermentation procedure, the different assessment were given priority coefficients wherein the physical tests – taste test, cut, and bean count tests were given priority over the results of the chemical test. The result of the study was an optimized fermentation protocol that is readily adaptable and transferable to any cacao cooperatives or groups in Mindanao or even Philippines as a whole.

Keywords: Optimization, Fermentation, HPLC, Philippines, cacao

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20 Choosing the Green Energy Option: A Willingness to Pay Study of Metro Manila Residents for Solar Renewable Energy

Authors: Paolo Magnata

Abstract:

The energy market in the Philippines remains to have one of the highest electricity rates in the region averaging at US$0.16/kWh (PHP6.89/kWh), excluding VAT, as opposed to the overall energy market average of US$0.13/kWh. The movement towards renewable energy, specifically solar energy, will pose as an expensive one with the country’s energy sector providing Feed-in-Tariff rates as high as US$0.17/kWh (PHP8.69/kWh) for solar energy power plants. Increasing the share of renewables at the current state of the energy regulatory background would yield a three-fold increase in residential electricity bills. The issue lies in the uniform charge that consumers bear regardless of where the electricity is sourced resulting in rates that only consider costs and not the consumers. But if they are given the option to choose where their electricity comes from, a number of consumers may potentially choose economically costlier sources of electricity due to higher levels of utility coupled with the willingness to pay of consuming environmentally-friendly sourced electricity. A contingent valuation survey was conducted to determine their willingness-to-pay for solar energy on a sample that was representative of Metro Manila to elicit their willingness-to-pay and a Single Bounded Dichotomous Choice and Double Bounded Dichotomous Choice analysis was used to estimate the amount they were willing to pay. The results showed that Metro Manila residents are willing to pay a premium on top of their current electricity bill amounting to US$5.71 (PHP268.42) – US$9.26 (PHP435.37) per month which is approximately 0.97% - 1.29% of their monthly household income. It was also discovered that besides higher income of households, a higher level of self-perceived knowledge on environmental awareness significantly affected the likelihood of a consumer to pay the premium. Shifting towards renewable energy is an expensive move not only for the government because of high capital investment but also to consumers; however, the Green Energy Option (a policy mechanism which gives consumers the option to decide where their electricity comes from) can potentially balance the shift of the economic burden by transitioning from a uniformly charged electricity rate to equitably charging consumers based on their willingness to pay for renewably sourced energy.

Keywords: Solar energy, Philippines, contingent valuation, dichotomous choice

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19 Association of Calcium Intake Adequacy with Wealth Indices among Selected Female Adults Living in Depressed and Non-Depressed Area in Metro Manila, Philippines

Authors: Maria Viktoria Melgo

Abstract:

This study aimed to determine the possible association between calcium intake and wealth indices of selected female adults. Specifically, it aimed to: a) determine the calcium intake adequacy of the respondents. b) determine the relationship, if any, between calcium intake adequacy, area and wealth indices. The study used the survey design and employed convenience sampling in selecting participants. Two hundred females aged 20 – 64 years old were covered in the study from depressed and non-depressed areas. Data collected were calcium intake taken from two 24-hour food recall and Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and wealth indices using housing characteristics, household assets and access to utilities and infrastructure. Descriptive statistics and Chi-square test were used to determine the frequency distribution and association between the given variables, respectively, using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and OpenEpi software. The results showed that there were 86% of respondents in the depressed area with an inadequate calcium intake while there were 78% of respondents in the non-depressed area with an adequate calcium intake. No significant relationship was obtained in most wealth indices with calcium intake adequacy and area but appliance and ownership of main material of the house showed a significant relationship to calcium intake adequacy by area. The study recommends that the Local Government Unit (LGU) should provide seminars or nutrition education that will further enhance the knowledge of the people in the community. The study also recommends to conduct a similar study but with different, larger sample size, different location nonetheless if it is in urban or rural and include the anthropometry measurement of the respondents.

Keywords: Philippines, association, calcium intake adequacy, metro Manila, wealth indices

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18 Cultural Competence of Philippine National Police Personnel

Authors: Nestor C. Nabe, Melvie F. Bayog

Abstract:

The cultural competence of police officers can lead to effective law enforcement and gain respect to their organization. This study evaluated the level of cultural competence of Philippine National Police Personnel in Midsayap, Cotabato, Philippines. Descriptive survey research design was used in this study. The survey utilized an adapted questionnaire to measure the level of cultural competence of the respondents. Questionnaires were administered to 305 ethnic minorities coming from the four major ethnic tribes in Midsayap, Cotabato, Philippines. The data gathered were treated using Percentage, Mean, T-test and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The findings are as follows: the level of cultural competence of police personnel is moderate; and, there is no significant difference in the cultural competence of the police personnel when analyzed by age, gender, civil status and, occupation while there is a significant difference analyzed by educational attainment and ethnic tribe. Based on the findings, the following conclusions were drawn: the level of cultural competence of police personnel is only manifested sometimes; and, civil status, and occupation has no significant difference in the cultural competence of police personnel while educational attainment and ethnic tribe has a significant difference.

Keywords: Cultural, Police, Competence, Philippines

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17 Descriptive Analysis of Variations in Maguindanaon Language

Authors: Fhajema Kunso

Abstract:

People who live in the same region and who seemed to speak the same language still vary in some aspects of their language. The variation may occur in terms of pronunciation, lexicon, morphology, and syntax. This qualitative study described the phonological, morphological, and lexical variations of the Maguindanaon language among the ten Maguindanao municipalities. Purposive sampling, in-depth interviews, focus group discussion, and sorting and classifying of words according to phonological and morphological as well as lexical structures in data analysis were employed. The variations occurred through phonemic changes and other phonological processes and morphological processes. Phonological processes consisted of vowel lengthening and deletion while morphological processes included affixation, borrowing, and coinage. In the phonological variation, it was observed that there were phonemic changes in one dialect to another. For example, there was a change of phoneme /r/ to /l/. The phoneme /r/ was most likely to occur in Kabuntalan like /biru/, /kurIt/, and /kɘmɅr/ whereas in the rest of the dialects these were /bilu/, /kuIɪt/, and /kɘmɅl/ respectively. Morphologically, the affixation was the main way to know the tenses. For example, the root sarig (expect) when inserted with im becomes simarig, i.e. s + im + arig = simarig (expected). Lexical variation also existed in the Maguindanaon language. Results revealed that the variation in phonology, morphology, and lexicon were observed to be associated primarily on geographic distribution.

Keywords: Applied Linguistics, Morphology, Language, Phonology, Qualitative, Processes, Lexicon, Variation, Philippines, Maguindanao

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16 Santo Niño in Canada: Religion, Migration, and the Filipino Underside

Authors: Alison Marshall

Abstract:

“Santo Niño in Canada – Religion, Migration, and the Filipino Underside” seeks to explore the intersection of religion, migration and the Filipino underside through research participant narratives, archival research, and fieldwork on the cult of Santo Niño in Canada. Santo Niño is the single most revered saint in Filipino religiosity. According to popular lore, the original statue of Santo Niño was brought to the Philippines by Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan in 1521, who claimed the islands on behalf of Spain. While Santo Niño is meant to be a manifestation of Jesus as a child, in Filipino thought and culture he very much resembles pre-Hispanic spirits, as well as patron saints introduced by the Spanish. Santo Niño shrines appear in churches, restaurants, businesses, and homes throughout the diaspora suggesting that he was much more than a Catholic image. He represents a deity who often shares a business or home shrine with non-Christian statues such as lucky cats, the Buddha, Guanyin, and Guangong, and sometimes the Chinese God of the Earth. He represents how Christian culture has been refashioned through indigenous, Chinese, Malay, and Indonesian influences. He embodies the religious superstructure that defines Christian piety and habits. On the one hand, he stands for Jesus, a pious son of God, and yet, on the other hand, he can be a simple vindictive child who punishes those who ignore him. Santo Niño is a complex character linked to the past before Christianity. As Filipinos engage with Santo Niño in Canada, they connect to him as Jesus, the son of God. They are also connecting to a childlike figure who sometimes uses his spiritual power to punish. A hybrid figure who comes came into being at the beginning of the Spanish colonial moment, he is maintained throughout the American one and continues to be a powerful reminder of Filipino identity and resilience when people leave the Philippines for migrant work. As this paper argues, Santo Niño beliefs, practices, and stories unite people in the diaspora regardless of language, gender, or nation. Santo Niño enables one to think about and understand what it means to be Filipino and living migrant lives in the diaspora today. In this way, the cult of Santo Niño expresses both Catholic orthodoxy and the heterodox Filipino underside that includes the use of magical amulets, healing, visions, and spirit mediumship.

Keywords: Migration, Religion, ethnography, Philippines

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