Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 43

Phenolic Compounds Related Abstracts

43 Study of the in vivo and in vitro Antioxidant Activity of the Methanol Extract from the Roots of the Barks of Zizyphus lotus

Authors: Yahia Mouloud, Benbia Souhila, Lekbir Adel, Djemai Zoughlache Soumia, Meslem Meriem, Maouchi Madiha, Bahi Ahlem


Natural extracts is known for their contents of biologically active molecules. In this context, we attempted to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the methanolic extract prepared from the bark of the roots of Zizyphus lotus. The quantitative analysis based on the dosage, phenolic compounds, flavonoids and tannins provided following values: 0.39 ± 0.007 ug EAG/mg of extract for phenolic compounds, 0.05 ± 0.02ug EQ/mg extract for flavonoids and 0.0025 ± 7.071 E-4 ECT ug/mg extract for tannins. The study of the antioxidant activity by the DPPH test in vitro showed a powerful antiradical power with an IC50 = 8,8 ug/ml. For the DPPH test in vivo we used two rats lots, one lot with a dose of 200 mg/kg of the methanol extract and a control lot. We found a significant difference in antiradical activity with p < 0.05.

Keywords: Flavonoids, Phenolic Compounds, antioxidant activity, DPPH, Zizyphus lotus, tannins

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42 Variation of Phenolic Compounds in Latvian Apple Juices and Their Suitability for Cider Production

Authors: Zanda Kruma, Rita Riekstina-Dolge, Daina Karklina, Inta Krasnova, Fredijs Dimins


Apple juice is the main raw material for cider production. In this study apple juices obtained from 14 dessert and crab apples grown in Latvia were investigated. For all samples total phenolic compounds, tannins and individual phenolic compounds content were determined. The total phenolic content of different variety apple juices ranged from 650mg L-1 to 4265mg L-1. Chlorogenic acid is the predominant phenolic compound in all juice samples and ranged from 143.99mg L-1 in ‘Quaker Beauty’ apple juice to 617.66mg L-1 in ‘Kerr’ juice. Some dessert and crab apple juices have similar phenolic composition, but in several varieties such as ‘Cornelie’, ‘Hyslop’ and ‘Riku’ it was significantly higher. For cider production it is better to blend different kinds of apple juices including apples rich in high phenol content ('Rick', 'Cornelie') and also, for successful fermentation, apples rich in sugars and soluble solids content should be used in blends.

Keywords: Phenolic Compounds, apple juice, hierarchical cluster analysis, cider production

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41 Natural Antioxidant Changes in Fresh and Dried Spices and Vegetables

Authors: Liga Priecina, Daina Karklina


Antioxidants are became the most analyzed substances in last decades. Antioxidants act as in activator for free radicals. Spices and vegetables are one of major antioxidant sources. Most common antioxidants in vegetables and spices are vitamin C, E, phenolic compounds, carotenoids. Therefore, it is important to get some view about antioxidant changes in spices and vegetables during processing. In this article was analyzed nine fresh and dried spices and vegetables- celery (Apium graveolens), parsley (Petroselinum crispum), dill (Anethum graveolens), leek (Allium ampeloprasum L.), garlic (Allium sativum L.), onion (Allium cepa), celery root (Apium graveolens var. rapaceum), pumpkin (Curcubica maxima), carrot (Daucus carota)- grown in Latvia 2013. Total carotenoids and phenolic compounds and their antiradical scavenging activity were determined for all samples. Dry matter content was calculated from moisture content. After drying process carotenoid content significantly decreases in all analyzed samples, except one -carotenoid content increases in parsley. Phenolic composition was different and depends on sample – fresh or dried. Total phenolic, flavonoid and phenolic acid content increases in dried spices. Flavan-3-ol content is not detected in fresh spice samples. For dried vegetables- phenolic acid content decreases significantly, but increases flavan-3-ols content. The higher antiradical scavenging activity was observed in samples with higher flavonoid and phenolic acid content.

Keywords: Spices, Vegetables, Carotenoids, Phenolic Compounds, antiradical scavenging activity

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40 Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Matricaria pubscens Extracts: A Wild Space of North African Pharmacopeia

Authors: Abdelouahab Dehimati, Fatiha Bedjou


This study focused on the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of four extracts from the plant Matricaria pubscens (Asteraceae) harvest in the region of Ghardaia, the northern Sahara of Algeria. The different extracts were analyzed for their content of phenolic compounds and their biological activities. The ethanol extract expresses a better extraction yield (44.22%). We have first performed the quantitative colorimetric methods for total polyphenols. Wherein the aqueous extract shows the highest total polyphenol content and total flavonoid (216.66±2.58 mg Eq GA/g and 111.04±0.49 mg Eq Q/g E, respectively) and ethanol extract 50% total tannins content (68.88±2.72 mg Eq AT/g E). The evaluation of the antioxidant activity of extracts of Matricaria pubscens by the arbitrary value IC50. The ethanol 50% extract is expressed strong activity with an IC50 14.19±1.25 mg/m against the DPPH radical and 11.66±0.53 mg/ml against the ABTS radical). In addition, the aqueous extract showed strong reducing power with an IC50 (48.61±1.14 mg/ml). However, the results obtained by the reducing power of phosphomolybdat the test are calculated by the iron maximum absorbance where ethanol extract 50% gives an absorbance of about 1.641 ± 0.01nm. Otherwise, methanol 70% and butanol 80% extracts gave a very large chelating effect of iron with an IC50 (38.38±0.01 μg/ml and 38.58±0.04 μg/ml respectively). By the method of disc Diffuson, the results of the antimicrobial activity are achieved butanolic extract 80% shows high activity towards MRSA (MIC: 3.51mg/ml; BMC>100 mg/ml). Their shares, the extracts were the most active for the antifungal test, the butanol 80% extract was the most active against A. niger (MIC: 12.5 mg/ml; FMC>100 mg/ml). These preliminary results could be used to justify the traditional use of this plant and their phenolic compounds could be exploited for therapeutic purposes, such as antioxidants and antimicrobial effects.

Keywords: Mic, Phenolic Compounds, antioxidant activity, Matricaria pubscens, antimicrobial activity, IC50

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39 Preliminary Phytochemical Screening, Analysis of Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Genista cephalantha Spach. (Fabaceae)

Authors: Chebbah Kaoutar, Marchioni Eric, Menad Ahmed, Mekkiou Ratiba, Sarri Djamel, Ameddah Souad, Boumaza Ouahiba, Seghiri Ramdane, Benayache Samir, Benayache Fadila


This study was designed to estabilish a preliminary phytochemical screening, evaluate the phenolic and flavonoid content according to the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure, and aluminum chloride method respectively and to determine qualitatively, using HPLC-UV method, the most important products present in ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and n-butanol (n-BuOH) extracts of the aerial parts of Genista cephalantha Spach. from East Algeria. The antioxidant activity of these extracts was spectrophotometrically tested by measuring their ability to scavenge a stable DPPH free radical and by β-Carotene/linoleic acid bleaching assay. Evaluated extracts showed a good activity in both antioxidant system assays.

Keywords: Flavonoids, Phenolic Compounds, antioxidant activity, Fabaceae, HPLC-DAD-UV, genista cephalantha

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38 Antioxidant Activity and Total Phenolic Content within the Aerial Parts of Artemisia absinthium

Authors: Hallal Nouria, Kharoubi Omar


Wormwood (Artemisia absinthium L.) is a medicinal and aromatic bitter herb, which has been used as a medicine from ancient times. It has traditionally been used as anthelmintic, choleretic, antiseptic, balsamic, depurative, digestive, diuretic, emmenagogue and in treating leukemia and sclerosis. The species was cited to be used externally as cataplasm of crushed leaves for snake and scorpion bites or decoction for wounds and sores applied locally as antiseptic and antifungal. Wormwood extract have high contents of total phenolic compounds and total flavonoids indicating that these compounds contribute to antiradical and antioxidative activity. Most of the degenerative diseases are caused by free radicals. Antioxidants are the agents responsible for scavenging free radicals. The aim of present study was to evaluate the phytochemical and in vitro antioxidant properties of Wormwood extract. DPPH assay and reducing power assay were the method adopted to study antioxidant potentials of extracts. Standard methods were used to screen preliminary phytochemistry and quantitative analysis of tannin, phenolics and flavanoids. Aqueous and alcoholic extracts were showed good antioxidant effect with IC50 ranges from 62 μg/ml for aqueous and 116μg/ml for alcoholic extracts. Phenolic compounds, tannins and flavonoids were the major phytochemicals present in both the extracts. Percentage of inhibition increased with the increased concentration of extracts. The aqueous and alcoholic extract yielded 20, 15& 3, 59 mg/g gallic acid equivalent phenolic content 2, 78 & 1,83 mg/g quercetin equivalent flavonoid and 2, 34 & 6, 40 g tannic acid equivalent tannins respectively. The aqueous and methanol extracts of the aerial parts showed a positive correlation between the total phenolic content and the antioxidant activity measured in the plant samples. The present study provides evidence that both extracts of Artemisia absinthium is a potential source of natural antioxidant.

Keywords: Pharmaceutical Industries, Antioxidants, Phenolic Compounds, medicinal and aromatic plant, Artemisia absinthium

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37 Future Trends in Sources of Natural Antioxidants from Indigenous Foods

Authors: Ahmed El-Ghorab


Indigenous foods are promising sources of various chemical bioactive compounds such as vitamins, phenolic compounds and carotenoids. Therefore, the presence o different bioactive compounds in fruits could be used to retard or prevent various diseases such as cardiovascular and cancer. This is an update report on nutritional compositions and health promoting phytochemicals of different indigenous food . This different type of fruits and/ or other sources such as spices, aromatic plants, grains by-products, which containing bioactive compounds might be used as functional foods or for nutraceutical purposes. most common bioactive compounds are vitamin C, polyphenol, β- carotene and lycopene contents. In recent years, there has been a global trend toward the use of natural phytochemical as antioxidants and functional ingredients, which are present in natural resources such as vegetables, fruits, oilseeds and herbs.. Our future trend the Use of Natural antioxidants as a promising alternative to use of synthetic antioxidants and the Production of natural antioxidant on commercial scale to maximize the value addition of indigenous food waste as a good source of bioactive compounds such as antioxidants.

Keywords: Bioactive Compounds, Antioxidants, Phenolic Compounds, indigenous foods, by-product

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36 Identification of Phenolic Compounds with Antibacterial Activity in Raisin Extract

Authors: Yousef M. Abouzeed A. Elfahem, F. Zgheel, M. A. Saad, Mohamed O. Ahmed


The bioactive properties of phytochemicals indicate their potential as natural drug products to prevent and treat human disease; in particular, compounds with antioxidant and antimicrobial activities may represent a novel class of safe and effective drugs. Following desiccation, grapes (Vitis vinifera) become more resistant to microbial-based degradation, suggesting that raisins may be a source of antimicrobial compounds. To investigate this hypothesis, total phenolic extracts were obtained from common raisins, local market-sourced. The acetone extract was tested for antibacterial activity against four prevalent bacterial pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli). Antibiotic sensitivity and the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) were determined for each bacterium. High performance liquid chromatography was used to identify compounds in the total phenolic extract. The raisin phenolic extract inhibited growth of all the tested bacteria; the greatest inhibitive effect (normalized to cefotaxime sodium control antibiotic) occurred against P. aeruginosa, followed by S. aureus > Salmonella spp.= E. coli. The phenolic extracts contained the bioactive compounds catechin, quercetin, and rutin. Thus, phytochemicals in raisin extract have antibacterial properties; this plant-based extract, or its bioactive constituents, may represent a promising natural preservative or antimicrobial agent for the food industry or anti-infective drug.

Keywords: Extraction, Phenolic Compounds, antibacterial activity, Vitis vinifera raisin

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35 Evaluation of Bioactive Phenols in Blueberries from Different Cultivars

Authors: Raquel P. F. Guiné, Fernando J. Gonçalves, Christophe Gonçalves, Daniela Teixeira


Blueberries are widely valued for their high content in phenolic compounds with antioxidant activity, and hence beneficial for the human health. In this way, a study was done to determine the phenolic composition (total phenols, anthocyanins and tannins) and antioxidant activity of blueberries from three cultivars (Duke, Bluecrop, and Ozarblue) grown in two different Portuguese farms. Initially two successive extractions were done with methanol followed by two extractions with aqueous acetone solutions. These extracts obtained were then used to evaluate the amount of phenolic compounds and the antioxidant activity. The total phenols were observed to vary from 4.9 to 8.2 mg GAE/g fresh weight, with anthocyanin’s contents in the range 1.5-2.8 mg EMv3G/g and tannins contents in the range 1.5- 3.8 mg/g. The results for antioxidant activity ranged from 9.3 to 23.2 mol TE/g, and from 24.7 to 53.4 mol TE/g, when measured, respectively, by DPPH and ABTS methods. In conclusion it was observed that, in general, the cultivar had a visible effect on the phenols present, and furthermore, the geographical origin showed relevance either in the phenols contents or the antioxidant activity.

Keywords: Phenolic Compounds, antioxidant activity, anthocyanins, geographical origin, blueberry cultivar

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34 Changes in Amounts of Glycyrrhizin and Phenolic Compounds of Glycrrhiza glabra L. Seedlings Treated by Copper and Zinc Oxide

Authors: Roya Razavizadeh, Razieh Soltaninejad, Hakimeh Oloumi


Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Licorice) is one of the oldest medicinal plants in Iran and secondary metabolites present in the plant root is used in food and pharmaceutical industries. With the use of heavy metals as elicitors, plant secondary metabolite production can be increased. In this study, the effects of the concentrations of 1 and 10 μM of zinc oxide and copper oxide on the contents of reducing sugars (as precursor of secondary metabolites), proline, glycyrrhizin, total phenolic compounds, flavonoids and anthocyanin in Glycyrrhiza glabra seedlings were investigated. Also, the correlation between the content of these metabolites in the treated seedlings was examined using Pearson's test. The amount of reducing sugars at concentration of 10 μM zinc oxide was decreased. Whereas, the amounts of proline and glycyrrhizin under treatment 1 and 10 μM copper oxide and 1 μM zinc oxide compared with the control plants was increased. The content of total phenolic compounds was increased with increasing concentrations of copper oxide. The highest amount of flavonoids was observed at concentrations of 1 and 10 μM copper oxide. Anthocyanin content was increased in concentration of 1 μM copper oxide. Also, the tannin content of the Glycyrrhiza glabra seedlings at concentrations of 10 μM zinc oxide was increased. Based on the result it seemed that at concentrations of 1 and 10 μM copper oxide the amount of glycyrrhizin, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, anthocyanins were significantly increased, whereas, zinc oxide had no significant impact on the levels of these metabolites.

Keywords: Phenolic Compounds, zinc oxide, copper oxide, licorice (glycyrrhiza glabra L.), glycyrrhizin

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33 Optimization of Extraction Conditions for Phenolic Compounds from Deverra Scoparia Coss and Dur

Authors: Roukia Hammoudi, Chabrouk Farid, Dehak Karima, Mahfoud Hadj Mahammed, Mohamed Didi Ouldelhadj


The objective of this study was to optimise the extraction conditions for phenolic compounds from Deverra scoparia Coss and Dur. Apiaceae plant by ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE). The effects of solvent type (acetone, ethanol and methanol), solvent concentration (%), extraction time (mins) and extraction temperature (°C) on total phenolic content (TPC) were determined. The optimum extraction conditions were found to be acetone concentration of 80%, extraction time of 25 min and extraction temperature of 25°C. Under the optimized conditions, the value for TPC was 9.68 ± 1.05 mg GAE/g of extract. The study of the antioxidant power of these oils was performed by the method of DPPH. The results showed that antioxidant activity of the Deverra scoparia essential oil was more effective as compared to ascorbic acid and trolox.

Keywords: Phenolic Compounds, antioxidant activity, ultrasound assisted extraction, Deverra scoparia, total phenolic content

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32 Effect of Incorporation of Seaweed Extract in Gelatin Based Film on Physic-Chemical and Bioactive Properties of Film

Authors: Shekhar U. Kadam, S. K. Pankaj, Brijesh K. Tiwari, P. J. Cullen, Colm P. O’Donnell


Brown seaweed L. hyperborea is a rich source of phenolic compounds with antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. The aim of this work was to study the effect of incorporation of L. hyperborea extract to bovine gelatin film on the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of film. Films with fraction of 25% by weight of bovine gelatin sample were cast with addition of glycerol as a plasticizer. The total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of the films showed higher levels with addition of seaweed extract. Also film appearance properties such as film thickness, color and light transparency were evaluated. Film appearance was slightly modified whereas microstructure of films showed rough patches at 50% level of extract in the film. Hydrophilicity and glass transition temperature of the films also increased with increased level of seaweed extract. It was found that seaweed extract can be incorporated within gelatin and casein for development of biofunctional films.

Keywords: Ultrasound, Phenolic Compounds, antioxidant, Laminaria hyperborea, seaweed extract, bovine gelatin film

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31 Optimization of Extraction Conditions for Phenolic Compounds from Deverra scoparia Coss. and Dur

Authors: Roukia Hammoudi, Chabrouk Farid, Dehak Karima, Mahfoud Hadj Mahammed, Mohamed Didi Ouldelhadj


The objective of this study was to optimise the extraction conditions for phenolic compounds from Deverra scoparia Coss and Dur. Apiaceae plant by ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE). The effects of solvent type (Acetone, Ethanol and methanol), solvent concentration (%), extraction time (mins) and extraction temperature (°C) on total phenolic content (TPC) were determined. the optimum extraction conditions were found to be acetone concentration of 80%, extraction time of 25 min and extraction temperature of 25°C. Under the optimized conditions, the value for TPC was 9.68 ± 1.05 mg GAE/g of extract. The study of the antioxidant power of these oils was performed by the method of DPPH. The results showed that antioxidant activity of the Deverra scoparia essential oil was more effective as compared to ascorbic acid and trolox.

Keywords: Phenolic Compounds, antioxidant activity, ultrasound assisted extraction, Deverra scoparia, total phenolic content

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30 Effect of Two Cooking Methods on Kinetics of Polyphenol Content, Flavonoid Content and Color of a Tunisian Meal: Molokheiya (Corchorus olitorius)

Authors: S. Njoumi, L. Ben Haj Said, M. J. Amiot, S. Bellagha


The main objective of this research was to establish the kinetics of variation of total polyphenol content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) in Tunisian Corchorus olitorius powder and in a traditional home cooked-meal (Molokheiya) when using stewing and stir-frying as cooking methods, but also to compare the effect of these two common cooking practices on water content, TPC, TFC and color. The L*, a* and b* coordinates values of the Molokheiya varied from 24.955±0.039 to 21.301±0.036, from -1.556±0.048 to 0.23±0.026 and from 5.675±0.052 to 6.313±0.103 when using stewing and from 21.328±0.025 to 20.56±0.021, from -1.093± 0.011to 0.121±0.007 and from 5.708±0.020 to 6.263±0.007 when using stir-frying, respectively. TPC and TFC increased during cooking. TPC of Molokheiya varied from 29.852±0.866 mg GAE/100 g to 220.416±0.519 mg GAE/100 g after 150 min of stewing and from 25.257±0.259 mg GAE/100 g to 208.897 ±0.173 mg GAE/100 g using stir-frying method during 150 min. TFC of Molokheiya varied from 48.229±1.47 mg QE/100 g to 843.802±1.841 mg QE/100 g when using stewing and from 37.031± 0.368 mg QE/100 g to 775.312±0.736 mg QE/100 g when using stir-frying. Kinetics followed similar curves in all cases but resulted in different final TPC and TFC. The shape of the kinetics curves suggests zero-order kinetics. The mathematical relations and the numerical approach used to model the kinetics of polyphenol and flavonoid contents in Molokheiya are described.

Keywords: Phenolic Compounds, kinetic, Corchorus olitorius, Molokheiya

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29 Statistical Analysis of the Factors that Influence the Properties of Blueberries from Cultivar Bluecrop

Authors: Raquel P. F. Guiné, Fernando J. Gonçalves, Susana R. Matos, Daniela V. T. A. Costa


Because blueberries are worldwide recognized as a good source of beneficial components, their consumption has increased in the past decades, and so have the scientific works about their properties. Hence this work was undertaken to evaluate the effect of some production and conservation factors on the properties of blueberries from cultivar Bluecrop. The physical and chemical analyses were done according to established methodologies and then all data was treated using software SPSS for assessment of the possible differences among the factors investigated and/or the correlations between the variables at study. The results showed that location of production influenced some of the berries properties (caliber, sugars, antioxidant activity, color and texture) and that the age of the bushes was correlated with moisture, sugars and acidity, as well as lightness. On the other hand, altitude of the farm only was correlated to sugar content. With regards to conservation, it influenced only anthocyanins content and DPPH antioxidant activity. Finally, the type of extract and the order of extraction had a pronounced influence on all the phnolic properties evaluated.

Keywords: Statistical Analysis, Conservation, Phenolic Compounds, antioxidant activity, geographical origin, blueberry

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28 Recovery of Polyphenolic Phytochemicals From Greek Grape Pomace (Vitis Vinifera L.)

Authors: Christina Drosou, Konstantina E. Kyriakopoulou, Andreas Bimpilas, Dimitrios Tsimogiannis, Magdalini C. Krokida


Rationale: Agiorgitiko is one of the most widely-grown and commercially well-established red wine varieties in Greece. Each year viticulture industry produces a large amount of waste consisting of grape skins and seeds (pomace) during a short period. Grapes contain polyphenolic compounds which are partially transferred to wine during winemaking. Therefore, winery wastes could be an alternative cheap source for obtaining such compounds with important antioxidant activity. Specifically, red grape waste contains anthocyanins and flavonols which are characterized by multiple biological activities, including cardioprotective, anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic, antiviral and antibacterial properties attributed mainly to their antioxidant activity. Ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) is considered an effective way to recover phenolic compounds, since it combines the advantage of mechanical effect with low temperature. Moreover, green solvents can be used in order to recover extracts intended for used in the food and nutraceutical industry. Apart from the extraction, pre-treatment process like drying can play an important role on the preservation of the grape pomace and the enhancement of its antioxidant capacity. Objective: The aim of this study is to recover natural extracts from winery waste with high antioxidant capacity using green solvents so they can be exploited and utilized as enhancers in food or nutraceuticals. Methods: Agiorgitiko grape pomace was dehydrated by air drying (AD) and accelerated solar drying (ASD) in order to explore the effect of the pre-treatment on the recovery of bioactive compounds. UAE was applied in untreated and dried samples using water and water: ethanol (1:1) as solvents. The total antioxidant potential and phenolic content of the extracts was determined using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay and Folin-Ciocalteu method, respectively. Finally, the profile of anthocyanins and flavonols was specified using HPLC-DAD analysis. The efficiency of processes was determined in terms of extraction yield, antioxidant activity, phenolic content and the anthocyanins and flavovols profile. Results & Discussion: The experiments indicated that the pre-treatment was essential for the recovery of highly nutritious compounds from the pomace as long as the extracts samples showed higher phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. Water: ethanol (1:1) was considered a more effective solvent on the recovery of phenolic compounds. Moreover, ASD grape pomace extracted with the solvent system exhibited the highest antioxidant activity (IC50=0.36±0.01mg/mL) and phenolic content (TPC=172.68±0.01mgGAE/g dry extract), followed by AD and untreated pomace. The major compounds recovered were malvidin3-O-glucoside and quercetin3-O-glucoside according to the HPLC analysis. Conclusions: Winery waste can be exploited for the recovery of nutritious compounds using green solvents such as water or ethanol. The pretreatment of the pomace can significantly affect the concentration of phenolic compounds, while UAE is considered a highly effective extraction process.

Keywords: Antioxidants, Phenolic Compounds, ultrasound assisted extraction, agiorgitico grape pomace

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27 Total Phenols, Total Flavonoids Contents and Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Seeds Extracts of Lawsonia alba (henna) from Algeria

Authors: Rekia. Cherbi, Mokhtar. Saidi, Mohamed. Yousfi, Zhor. Rahmani


Lawsonia alba (Henna) is widely used in folkloric medicinal for a treatment of various skin diseases such as Eczema (atopic dermatitis), boils and sores. The aim of the present study is to determine the antioxidant activity, total phenolics, flavonoids, and condensed tannins content of extracts from the seeds of Lawsonia. alba grown in Algeria and selected from three different regions (Adrar, Biskra, and Ouargla). Total phenolics content ranged from 68,42 ± 0,54 to 88,31 ± 0,78mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g dry weight, the flavonoids content varied from 1,13 ± 0,0035 to 1,367 ± 0,002mg quercetin equivalents (Q)/ g dry weight and condensed tannins (14,47 ± 0,138 to 25,50 ± 0,076 mg catechin equivalents (CE)/g dry weight). The antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by DPPH assay. The results showed that all extracts from the seeds of Lawsonia. alba seem to be good trappers of radicals, the IC50 values of the extracts ranged between 0,00826 and 0,01 g/l.

Keywords: Seeds, Phenolic Compounds, antioxidant activity, Lawsonia. alba

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26 Chemical Profile of Extra Virgin Olive Oil from Frantoio Cultivar Growing in Calabria, Italy

Authors: Monica Rosa Loizzo, Tiziana Falco, Marco Bonesi, Maria Concetta Tenuta, Mariarosaria Leporini, Rosa Tundis


Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO) is a major source of fat in the Mediterranean diet and its nutritional properties are the main reason for the increment of its consumption all over the world in recent years. In terms of olive oil production, Italy ranks the second in the world. EVOO is obtained exclusively by physical methods from the fruit of Olea europea L. Frantoio cv is spread in all the Italian territory. The aim of this work is to identify the phenolic and fatty acids profile of EVOO from Frantoio cv growing in different area of Calabria (Italy). The phenolic profile was obtained by HPLC coupled to a diode array detector and mass spectrometry. Analyses revealed the presence of phenolic alcohols, phenolic acid, several secoiridoids, and two flavones as main components. Hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol are present in reasonable content. Fatty acids were monitored by gas chromatography. Oleic acid was the most abundant compounds. A moderate level of linoleic acid, in accordance with the general observations for oils derived from Mediterranean countries, was also found.

Keywords: Phenolic Compounds, Fatty Acids, extra virgin olive oils, frantoio cv

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25 Kinetics of Inhibition of Xanthine Oxidase by Lycium Arabicum and Its Protective Effect against Oxonate-Induced Hyperuricemia and Renal Dysfunction in Mice

Authors: Seddik Khennouf, Naouel Boussoualim, Hayat Trabsa, Imane Krache, Noureddine Charef, Lekhmici Arrar, Abderrahmane Baghiani


Purpose: To evaluate the in-vitro inhibition of xanthine oxidase (purified from bovine milk) by extracts of Lycium arabicum, as well as it is in vivo hypouricemic and renal protective effects. Methods: Four extracts of Lycium arabicum, methanol (CrE), chloroform (ChE), ethyl acetate (EaE) and aqueous (AqE) extracts, were screened for their total phenolics and potential inhibitory effects on purified bovine milk xanthine oxidase (XO) activity by measuring the formation of uric acid or superoxide radical. The mode of inhibition was investigated and compared with the standard drugs, allopurinol, quercitin, and catechin. To evaluate their hypouricemic effect, the extracts were administered to potassium oxonate-induced hyperuricemic mice at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight. Results: The results showed that EaE had the highest content of phenolic compounds and was the most potent inhibitor of uric acid formation (IC50 = 0.017 ± 0.001 mg/mL) and formation of superoxide (IC50 = 0.035 ± 0.001 mg/ml). Lineweaver-Burk analysis showed that CrE and EaE inhibited XO competitively, whereas the inhibitory activities exerted by ChE and AqE were of a mixed type. Intraperetoneal injection of L. arabicum extracts (50 mg/kg) elicited hypouricemic actions in hyperuricemic mice. Hyperuricemic mice presented a serum uric acid concentration of 4.71 ± 0.29 mg/L but this was reduced to 1.78 ± 0.11 mg/L by EaE, which was the most potent hyporuricemic extract. Conclusion: L. arabicum fractions have a strong inhibitory effect on xanthine oxidase and and also have a significantly lowering effect on serum and liver creatinine and urea levels in hyperuricemic mice.

Keywords: Flavonoids, Phenolic Compounds, creatinine, uric acid, Hyperuricemia, lycium arabicum, superoxide

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24 The Effect of Different Concentrations of Extracting Solvent on the Polyphenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Gynura procumbens Leaves

Authors: Kam Wen Hang, Tan Kee Teng, Huang Poh Ching, Chia Kai Xiang, H. V. Annegowda, H. S. Naveen Kumar


Gynura procumbens (G. procumbens) leaves, commonly known as ‘sambung nyawa’ in Malaysia is a well-known medicinal plant commonly used as folk medicines in controlling blood glucose, cholesterol level as well as treating cancer. These medicinal properties were believed to be related to the polyphenolic content present in G. procumbens extract, therefore optimization of its extraction process is vital to obtain highest possible antioxidant activities. The current study was conducted to investigate the effect of different concentrations of extracting solvent (ethanol) on the amount of polyphenolic content and antioxidant activities of G. procumbens leaf extract. The concentrations of ethanol used were 30-70%, with the temperature and time kept constant at 50°C and 30 minutes, respectively using ultrasound-assisted extraction. The polyphenolic content of these extracts were quantified by Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method and results were expressed as milligram gallic acid equivalent (mg GAE)/g. Phosphomolybdenum method and 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assays were used to investigate the antioxidant properties of the extract and the results were expressed as milligram ascorbic acid equivalent (mg AAE)/g and effective concentration (EC50) respectively. Among the three different (30%, 50% and 70%) concentrations of ethanol studied, the 50% ethanolic extract showed total phenolic content of 31.565 ± 0.344 mg GAE/g and total antioxidant activity of 78.839 ± 0.199 mg AAE/g while 30% ethanolic extract showed 29.214 ± 0.645 mg GAE/g and 70.701 ± 1.394 mg AAE/g, respectively. With respect to DPPH radical scavenging assay, 50% ethanolic extract had exhibited slightly lower EC50 (314.3 ± 4.0 μg/ml) values compared to 30% ethanol extract (340.4 ± 5.3 μg/ml). Out of all the tested extracts, 70% ethanolic extract exhibited significantly (p< 0.05) highest total phenolic content (38.000 ± 1.009 mg GAE/g), total antioxidant capacity (95.874 ± 2.422 mg AAE/g) and demonstrated the lowest EC50 in DPPH assay (244.2 ± 5.9 μg/ml). An excellent correlations were drawn between total phenolic content, total antioxidant capacity and DPPH radical scavenging activity (R2 = 0.949 and R2 = 0.978, respectively). It was concluded from this study that, 70% ethanol should be used as the optimal polarity solvent to obtain G. procumbens leaf extract with maximum polyphenolic content with antioxidant properties.

Keywords: Phenolic Compounds, antioxidant activity, DPPH assay, Gynura procumbens

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23 Extracting the Antioxidant Compounds of Medicinal Plant Limoniastrum guyonianum

Authors: Assia Belfar, Mohamed Hadjadj, Messaouda Dakmouche, Zineb Ghiaba, Mahdi Belguidoum


Introduction: This study aims to phytochemical screening; Extracting the active compounds and estimate the effectiveness of antioxidant in Medicinal plants desert Limoniastrum guyonianum (Zeïta) from South Algeria. Methods: Total phenolic content and total flavonoid content using Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminum chloride colorimetric methods, respectively. The total antioxidant capacity was estimated by the following methods: DPPH (1.1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical) and reducing power assay. Results: Phytochemical screening of the plant part reveals the presence of phenols, saponins, flavonoids and tannins. While alkaloids and Terpenoids were absent. The Methanolic extract of L. guyonianum was extracted successively with ethyl acetate and butanol. Extraction of yield varied widely in the L. guyonianum ranging from (1.315 % to 4.218%). butanol fraction had the highest yield. The higher content of phenols was recorded in butanol fraction (311.81 ± 0.02mg GAE/g DW), the higher content of flavonoids was found in butanol fraction (9.58 ± 0.33mg QE/g DW). IC50 of inhibition of radical DPPH in ethyl acetate fraction was (0.05 ± 0.01µg/ml) Equal effectiveness with BHT, All extracts showed good activity of ferric reducing power, the higher power was in butanol fraction (16.16 ± 0.05mM). Conclusions: Demonstrated this study that the Methanolic extract of L. guyonianum contain a considerable quantity of phenolic compounds and possess a good antioxidant activity. It can be used as an easily accessible source of Natural Antioxidants and as a possible food supplement and in pharmaceutical industry.

Keywords: Medicinal Plants, Phenolic Compounds, phytochemical screening, flavonoid compound, l. guyonianum

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22 Characterization of Main Phenolic Compounds in Eleusine indica L. (Poaceae) by HPLC-DAD and 1H NMR

Authors: E. M. Condori-Peñaloza, S. S. Costa


Eleusine indica L, known as goose-grass, is considered a troublesome weed that can cause important economic losses in the agriculture worldwide. However, this grass is used as a medicinal plant in some regions of Brazil to treat influenza and pneumonia. In Africa and Asia, it is used to treat malaria and as diuretic, anti-helminthic, among other uses. Despite its therapeutic potential, little is known about the chemical composition and bioactive compounds of E. indica. Hitherto, two major flavonoids, schaftoside and vitexin, were isolated from aerial part of the species and showed inhibitory activity on lung neutrophil influxes in mice, suggesting a beneficial effect on airway inflammation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the chemical profile of aqueous extracts from aerial parts of Eleusine indica specimens using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-DAD) and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), with emphasis on phenolic compounds. Specimens of E. indica were collected in Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Aerial parts of fresh plants were extracted by decoction (10% p/v). After spontaneous precipitation of the aqueous extract at 10-12°C for 24 hours, the supernatant obtained was frozen and lyophilized. After that, 1 g of the extract was dissolved into 25 mL of water and fractionated on a reverse phase chromatography column (RP-2), eluted with a gradient of H2O/EtOH. Five fractions were obtained. The extract and fractions had their chemical profile analyzed by using HPLC-DAD (C-18 column: 20 μL, 256 -365 nm; gradient water 0.01% phosphoric acid/ acetonitrile. The extract was also analyzed by NMR (1H, 500 MHz, D2O) in order to access its global chemical composition. HPLC-DAD analyses of crude extract allowed the identification of ten phenolic compounds. Fraction 1, eluted with 100% water, was poor in phenolic compounds and no major peak was detected. In fraction 2, eluted with 100% water, it was possible to observe one major peak at retention time (RT) of 23.75 minutes compatible with flavonoid; fraction 3, also eluted with 100% water, showed four peaks at RT= 21.47, 23.52, 24.33 and 25.84 minutes, all of them compatible with flavonoid. In fraction 4, eluted with 50%/ethanol/50% water, it was possible to observe 3 peaks compatible with flavonoids at RT=24.65, 26.81, 27.49 minutes, and one peak (28.83 min) compatible with a phenolic acid derivative. Finally, in fraction 5, eluted with 100% ethanol, no phenolic substance was detected. The UV spectra of all flavonoids detected were compatible with the flavone subclass (λ= 320-345 nm). The 1H NMR spectra of aerial parts extract showed signals in three regions: δ 0.8-3.0 ppm (aliphatic compounds), δ 3.0-5.5 ppm corresponding to carbohydrates (signals most abundant and overlapped), and δ 6.0-8.5 ppm (aromatic compounds). Signals compatible with flavonoids (rings A and B) could also be detected in the crude extract spectra. These results suggest the presence of several flavonoids in E. indica, which reinforces their therapeutic potential. The pharmacological activities of Eleusine indica extracts and fractions will be further evaluated.

Keywords: NMR, HPLC, Flavonoids, Phenolic Compounds

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21 Photocatalytic Degradation of Phenolic Compounds in Wastewater Using Magnetically Recoverable Catalyst

Authors: Ahmed S. El-Gendy, Ahmed K. Sharaby


Phenolic compounds (PCs) exist in the wastewater effluents of some industries such as oil refinery, pharmaceutical and cosmetics. Phenolic compounds are extremely hazardous pollutants that can cause severe problems to the aquatic life and human beings if disposed of without treatment. One of the most efficient treatment methods of PCs is photocatalytic degradation. The current work studies the performance of composite nanomaterial of titanium dioxide with magnetite as a photo-catalyst in the degradation of PCs. The current work aims at optimizing the synthesized photocatalyst dosage and contact time as part of the operational parameters at different initial concentrations of PCs and pH values in the wastewater. The study was performed in a lab-scale batch reactor under fixed conditions of light intensity and aeration rate. The initial concentrations of PCs and the pH values were in the range of (10-200 mg/l) and (3-9), respectively. Results of the study indicate that the dosage of the catalyst and contact time for total mineralization is proportional to the initial concentrations of PCs, while the optimum pH conditions for highly efficient degradation is at pH 3. Exceeding the concentration levels of the catalyst beyond certain limits leads to the decrease in the degradation efficiency due to the dissipation of light. The performance of the catalyst for degradation was also investigated in comparison to the pure TiO2 Degussa (P-25). The dosage required for the synthesized catalyst for photocatalytic degradation was approximately 1.5 times that needed from the pure titania.

Keywords: Industrial, Optimization, wastewater, photocatalysis, Phenolic Compounds

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20 Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Tuckeroo (Cupaniopsis anacardioides) Fruits

Authors: Ngoc Minh Quynh Pham, Quan V. Vuong, Michael C. Bowyer, Christopher J. Scarlett


Tuckeroo (Cupaniopsis anacardioides) is an Australian native plant and is grown in the coastal regions in New South Wales, Queensland and Northern Australia. Its fruits have been eaten by birds; however there is no information on phytochemical and antioxidant capacity of these fruits. This study aimed to determine the phenolic compounds (TPC), flavonoids (TFC), proanthocyanidins (TPro) and antioxidant capacity in the whole or different parts of tuckeroo fruit including skin, flesh and seed. Whole and partly tuckeroo fruits were collected and immediately freeze dried to constant weight and then ground to small particle sizes (<1mm mesh). Samples were extracted in 50% methanol using an ultrasonic bath set at temperature 40 °C for 30 minutes. TPC, TFC, TPro and antioxidant capacity were measured by spectrophotometric analysis. The results showed that the whole fruits contained 106.23 mg GAE/g of TPC, 67.67 mg CAE/g of TFC and 56.74 mg CAE/g of TPro. These fruits also possessed high antioxidant capacity (DPPH: 263.78 mg TroE/g, ABTS: 346.98 mg TroE/g, CUPRAC: 370.12 mg TroE/g and FRAP: 176.30 mg TroE/g), revealing that these fruits are rich source of antioxidants. The results also showed that distribution of the antioxidants was varied in different parts of the fruits. Skin had the highest levels of TPC, TFC, and TPro as well as antioxidant properties, followed by the seed and flesh had the lowest levels of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity. Of note, levels of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of the skin were significantly higher than those of the whole fruits. Therefore, the skin of tuckeroo fruits is recommended as a starting material for extraction and purification of phenolic compounds as potential antioxidants for further utilisation in the food and pharmaceutical industries.

Keywords: Phenolic Compounds, Antioxidant Capacity, Cupaniopsis anacardioides, tuckeroo fruit

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19 Comparison of Phenolic and Urushiol Contents of Different Parts of Rhus verniciflua and Their Antimicrobial Activity

Authors: Jae Young Jang, Jong Hoon Ahn, Jae-Woong Lim, So Young Kang, Mi Kyeong Lee


Rhus verniciflua is commonly known as a lacquer tree in Korea. Stem barks of R. verniciflua have been used as an immunostimulator in traditional medicine. It contains phenolic compounds and is known for diverse biological activities such as antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. However, it also causes allergic dermatitis due to urushiols derivatives. For the development of active natural resources with less toxicity, the content of phenolic compounds and urushiols of different parts of R. verniciflua such as stem barks, lignum and leaves were quantitated by colorimetric assay and HPLC analysis. The urushiols content were the highest in stem barks, and followed by leaves. The lignum contained trace amount of urushiols. The phenolic contents, however, were the most abundant in lignum, and followed by leaves and stem barks. These results clear showed that the content of urushiols and phenolic differs depending on the parts of R. verniciflua. Antimicrobial activity of different parts of R. verniciflua against fish pathogenic bacteria was also investigated using Edwardsiella tarda. Lignum of R. verniciflua was the most effective in antimicrobial activity against E. tarda and phenolic constituents are suggested to be active constituents for activity. Taken together, phenolic compounds are responsible for antimicrobial activity of R. verniciflua. The lignum of R. verniciflua contains high content of phenolic compounds with less urushiols, which suggests efficient antimicrobial activity with less toxicity. Therefore, lignum of R. verniciflua are suggested as good sources for antimicrobial activity against fish bacterial diseases.

Keywords: Phenolic Compounds, different parts, Rhus verniciflua, urushiols

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18 Phenolic Compounds and Antimicrobial Properties of Pomegranate (Punica granatum) Peel Extracts

Authors: M. Javanmard Dakheli, P. Rahnemoon, M. Sarabi Jamab, A. Bostan


In recent years, tendency to use of natural antimicrobial agents in food industry has increased. Pomegranate peels containing phenolic compounds and anti-microbial agents, are counted as valuable source for extraction of these compounds. In this study, the extraction of pomegranate peel extract was carried out at different ethanol/water ratios (40:60, 60:40, and 80:20), temperatures (25, 40, and 55 ˚C), and time durations (20, 24, and 28 h). The extraction yield, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and anthocyanins were measured. ‎Antimicrobial activity of pomegranate peel extracts were determined against some food-borne ‎microorganisms such as Salmonella enteritidis, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, ‎‎Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus niger, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae by agar diffusion and MIC methods. Results showed that at ethanol/water ratio 60:40, 25 ˚C and 24 h maximum amount of phenolic compounds ‎(‎‎349.518‎‏ ‏mg gallic acid‏/‏g dried extract), ‎flavonoids (250.124 mg rutin‏/‏g dried extract), anthocyanins (252.047 ‎‏‏mg ‎cyanidin‎3‎glucoside‏/‏‎100 g dried extract), and the strongest antimicrobial activity were obtained. ‎All extracts’ antimicrobial activities were demonstrated against every tested ‎‎microorganisms.‎Staphylococcus aureus showed the highest sensitivity among the tested ‎‎‎microorganisms.

Keywords: Antimicrobial Agents, Phenolic Compounds, solvent extraction, pomegranate peel

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17 Identification and Quantification of Phenolic Compounds In Cassia tora Collected from Three Different Locations Using Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography – Electro Spray Ionization – Mass Spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-MS-MS)

Authors: Mahesh Pal, Shipra Shukla, D. K. Upreti, Gaurav Chaudhary, S. K. Tewari


Cassia tora L. is widely distributed in tropical Asian countries, commonly known as sickle pod. Various parts of the plant are reported for their medicinal value due to presence of anthraquinones, phenolic compounds, emodin, β-sitosterol, and chrysophanol. Therefore a sensitive analytical procedure using UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS was developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of five phenolic compounds in leaf, stem and root extracts of Cassia tora. Rapid chromatographic separation of compounds was achieved on Acquity UHPLC BEH C18 column (50 mm×2.1 mm id, 1.7µm) column in 2.5 min. Quantification was carried out using negative electrospray ionization in multiple-reaction monitoring mode. The method was validated as per ICH guidelines and showed good linearity (r2 ≥ 0.9985) over the concentration range of 0.5-200 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precisions and accuracy were within RSDs ≤ 1.93% and ≤ 1.90%, respectively. The developed method was applied to investigate variation of five phenolic compounds in the three geographical collections. Results indicated significant variation among analyzed samples collected from different locations in India.

Keywords: Quantification, Phenolic Compounds, Cassia tora, UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS

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16 Identification of Phenolic Compounds and Study the Antimicrobial Property of Eleaocarpus Ganitrus Fruits

Authors: Velvizhi Dharmalingam, Rajalaksmi Ramalingam, Rekha Prabhu, Ilavarasan Raju


Background: The use of herbal products for various therapeutic regimens has increased tremendously in the developing countries. Elaeocarpus ganitrus(Rudraksha) is a broad-leaved tree, belonging to the family Elaeocarpaceae found in tropical and subtropical areas. It is popular in an indigenous system of medicine like Ayurveda, Siddha, and Unani. According to Ayurvedic medicine, Rudraksha is used in the managing of blood pressure, asthma, mental disorders, diabetes, gynaecological disorders, neurological disorders such as epilepsy and liver diseases. Objectives: The present study aimed to study the physicochemical parameters of Elaeocarpus ganitrus(fruits) and identify the phenolic compounds (gallic acid, ellagic acid, and chebulinic acid). To estimate the microbial load and the antibacterial activity of extract of Elaeocarpus ganitrus for selective pathogens. Methodology: The dried powdered fruit of Elaeocarpus ganitrus was performed the physicochemical parameters (such as Loss on drying, Alcohol soluble extractive, Water soluble extractive, Total ash and Acid insoluble ash) and pH was measured. The dried coarse powdered fruit of Elaeocarpus ganitrus was extracted successively with hexane, chloroform, ethylacetate and aqueous alcohol by cold percolation method. Identification of phenolic compounds (gallic acid, ellagic acid, chebulinic acid) was done by HPTLC method and confirmed by co-TLC using different solvent system.The successive extracts of Elaeocarpus ganitrus and standards (like gallic acid, ellagic acid, and chebulinic acid) was approximately weighed and made up with alcohol. HPTLC (CAMAG) analysis was performed on a TLC over silica gel 60F254 precoated aluminium plate, layer thickness 0.2 mm (E.Merck, Germany) by using ATS4, Visualizer and Scanner with wavelength at 254 nm, 366 nm and derivatized with different reagents. The microbial load such as total bacterial count, total fungal count, Enterobacteria, Escherichia coli, Salmonella species, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa by serial dilution method and antibacterial activity of was measured by Kirby bauer method for selective pathogens. Results: The physicochemical parameter of Elaeocarpus ganitrus was studied for standardization of crude drug. Among all the successive extracts were identified with phenolic compounds and Elaeocarpus ganitrus extract having potent antibacterial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.

Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, Phenolic Compounds, HPTLC, Elaeocarpus ganitrus

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15 Peach as a Potential Functional Food: Biological Activity and Important Phenolic Compound Source

Authors: Luís R. Silva, Catarina Bento, Ana C. Gonçalves, Fábio Jesus, Branca M. Silva


Nowadays, the general population is more and more concerned about nutrition and the health implications of an unbalanced diet. Current knowledge regarding the health benefits and antioxidant properties of certain foods such as fruits and vegetables has gained the interest of both the general public and scientific community. Peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) is one of the most consumed fruits worldwide, with low sugar contents and a broad range of nutrients essential to the normal functioning of the body. Six different peach cultivars from the Fundão region in Portugal were evaluated regarding their phenolic composition by LC-DAD and biological activity. The prepared extracts’ capacity to scavenge free-radicals was tested through the stable free radical DPPH• and nitric oxide (•NO). Additionally, antidiabetic potential and protective effects against peroxyl radical (ROO•) induced damage to erythrocytes were also tested. LC-DAD analysis allowed the identification of 17 phenolic compounds, among which 5-O-caffeoylquinic acids and 3-O-caffeoylquinic acids are pointed out as the most abundant. Regarding the antioxidant activity, all cultivars displayed concentration-dependent free-radical scavenging activity against both nitrogen species and DPPH•. In respect to α-glucosidase inhibitory activity, Royal Magister and Royal Glory presented the highest inhibitory activity (IC50 = 11.7 ± 1.4 and 17.1 ± 1.7 μg/mL, respectively), nevertheless all six cultivars presented higher activity than the control acarbose. As for the protective effect of Royal Lu extract on the oxidative damage induced in erythrocytes by ROO•, the results were quite promising showing inhibition IC50 values of 110.0 ± 4.5 μg/mL and 83.8 ± 6.5 μg/mL for hemolysis and hemoglobin oxidation, respectively. The demonstrated activity is of course associated to the peaches’ phenolic profile, rich in phenolic acids and flavonoids with high hydrogen donating capacity. These compounds have great industrial interest for the manufacturing of natural products. The following step would naturally be the extraction and isolation from the plant tissues and large-scale production through biotechnology techniques.

Keywords: Functional food, Antioxidants, Phenolic Compounds, peach

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14 Bioaccessible Phenolics, Phenolic Bioaccessibilities and Antioxidant Activities of Cookies Supplemented with Pumpkin Flour

Authors: Emine Aydin, Duygu Gocmen


In this study, pumpkin flours (PFs) were used to replace wheat flour in cookie formulation at three different levels (10%, 20% and 30% w/w). For this purpose PFs produced by two different applications (with or without metabisulfite pre-treatment) and then dried in freeze dryer. Control sample included no PFs. The total phenolic contents of the cookies supplemented with PFs were higher than that of control and gradually increased in total phenolic contents of cookies with increasing PF supplementation levels. Phenolic content makes also significant contribution on nutritional excellence of the developed cookies. Pre-treatment with metabisulfite (MS) had a positive effect on free, bound and total phenolics of cookies which are supplemented with various levels of MS-PF. This is due to a protective effect of metabisulfite pretreatment for phenolic compounds in the pumpkin flour. Phenolic antioxidants may act and absorb in a different way in humans and thus their antioxidant and health effects will be changed accordingly. In the present study phenolics’ bioavailability of cookies was investigated in order to assess PF as sources of accessible phenolics. The content of bioaccessible phenolics and phenolic bioaccessibility of cookies supplemented with PFs had higher than those of control sample. Cookies enriched with 30% MS-PF had the highest bioaccessible phenolics (597.86 mg GAE 100g-1) and phenolic bioaccessibility (41.71%). MS application in PF production caused a significant increase in phenolic bioaccessibility of cookies. According to all assay (ABTS, CUPRAC, FRAP and DPPH), antioxidant activities of cookies with PFs higher than that of control cookie. It was also observed that the cookies supplemented with MS-PF had significantly higher antioxidant activities than those of cookies including PF. In presented study, antioxidative bioaccessibilities of cookies were also determined. The cookies with PFs had significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher antioxidative bioaccessibilities than control ones. Increasing PFs levels enhanced antioxidative bioaccessibilities of cookies. As a result, PFs addition improved the nutritional and functional properties of cookie by causing increase in antioxidant activity, total phenolic content, bioaccessible phenolics and phenolic bioaccessibilities.

Keywords: Phenolic Compounds, antioxidant activity, freeze drying, pumpkin, dietary fiber, cookie

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