Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 11

Phenols Related Abstracts

11 Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of the Essential Oils from Bunium alpinum and Bunium incrassatum

Authors: Hayet El Kolli, Hocine Laouer


Bunium in the world comprises about 50 to 100 species, mostly distributed in: Algeria, Italy, Pakistan, Iran, and South Africa. Bunium species have several uses like: Bunium persicum which is commonly used as antispasmodic, carminative, anti-obesity and lactogage. This plant have been widely used as an additive in food stuff such as in bread cooking, rice and yoghurt for its carminative, anti-dyspepsia and antispasmodic effect. The B. paucifolium oil has a wide spectrum of action against moulds, yeast and bacteria. The chemical compositions of Bunium incrassatum and Bunium alpinum essential oils were carry out by GC and GC/MS. Therefore, antibacterial activity of two oils was investigated by disk diffusion method against Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 1331, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 700603, Bacillus cereus ATCC 10876, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 49452, Lysteria monocytogenes ATCC 15313, Citrobacter freundii ATCC 8090, Proteus mirabilis ATCC 35659. A moderate antibacterial activity was found. In conclusion, it is found that essential oils of the two species are rich in sesquiterpens and other oxygenated compounds. These compounds have been reported to show bactericidal activity and the presence of phenolic compounds makes them useful antioxidants so that results confirm some ethnopharmacologique applications of these two oils of Bunium.

Keywords: Antibacterial, Phenols, Essential Oil, Bunium alpinum, Bunium incrassatum, apiaceae, sesquiterpens, antioxidant activities

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10 Olive Oils from Algeria: Phenolic Compounds Composition and Antibacterial Activity

Authors: Firdaousse Laincer, Rahima Laribi, Abderazak Tamendjari, Rovellini Venturini


Phenolic compounds present in olive oil have received much attention in recent years due to their beneficial functional and nutritional effects. Phenolic composition, antibacterial activity of phenolic extracts of olive oil varieties from Algeria were investigated. The analysis of polyphenols was performed by Folin-Ciocalteu and HPLC. As a result, many phenolic compounds were identified and quantified by using HPLC; derivatives of oleuropein and ligstroside, hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, flavonoids, and lignans reporting unique and characteristic phenolic profile. These phenolic fractions also differentiate the total antibacterial activity. Among the bacteria tested, S. aureus and, to a lesser extent, B. subtilis showed the highest sensitivity; the MIC varied from 0.6 to 1.6 mg•mL-1 and 1.2 to 1.8 mg•mL-1, respectively. The results obtained denote that Algerian olive oils may constitute a good source of healthy compounds, phenolics compounds, in the diet, suggesting that their consumption could be useful in the prevention of diseases.

Keywords: HPLC, Phenols, antibacterial activity, olive oil

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9 Geoclimatic Influences on the Constituents and Antioxidant Activity of Extracts from the Fruit of Arbutus unedo L.

Authors: Khadidja Bouzid, Fouzia Benali Toumi, Mohamed Bouzouina


We made a comparison between the total phenolic content, concentrations of flavonoids and antioxidant activity of four different extracts (butanol, ethyl acetate, chloroform, water) of Arbutus unedo L. fruit (Ericacea) of El Marsa and Terni area. The total phenolic content in the extracts was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and it ranged between 26.57 and 48.23 gallic acid equivalents mg/g of dry weight of extract. The concentrations of flavonoids in plant extracts varied from 17.98 to 56.84 catechin equivalents mg/g. The antioxidant activity was analyzed in vitro using the DPPH reagent; among all extracts, ethyl acetate fraction from El Marsa area showed the highest antioxidant activity.

Keywords: Phenols, antioxidant activity, Arbutus unedo L, fruit flavonoids, Western Algeria

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8 Adsorption Isotherm, Kinetic and Mechanism Studies of Some Substituted Phenols from Aqueous Solution by Jujuba Seeds Activated Carbon

Authors: O. Benturki, A. Benturki


Activated carbon was prepared from Jujube seeds by chemical activation with potassium hydroxide (KOH), followed by pyrolysis at 800°C. Batch studies were conducted for kinetic, thermodynamic and equilibrium studies on the adsorption of phenol (P) and 2-4 dichlorophenol (2-4 DCP) from aqueous solution, than the adsorption capacities followed the order of 2-4 dichlorophenol > phenol. The operating variables studied were initial phenols concentration, contact time, temperature and solution pH. Results show that the pH value of 7 is favorable for the adsorption of phenols. The sorption data have been analyzed using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The isotherm data followed Langmuir Model. The adsorption processes conformed to the pseudo-second-order rate kinetics. Thermodynamic parameters such as enthalpy, entropy and Gibb’s free energy changes were also calculated and it was found that the sorption of phenols by Jujuba seeds activated carbon was a spontaneous process The maximum adsorption efficiency of phenol and 2-4 dichlorophenol was 142.85 mg.g−1 and 250 mg.g−1, respectively.

Keywords: Adsorption, Phenols, activated carbon, isotherms, Jujuba seeds, langmuir

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7 Novel Correlations for P-Substituted Phenols in NMR Spectroscopy

Authors: Khodzhaberdi Allaberdiev


Substituted phenols are widely used for the synthesis of advanced polycondensation polymers. In terms of the structure regularity and practical value of obtained polymers are of special interest the p-substituted phenols. The lanthanide induced shifts (LIS) of the aromatic ring and the OH protons by addition Eu(fod)3 to various p-substituted phenols in CDCL3 solvent were measured Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy. A linear relationship has been observed between the LIS of protons (∆=δcomplex –δsubstrate) and Eu(fod)3/substrate molar ratios. The LIS protons of the investigated phenols decreases in the following order: ОН > ortho > meta. The LIS of these protons also depends on both steric and electronic effects of p-substituents. The effect on the LIS of protons steric hindrance of substituents by way of example p-substituted alkyl phenols was studied. Alkyl phenols exhibit pronounced europium- induced shifts, their sensitivity increasing in the order: CH3 > C2H5 > sym-C5H11 > tert-C5H11 > tert-C4H9, i.e. in parallel with decreasing steric hindrance. The influence steric hindrance p-substituents of phenols on the LIS of protons in sequence following decreases: OH> meta >ortho. Contrary to the expectations, it is found that the LIS of the ortho protons an excellent linear correlation with meta-substituent constants, σm for 14 p-substituted phenols: ∆H2, 6=8.165-9.896 σm (r2=0,999). Moreover, a linear correlation between the LIS of the ortho protons and ionization constants, РКa of p-substituted phenols has been revealed. Similarly, the linear relationships for the LIS of the meta and the OH protons were obtained. Use the LIS of the phenolic hydroxyl groups for linear relationships is necessary with care, because of the signal broadening of the OH protons. New constants may be determinate with unusual case by this approach.

Keywords: NMR spectroscopy, Phenols, novel correlations, shift reagent

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6 Excessive Recruitment of Neutrophils and Elastase Release in Emphysema and COPD; Effect of Natural Protease Inhibitors

Authors: Rachid Kacem


Excessive recruitment of Neutrophils into the lungs is a hallmark of several chronic inflammatory disorders such as emphysema and COPD. The resulting of this recruitment is the pathogenesis of lungs which is characterized by an imbalance between leukocyte serine proteinases mainly neutrophil elastase and the physiological inhibitors. The development of emphysema and remodeling of airway tissue occurred when neutrophil migrate into the lungs with more release of elastase and other proteolytic enzymes. Many reports have demonstrated that the extracts from medicinal plants such as Nigella sativa (L.) seeds extracts have anti-elastase activity; this is mainly due to the enrichment of the extracts with many bioactive molecules mainly phenolic compounds. Neutrophil serine proteases including human neutrophil elastase are involved in many inflammatory diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema. Since the current therapies for these diseases are inadequate and have numerous adverse effects, there is an acute need of potential alternative therapies. The natural protease inhibitors have received increasing attention as useful tools for potential utilization in pharmacology. This work is elucidating the most important natural phenolic substances that have been reported recently for their effectiveness as natural anti-elastase molecules, and hence, to the possibility of their use in the field of pharmaceuticals.

Keywords: Medicinal Plants, COPD, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Phenols, elastase, anti-elastase, emphysema

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5 Phenols and Manganese Removal from Landfill Leachate and Municipal Waste Water Using the Constructed Wetland

Authors: Amin Mojiri, Lou Ziyang


Constructed wetland (CW) is a reasonable method to treat waste water. Current study was carried out to co-treat landfill leachate and domestic waste water using a CW system. Typha domingensis was transplanted to CW, which encloses two substrate layers of adsorbents named ZELIAC and zeolite. Response surface methodology and central composite design were employed to evaluate experimental data. Contact time (h) and leachate to waste water mixing ratio (%; v/v) were selected as independent factors. Phenols and manganese removal were selected as dependent responses. At optimum contact time (48.7 h) and leachate to waste water mixing ratio (20.0%), removal efficiencies of phenols and manganese removal efficiencies were 90.5%, and 89.4%, respectively.

Keywords: constructed wetland, Phenols, manganese, Thypha domingensis

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4 The Flavonoids for a Plant Grows in the Arid and Semi-Arid Zone of the Northern Sahara of Algeria - Atriplex halimus L.

Authors: O. Smara, H. Dendougui, B. Legseir


Atriplex halimus L. is particularly well adapted to arid and salt-affected areas. In this species, salinity resistance is often attributed to the presence of vesiculated hairs covering leaf surface and containing a large amount of salt. Atriplex halimus L. (Chenopodiaceae) is a perennial shrub native to the Mediterranean basin with excellent tolerance to drought and salinity. The species is present in semiarid to subhumid areas of the north Mediterranean and in arid zones from North Africa and the eastern Mediterranean. The main aim of this study was to identify a medicinal plant used in the Ouargla (Est-southern Algeria) for the treatment of several human pathologies. This plant is an important source for livestock in nitrogenous matter, it is an effective and relatively inexpensive tool in the fight against erosion and desertification and rehabilitation of degraded lands. Phytochemical investigation is applied to the majority of extracts of the powder of the aerial parts of Atriplex halimus L. Different chromatographic methods after liquid-liquid extraction are used; it is the thin layer chromatography (TLC) and paper using multiple systems and chemical revelations. This study followed by an evaluation by the phenol assay the Folin-Ciocalteu method, using gallic acid as a reference for phenols and quercetin for flavonols. Some polar extracts showed an interesting result better than the less polar extracts.

Keywords: Phenols, Flavonoids, Atriples halimus L, chenopodiaceae

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3 Screening of Antiviral Compounds in Medicinal Plants: Non-Volatiles

Authors: Tomas Drevinskas, Ruta Mickiene, Audrius Maruska, Nicola Tiso, Algirdas Salomskas, Raimundas Lelesius, Agneta Karpovaite, Ona Ragazinskiene, Loreta Kubiliene


Antiviral effect of substances accumulated by plants and natural products is known to ethno-pharmacy and modern day medicine. Antiviral properties are usually assigned to volatile compounds and polyphenols. This research work is divided into several parts and the task of this part was to investigate potential plants, potential substances and potential preparation conditions that can be used for the preparation of antiviral agents. Sixteen different medicinal plants, their parts and two types of propolis were selected for screening. Firstly, extraction conditions of non-volatile compounds were investigated: 3 pre-selected plants were extracted with 5 different ethanol – water mixtures (96%, 75%, 60%, 40%, 20 %, vol.) and bidistilled water. Total phenolic content, total flavonoid content and radical scavenging activity was determined. The results indicated that optimal extrahent is 40%, vol. of ethanol – water mixture. Further investigations were performed with the extrahent of 40%, vol. ethanol – water mixture. All 16 of selected plants, their parts and two types of propolis were extracted using selected extrahent. Determined total phenolic content, total flavonoid content and radical scavenging activity indicated that extracts of Origanum Vulgare L., Mentha piperita L., Geranium macrorrhizum L., Melissa officinalis L. and Desmodium canadence L. contains highest amount of extractable phenolic compounds (7.31, 5.48, 7.88, 8.02 and 7.16 rutin equivalents (mg/ ml) respectively), flavonoid content (2.14, 2.23, 2.49, 0.79 and 1.51 rutin equivalents (mg/ml) respectively) and radical scavenging activity (11.98, 8.72, 13.47, 13.22 and 12.22 rutin equivalents (mg/ml) respectively). Composition of the extracts is analyzed using HPLC.

Keywords: Plants, Phenols, propolis, antiviral effect

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2 Wastewater Treatment in the Abrasives Industry via Fenton and Photo-Fenton Oxidation Processes: A Case Study from Peru

Authors: Hernan Arturo Blas López, Gustavo Henndel Lopes, Antonio Carlos Silva Costa Teixeira, Carmen Elena Flores Barreda, Patricia Araujo Pantoja


Phenols are toxic for life and the environment and may come from many sources. Uncured phenolic monomers present in phenolic resins used as binders in grinding wheels and emery paper can contaminate industrial wastewaters in abrasives manufacture plants. Furthermore, vestiges of resol and novolacs resins generated by wear and tear of abrasives are also possible sources of water contamination by phenolics in these facilities. Fortunately, advanced oxidation by dark Fenton and photo-Fenton techniques are capable of oxidizing phenols and their degradation products up to their mineralization into H₂O and CO₂. The maximal allowable concentrations for phenols in Peruvian waterbodies is very low, such that insufficiently treated effluents from the abrasives industry are a potential environmental noncompliance. The current case study highlights findings obtained during the lab-scale application of Fenton’s and photo-assisted Fenton’s chemistries to real industrial wastewater samples from an abrasives manufacture plant in Peru. The goal was to reduce the phenolic content and sample toxicity. For this purpose, two independent variables-reaction time and effect of ultraviolet radiation–were studied as for their impacts on the concentration of total phenols, total organic carbon (TOC), biological oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD). In this study, diluted samples (1 L) of the industrial effluent were treated with Fenton’s reagent (H₂O₂ and Fe²⁺ from FeSO₄.H₂O) during 10 min in a photochemical batch reactor (Alphatec RFS-500, Brazil) at pH 2.92. In the case of photo-Fenton tests with ultraviolet lamps of 9 W, UV-A, UV-B and UV-C lamps were evaluated. All process conditions achieved 100% of phenols degraded within 5 minutes. TOC, BOD and COD decreased by 49%, 52% and 86% respectively (all processes together). However, Fenton treatment was not capable of reducing BOD, COD and TOC below a certain value even after 10 minutes, contrarily to photo-Fenton. It was also possible to conclude that the processes here studied degrade other compounds in addition to phenols, what is an advantage. In all cases, elevated effluent dilution factors and high amounts of oxidant agent impact negatively the overall economy of the processes here investigated.

Keywords: wastewater treatment, Phenols, fenton oxidation, abrasives industry

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1 Photocatalytic Degradation of Toxic Phenols Using Zinc Oxide Doped Prussian Blue Nanocomposite

Authors: Rachna, Uma Shanker


Aromatic phenols, being priority pollutants, are found in various industrial effluents and seeking the attention of environmentalists worldwide, owing to their life-threatening effects. In the present study, the coupling of zinc oxide with Prussian blue was achieved involving co-precipitation synthesis process using Azadirachta indica plant extract. The fabricated nanocatalyst was employed for the sunlight mediated photodegradation of various phenols (Phenol, 3-Aminophenol, and 2,4-Dinitrophenol). Doping of zinc oxide with Prussian blue caused an increase in the surface area to value 80.109 m²g⁻¹ and also enhanced the semiconducting tendency of the nanocomposite with band gap energy 1.101 eV. The experiment was performed at different parameters of phenols concentration, catalyst amount, pH, time, and exposure of sunlight. The obtained results showed a lower elimination of 2,4-DNP (93%) than 3-AP (97%) and phenol (95%) owing to their molecular weight and basicity differences. In comparison to the starting material (zinc oxide and Prussian blue), nanocomposite was more capable in degrading the phenols and lowered the t1/2 value of phenol (4.405 h), 3-AP (4.04 h) and 2,4-DNP (4.68 h) to a greater extent. Effect of different foreign anions was also studied to check nanocomposite’s liability under natural conditions. The extent of charge recombination being the most limiting factor in the photodegradation of pollutants was determined through the photoluminescence. Sunlight active [email protected] nanocomposite was proven to exhibit good catalytic ability up to 10 cycles.

Keywords: Water, nanocomposite, Phenols, Photodegradation, sunlight

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