Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

phenolic Related Abstracts

9 Production and Evaluation of Mango Pulp by Using Ohmic Heating Process

Authors: Sobhy M. Mohsen, Mohamed M. El-Nikeety, Tarek G. Mohamed, Michael Murkovic


The present work aimed to study the use of ohmic heating in the processing of mango pulp comparing to conventional method. Mango pulp was processed by using ohmic heating under the studied suitable conditions. Physical, chemical and microbiological properties of mango pulp were studied. The results showed that processing of mango pulp by using either ohmic heating or conventional method caused a decrease in the contents of TSS, total carbohydrates, total acidity, total sugars (reducing and non-reducing sugar) and an increase in phenol content, ascorbic acid and carotenoids compared to the conventional process. The increase in electric conductivity of mango pulp during ohmic heating was due to the addition of some electrolytes (salts) to increase the ions and enhance the process. The results also indicate that mango pulp processed by ohmic heating contained more phenols, carbohydrates and vitamin C and less HMF compared to that produced by conventional one. Total pectin and its fractions had slightly reduced by ohmic heating compared to conventional method. Enzymatic activities showed a reduction in poly phenoloxidase (PPO) and polygalacturonase (PG) activity in mango pulp processed by conventional method. However, ohmic heating completely inhibited PPO and PG activities.

Keywords: ohmic heating, mango pulp, phenolic, sarotenoids

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8 Phenolic Rich Dry Extracts and Their Antioxidant Activity

Authors: P. Viškelis, R. Raudonis, L. Raudonė, V. Janulis


Pharmacological and clinical studies demonstrated that phenolic compounds particularly flavonoids and phenolic acids are responsible for a wide spectrum of therapeutic activities. Flavonoids and phenolic acids are regarded as natural antioxidants that play an important role in protecting cells from oxidative stress. Qualitatively prepared dry extracts possess high stability and concentration of bio active compounds, facility of standardization and quality control. The aim of this work was to determine the phenolic and antioxidant profiles of Hippophaë rhamnoides L., Betula pendula Roth., Tilia cordata Mill., Sorbus aucuparia L. leaves dry extracts and to identify markers of antioxidant activity. Extracts were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with FRAP post-column assay. Dry extracts are versatile forms possessing wide area of applications, final product ensure consistent phytochemical and functional properties. Seven flavonoids: rutin, hyperoside, isorhamnetin 3-O-rutinoside, isorhamnetin 3-O-glucoside, quercetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin were identified in dry extract of Hippophaë rhamnoides L. leaves. Predominant compounds were flavonol glycosides which were chosen as markers for quantitative control of dry extracts. Chlorogenic acid, hyperoside, rutin, quercetin, isorhamnetin were prevailing compounds in Betula pendula Roth. leaves extract, whereas strongest ferric reducing activity was determined for chlorogenic acid and hyperoside. Notable amounts of protocatechuic acid and flavonol glycosides, rutin, hyperoside, quercitrin, isoquercitrin were identified in the chromatographic profile of Tilia cordata Mill. Neochlorogenic and chlorogenic acids were significantly dominant compounds in antioxidant profile in dry extract of Sorbus aucuparia L. leaves. Predominant compounds of antioxidant profiles could be proposed as functional markers of quality of phenolic rich raw materials. Dry extracts could be further used for manufacturing of pharmaceutical and nutraceuticals.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, phenolic, FRAP, dry extract

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7 Phenolic Composition and Contribution of Individual Compounds to Antioxidant Activity of Malus domestica Borkh Fruit Cultivars

Authors: Raudone Lina, Raudonis Raimondas, Liaudanskas Mindaugas, Pukalskas Audrius, Viskelis Pranas, Janulis Valdimaras


Human health fortification, its protection and disease prophylaxis are the main problems of the health care systems. Plant origin materials and their preparations are applied for the prevention of the common diseases. Oxidative stress takes part in the pathogenesis of many autoimmune, neurodegenerative, tumor and ageing processes. The antioxidants are able to protect the human body from the free radicals and to stop the progression of numerous chronic diseases. The research of plant origin materials is relevant for the search of natural antioxidants. A group of compounds that gained scientific attention due to antioxidant properties and effects on human health are phenolic compounds. Phenolic compounds are widely abundant in various parts of plants, i.e. leaves, stems, roots, flowers and fruits. Most commonly consumed fruits all over the world are apples. It is very important to analyze the antioxidant activity of apples as they are extensively used in the prevention of various diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the antioxidant profiles of Malus domestica Borkh fruit cultivars (Aldas, Auksis, Connel Red, Ligol, Lodel, Rajka) and to identify the phenolic compounds with potent contribution to antioxidant activity. Nineteen constituents were identified in apple cultivars using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadruple and time-of-flight mass spectrometers (UPLC–QTOF–MS). Phytochemical profile was constituted of phenolic acids, procyanidins, quercetin derivatives and dihydrochalcones. Reducing and radical scavenging activities of individual constituents were determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to post-column FRAP and ABTS assay, respectively. Significant differences of total radical scavenging and reducing activity (expressed as trolox equivalents, TE µmol/g) were determined between the investigated cultivars. Chlorogenic acid and complex of procyanidins were the main contributors to antioxidant activity determining up to 35 % and 55 % of total TE values, respectively. Determined phenolic composition and antioxidant activity significantly depend on apple cultivars. It is important to determine the individual compounds that are significant for antioxidant activity and that could be investigated in vivo systems. The identification of the antioxidants provides information for the further research of standardized extracts that could be used for pharmaceutical preparations with specific phenolic traits.

Keywords: Chlorogenic Acid, antioxidant, phenolic, FRAP, ABTS, apples

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6 Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Sorbus L. Fruits and Leaves

Authors: Raudone Lina, Raudonis Raimondas, Pukalskas Audrius, Viskelis Pranas, Janulis Valdimaras, Gaivelyte Kristina


Sorbus L. species are widely distributed in the Northern hemisphere and have been used for medicinal purposes in various traditional medicine systems and as food ingredients. Various Sorbus L. raw materials, fruits, leaves, inflorescences, barks, possess diuretic, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic, anti-diarrheal and vasoprotective activities. Phenolics, to whom main pharmacological activities are attributed, are compounds of interest due to their notable antioxidant activity. The aim of this study was to determine the antioxidant profiles of fruits and leaves of selected Sorbus L. species (S. anglica, S. aria f. latifolia, S. arranensis, S. aucuparia, S. austriaca, S. caucasica, S. commixta, S. discolor, S. gracilis, S. hostii, S. semi-incisa, S. tianschanica) and to identify the phenolic compounds with potent contribution to antioxidant activity. Twenty two constituents were identified in Sorbus L. species using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadruple and time-of-flight mass spectrometers (UPLC–QTOF–MS). Reducing activity of individual constituents was determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to post-column FRAP assay. Signicantly greatest trolox equivalent values corresponding up to 45% of contribution to antioxidant activity were assessed for neochlorogenic and chlorogenic acids, which were determined as markers of antioxidant activity in samples of leaves and fruits. Characteristic patterns of antioxidant profiles obtained using HPLC post-column FRAP assay significantly depend on specific Sorbus L. species and raw materials and are suitable for equivalency research of Sorbus L. fruits and leaves. Selecting species and target plant organs with richest phenolic composition and strongly expressed antioxidant power is the first step in further research of standardized extracts.

Keywords: Chlorogenic Acid, antioxidant, phenolic, FRAP, Sorbus L, neochlorogenic acid

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5 Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Nine Genotypes of Thai Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

Authors: Pitchaon Maisuthisakul, Ladawan Changchub


Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a staple diet in Thailand. Rice cultivation is traditional occupation of Thailand which passed down through generations. The 1 Rai 1 san project is new agricultural theory according to sufficient economy using green technology without using chemical substances. This study was conducted to evaluate total phenolics using HPLC and colorimetric methods including total anthocyanin content of Thai rice extracting by simulated gastric and intestinal condition and to estimate antioxidant capacity using DPPH and thiocyanate methods. Color and visible spectrum of rice grains were also investigated. Rice grains were classified into three groups according to their color appearance. The light brown grain genotypes are Sin Lek, Jasmine 105, Lao Tek and Hawm Ubon. The red group is Sang Yod and Red Jasmine. Genotypes Kum, Hawm Kanya and Hawm Nil are black rice grains. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside was found in only black rice genotypes, whereas chlorogenic acid was found in all rice grains. The black rice had higher phenolic content than red and light brown samples. Phenolic acids constitute a small portion of phenolic compounds after digestion in human and contribute to the antioxidant activity of Thai rice grains. Anthocyanin contents of all rice extracts ranged from 45.9 to 442.1 mg CGE/kg. All rice extracts showed the antioxidant efficiency lower than ferulic acid. Genotype Kum and Hawm nil exhibited the ability of antioxidant efficiency higher than α-tocopherol. Interestingly, the visible spectrum of only black rice genotypes showed the maximum peak at 530-540 nm. The results suggest that consumption of black rice gives more health benefits of grain to consumer.

Keywords: Rice, antioxidant, phenolic, anthocyanin

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4 In vitro Antioxidant Activity and Total Phenolic Content of Dillenia indica and Garcinia penducalata, Commonly Used Fruits in Assamese Cuisine

Authors: M. Das, B. P. Sarma, G. Ahmed


Human diet can be a major source of antioxidants. Poly¬phenols, which are organic compounds present in the regular human diet, have good antioxidant property. Most of the diseases are detected too late and that cause irre¬versible damage to the body. Therefore food that forms the natural source of antioxidants can prevent free radi¬cals from damaging our body tissues. Dillenia indica and Garcinia penducalata are two major fruits, easily available in Assam, North eastern Indian state. In the present study, the in vitro antioxi¬dant properties of the fruits of these plants are compared as the decoction of these fruits form a major part of Assamese cuisine. DPPH free radical scavenging activity of the methanol, petroleum ether and water extracts of G. penducalata and D. indica fruits were carried out by the methods of Cotelle A et al. (1996). Different concentrations ranging from 10–110 ug/ml of the extracts were added to 100 uM of DPPH (2,2, Diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl) and the absor¬bance was read at 517 nm after incubation. Ascorbic acid was used as the standard. Different concentrations of the methanol, petroleum ether and water extracts of G. penducalata and D. indica fruits were mixed with sodium nitroprusside and incubated. Griess reagent was added to the mixtures and their optical density was read at 546 nm following the method of Marcocci et al. (1994). Ascorbic acid was used as the standard. In order to find the scavenging activity of the extracts against hydroxyl radicals, the method of Kunchandy & Ohkawa (1990) was followed.The superoxide scavenging activity of the methanol, petroleum ether and water extracts of the fruits was deter¬mined by the method of Robak & Gryglewski (1998).Six replicates were maintained in each of the experiments and their SEM was evaluated based on which, non linear regres¬sion (curve fit), exponential growth were derived to calculate the IC50 values of the SAWE and standard compounds. All the statistical analyses were done by using paired t test. The hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of the various extracts of D. indica exhibited IC50 values < 110 ug/ml concentration, the scavenging activity of the extracts of G. penducalata was surprisingly>110 ug/ml.Similarly the oxygen free radical scavenging activity of the different extracts of D. indica exhibited an IC50 value of <110 ug/ml but the methanolic extract of the same exhib¬ited a better free radical scavenging activity compared to that of vitamin C. The methanolic extract of D. indica exhibited an IC50 value better than that of vitamin C. The DPPH scavenging activities of the various extracts of D. indica and G. penducalata were <110 ug/ml but the methanolic extract of D. indica exhibited an IC50 value bet¬ter than that of vitaminc C.The higher amounts of phenolic content in the methanolic extract of D. indica might be one of the major causes for its enhanced in vitro antioxidant activity.The present study concludes that Dillenia indica and Garcinia penducalata both possesses anti oxidant activi¬ties. The anti oxidant activity of Dillenia indica is superior to that of Garcinia penducalata due to its higher phenolic content

Keywords: Antioxidants, Free Radicals, phenolic, scavenging

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3 The Correlation of Total Phenol Content with Free Radicals Scavenging Activity and Effect of Ethanol Concentration in Extraction Process of Mangosteen Rind (Garcinia mangostana)

Authors: Ririn Lestari Sri Rahayu, Mustofa Ahda


The use of synthetic antioxidants often causes a negative effect on health and increases the incidence of carcinogenesis. Development of the natural antioxidants should be investigated. However, natural antioxidants have a low toxicity and are safe for human consumption. Ethanol extract of mangosteen rind (Garcinia mangostana) contains natural antioxidant compounds that have various pharmacological activities. Antioxidants from the ethanol extract of mangosteen rind have free radicals scavenging activities. The scavenging activity of ethanol extract of mangosteen rind was determined by DPPH method. The phenolic compound from the ethanol extract of mangosteen rind is determined with Folin-Ciocalteu method. The results showed that the absolute ethanol extract of mangosteen rind has IC50 of 40.072 ug/mL. The correlation of total phenols content with free radical scavenging activity has an equation y: 5.207x + 205.51 and determination value (R2) of 0.9329. Total phenols content from the ethanol extract of mangosteen rind has a good correlation with free radicals scavenging activity of DPPH.

Keywords: antioxidant, phenolic, Garcinia mangostana, Inhibition concentration 50%

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2 Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Potential of Selected Nigerian Herbs and Spices: A Justification for Consumption and Use in the Food Industry

Authors: Amarachi Delight Onyemachi, Gregory Ikechukwu Onwuka


The growing consumer trend for natural ingredients, functional foods with health benefits and the perceived risk of carcinogenesis associated with synthetic antioxidants have forced food manufacturers to look for alternatives for producing healthy and safe food. Herbs and spices are cheap, natural and harmless sources of antioxidants which can delay and prevent lipid oxidation of food products and also confer its unique organoleptic properties and health benefits to food products. The Nigerian climate has been proven to be conducive for the production of spices and herbs and is blessed bountifully with a wide range of them. Five selected Nigerian herbs and spices Piper guieense, Xylopia aethopica, Gongronema latifolium and Ocimum gratissimum were evaluated for their ability to act as radical scavengers. The spices were extracted with 80% ethanol and evaluated using total phenolic capacity (TPC), DPPH (1,1-diph diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical) ABTS (2,2’azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), reducing power (RP) assays. The TPC ranged from 5.33 µg GAE/mg (in Gongronema latifolium) to 15.55 µg GAE/mg (in Ocimum gratissimum). The DPPH and ABTS scavenging activity of the extracts ranged from 0.23-0.36 IC50 mg/ml and 2.32-7.25 Trolox equivalent % respectively. The TAC and RP of the extract ranged from 6.73-10.64 µg AAE/mg and 3.52-10.19 µg AAE/mg. The result of percentage yield of the extract ranged from as low as 9.94% in Gongronema latifolium and to as high as 23.85% in Xylopia aethopica. A very strong positive relationship existed between the total antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content of the tested herbs and spices (R2=0.96). All of the extracts exhibited different extent of strong antioxidant activity, high antioxidant activity was found in Ocimum gratissimum and Gongronema latifolium with the least. However, Gongronema latifolium possessed the highest total antioxidant capacity. These data confirm the appreciable antioxidant potentials and high phenolic content of Nigerian herbs and spices, thereby providing justification for their use in dishes and functional foods, prevention of cellular damage caused by free radicals and use as natural antioxidants in the food industry for prevention of lipid oxidation in food products. However, to utilize these natural antioxidants in food products, further analysis and studies of their behaviour in food systems at varying temperature, pH conditions and ionic concentrations should be carried out to displace the use of synthetic antioxidants like BHT and BHA.

Keywords: Spices, Herbs, Free Radicals, antioxidant, phenolic

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1 Antihyperglycaemic and Antihyperlipidemic Activities of Pleiogynium timorense Seeds and Identification of Bioactive Compounds

Authors: Ataa A. Said, Elsayed A. Abuotabl, Gehan F. Abdel Raoof, Khaled Y. Mohamed


The aim of this study is to evaluate antihyperglycaemic and antihyperlipidemic activities of Pleiogynium timorense (DC.) Leenh (Anacardiaceae) seeds as well as to isolate and identify the bioactive compounds. Antihyperglycaemic effect was evaluated by measuring the effect of two dose levels (150 and 300 mg/kg) of 70% methanol extract of Pleiogynium timorense seeds on blood glucose level when administered 45 minutes before glucose loading. In addition, the effect of the plant extract on the lipid profile was determined by measuring serum total lipids (TL), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Furthermore, the bioactive compounds were isolated and identified by chromatographic and spectrometric methods.The results showed that the methanolic extract of the seeds significantly reduced the levels of blood glucose,(TL), (TC), (TG) and (LDL-C) but no significant effect on (HDL-C) comparing with control group. Furthermore, four phenolic compound were isolated which were identified as; catechin, gallic acid, para methoxy benzaldehyde and pyrogallol which were isolated for the first time from the plant. In addition sulphur -containing compound (sulpholane) was isolated for the first time from the plant and from the family. To our knowledge, this is the first study about antihyperglycaemicand antihyperlipidemic activities of the seeds of Pleiogyniumtimorense and its bioactive compounds. So, the methanolic extract of the seeds of Pleiogynium timorense could be a step towards the development of new antihyperglycaemic and antihyperlipidemic drugs.

Keywords: Bioactive Compounds, Seeds, phenolic, antihyperglycaemic, Pleiogynium timorense

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