Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15

Phase Transition Related Abstracts

15 Preparation and Evaluation of Poly(Ethylene Glycol)-B-Poly(Caprolactone) Diblock Copolymers with Zwitterionic End Group for Thermo-Responsive Properties

Authors: Bo Keun Lee, Doo Yeon Kwon, Ji Hoon Park, Gun Hee Lee, Ji Hye Baek, Heung Jae Chun, Young Joo Koh, Moon Suk Kim


Thermo-responsive materials are viscoelastic materials that undergo a sol-to-gel phase transition at a specific temperature and many materials have been developed. MPEG-b-PCL (MPC) as a thermo-responsive material contained hydrophilic and hydrophobic segments and it formed an ordered crystalline structure of hydrophobic PCL segments in aqueous solutions. The ordered crystalline structure packed tightly or aggregated and finally induced an aggregated gel through intra- and inter-molecular interactions as a function of temperature. Thus, we introduced anionic and cationic groups into the end positions of the PCL chain to alter the hydrophobicity of the PCL segment. Introducing anionic and cationic groups into the PCL end position altered their solubility by changing the crystallinity and hydrophobicity of the PCL block domains. These results indicated that the properties of the end group in the hydrophobic PCL blockand the balance between hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity affect thermo-responsivebehavior of the copolymers in aqueous solutions. Thus, we concluded that determinant of the temperature-dependent thermo-responsive behavior of MPC depend on the ionic end group in the PCL block. So, we introduced zwitterionic end groups to investigate the thermo-responsive behavior of MPC. Methoxypoly(ethylene oxide) and ε-caprolactone (CL) were randomly copolymerized that introduced varying hydrophobic PCL lengths and an MPC featuring a zwitterionic sulfobetaine (MPC-ZW) at the chain end of the PCL segment. The MPC and MPC-ZW copolymers were obtained formed sol-state at room temperature when prepared as 20-wt% aqueous solutions. The solubility of MPC decreased when the PCL block was increased from molecular weight. The solubilization time of MPC-2.4k was around 20 min and MPC-2.8k, MPC-3.0k increased to 30 min and 1 h, respectively. MPC-3.6k was not solubilized. In case of MPC-ZW 3.6k, However, the zwitterion-modified MPC copolymers were solubilized in 3–5 min. This result indicates that the zwitterionic end group of the MPC-ZW diblock copolymer increased the aqueous solubility of the diblock copolymer even when the length of the hydrophobic PCL segment was increased. MPC and MPC-ZW diblock copolymers that featuring zwitterionic end groups were synthesized successfully. The sol-to-gel phase-transition was formed that specific temperature depend on the length of the PCL hydrophobic segments introduced and on the zwitterion groups attached to the MPC chain end. This result indicated that the zwitterionic end groups reduced the hydrophobicity in the PCL block and changed the solubilization. The MPC-ZW diblock copolymer can be utilized as a potential injectable drug and cell carrier.

Keywords: Crystallization, Phase Transition, thermo-responsive material, zwitterionic, hydrophobic

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14 Opto-Electronic Properties and Structural Phase Transition of Filled-Tetrahedral NaZnAs

Authors: R. Khenata, T. Djied, R. Ahmed, H. Baltache, S. Bin-Omran, A. Bouhemadou


We predict structural, phase transition as well as opto-electronic properties of the filled-tetrahedral (Nowotny-Juza) NaZnAs compound in this study. Calculations are carried out by employing the full potential (FP) linearized augmented plane wave (LAPW) plus local orbitals (lo) scheme developed within the structure of density functional theory (DFT). Exchange-correlation energy/potential (EXC/VXC) functional is treated using Perdew-Burke and Ernzerhof (PBE) parameterization for generalized gradient approximation (GGA). In addition to Trans-Blaha (TB) modified Becke-Johnson (mBJ) potential is incorporated to get better precision for optoelectronic properties. Geometry optimization is carried out to obtain the reliable results of the total energy as well as other structural parameters for each phase of NaZnAs compound. Order of the structural transitions as a function of pressure is found as: Cu2Sb type → β → α phase in our study. Our calculated electronic energy band structures for all structural phases at the level of PBE-GGA as well as mBJ potential point out; NaZnAs compound is a direct (Γ–Γ) band gap semiconductor material. However, as compared to PBE-GGA, mBJ potential approximation reproduces higher values of fundamental band gap. Regarding the optical properties, calculations of real and imaginary parts of the dielectric function, refractive index, reflectivity coefficient, absorption coefficient and energy loss-function spectra are performed over a photon energy ranging from 0.0 to 30.0 eV by polarizing incident radiation in parallel to both [100] and [001] crystalline directions.

Keywords: Optical Properties, Phase Transition, structural properties, NaZnAs, FP-LAPW+lo, electronic band-structure

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13 Enhancement of Mechanical and Biological Properties in Wollastonite Bioceramics by MgSiO3 Addition

Authors: Jae Hong Kim, Sang Cheol Um, Jong Kook Lee


Strong and biocompatible wollastonite (CaSiO3) was fabricated by pressureless sintering at temperature range of 1250~ 1300 ℃ and phase transition of to β-wollastonite with an addition of MgSiO3. Starting pure α-wollastonite powder were prepared by solid state reaction, and MgSiO3 powder was added to α-wollastonite powder to induce the phase transition α to β-wollastonite over 1250℃. Sintered wollastonite samples at 1250℃ with 5 and 10 wt% MgSiO3 were α+β phase and β phase respectively, and showed higher densification rate than that of α or β-wollastonite, which are almost the same as the theoretical density. Hardness and Young’s modulus of sintered wollastonite were dependent on the apparent density and the amount of β-wollastonite. Young’s modulus (78GPa) of β-wollastonite added 10 wt% MgSiO3 was almost double time of sintered α-wollastonite. From the in-vitro test, biphasic (α+β) wollastonite with 5wt% MgSiO3 addition had good bioactivity in simulated body fluid solution.

Keywords: Phase Transition, β-wollastonite, high density, MgSiO3

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12 Synthesis, Structural and Vibrational Studies of a New Lacunar Apatite: LIPB2CA2(PO4)3

Authors: A. Chari, A. El Bouari, B. Orayech, A. Faik, J. M. Igartua


The phosphate is a natural resource of great importance in Morocco. In order to exploit this wealth, synthesis and studies of new a material based phosphate, were carried out. The apatite structure present o lot of characteristics, One of the main characteristics is to allow large and various substitutions for both cations and anions. Beside their biological importance in hard tissue (bone and teeth), apatites have been extensively studied for their potential use as fluorescent lamp phosphors or laser host materials.The apatite have interesting possible application fields such as in medicine as materials of bone filling, coating of dental implants, agro chemicals as artificial fertilizers. The LiPb2Ca2(PO4)3 was synthesized by the solid-state method, its crystal structure was investigated by Rietveld analysis using XRPD data. This material crystallizes with a structure of lacunar apatite anion deficit. The LiPb2Ca2(PO4)3 is hexagonal apatite at room temperature, adopting the space group P63/m (ITA No. 176), Rietveld refinements showed that the site 4f is shared by three cations Ca, Pb and Li. While the 6h is occupied by the Pb and Li cations. The structure can be described as built up from the PO4 tetrahedra and the sixfold coordination cavities, which delimit hexagonal tunnels along the c-axis direction. These tunnels are linked by the cations occupying the 4 f sites. Raman and Infrared spectroscopy analyses were carried out. The observed frequencies were assigned and discussed on the basis of unit-cell group analysis and by comparison to other apatite-type materials.

Keywords: Crystal structure, Phase Transition, apatite, Lacunar, Rietveldmethod, LiPb2Ca2(PO4)3

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11 Pressure Induced Phase Transition of Semiconducting Alloy TlxGa1-xAs

Authors: Madhu Sarwan, Ritu Dubey, Sadhna Singh


We have investigated the structural phase transition from Zinc-Blende (ZB) to Rock-Salt (RS) structure of TlxGa1-xAs by using Interaction Potential Model (IPM). The IPM consists of Coulomb interaction, Three-Body Interaction (TBI), Van Der Wall (vdW) interaction and overlap repulsive short range interaction. The structural phase transition has been computed by using the vegard’s law. The volume collapse is also computed for this alloy. We have also investigated the second order elastic constants with composition for the alloy TlxGa1-xAs.

Keywords: Semiconductors, Phase Transition, III-V alloy, elastic moduli

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10 Theoretical Study of the Structural and Elastic Properties of Semiconducting Rare Earth Chalcogenide Sm1-XEuXS under Pressure

Authors: R. Dubey, M. Sarwan, S. Singh


We have investigated the phase transition pressure and associated volume collapse in Sm1– X EuX S alloy (0≤x≤1) which shows transition from discontinuous to continuous as x is reduced. The calculated results from present approach are in good agreement with experimental data available for the end point members (x=0 and x=1). The results for the alloy counter parts are also in fair agreement with experimental data generated from the vegard’s law. An improved interaction potential model has been developed which includes coulomb, three body interaction, polarizability effect and overlap repulsive interaction operative up to second neighbor ions. It is found that the inclusion of polarizability effect has improved our results.

Keywords: Phase Transition, elastic constants, high pressure, rare earth compound

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9 Pressure Induced Phase Transition and Elastic Properties of Cerium Mononitride

Authors: Namrata Yaduvanshi, Shilpa Kapoor, Pooja Pawar, Sadhna Singh


In the present paper, we have investigated the high-pressure structural phase transition and elastic properties of cerium mononitride. We studied theoretically the structural properties of this compound (CeN) by using the Improved Interaction Potential Model (IIPM) approach. This compound exhibits first order crystallographic phase transition from NaCl (B1) to tetragonal (BCT) phase at 37 GPa. The phase transition pressures and associated volume collapse obtained from present potential model (IIPM) show a good agreement with available theoretical data.

Keywords: Phase Transition, elastic constants, volume collapse, three body interaction

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8 Analysis of Structural Phase Stability of Strontium Sulphide under High Pressure

Authors: Shilpa Kapoor, Namrata Yaduvanshi, Pooja Pawar, Sadhna Singh


A Three Body Interaction Potential (TBIP) model is developed to study the high pressure phase transition of SrS having NaCl (B1) structure at room temperature. This model includes the long range Columbic, three body interaction forces, short range overlap forces operative up to next nearest neighbors and zero point energy effects. We have investigated the phase transition with pressure, volume collapse and second order elastic constants and found results well suited with available experimental data.

Keywords: Phase Transition, second order elastic constants, three body interaction forces, volume collapses

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7 A Simple Chemical Precipitation Method of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Using Polyvinyl Pyrrolidone as a Capping Agent and Their Characterization

Authors: V. P. Muhamed Shajudheen, K. Viswanathan, K. Anitha Rani, A. Uma Maheswari, S. Saravana Kumar


In this paper, a simple chemical precipitation route for the preparation of titanium dioxide nanoparticles, synthesized by using titanium tetra isopropoxide as a precursor and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) as a capping agent, is reported. The Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) of the samples were recorded and the phase transformation temperature of titanium hydroxide, Ti(OH)4 to titanium oxide, TiO2 was investigated. The as-prepared Ti(OH)4 precipitate was annealed at 800°C to obtain TiO2 nanoparticles. The thermal, structural, morphological and textural characterizations of the TiO2 nanoparticle samples were carried out by different techniques such as DSC-TGA, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy (FTIR), Micro Raman spectroscopy, UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL) and Field Effect Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) techniques. The as-prepared precipitate was characterized using DSC-TGA and confirmed the mass loss of around 30%. XRD results exhibited no diffraction peaks attributable to anatase phase, for the reaction products, after the solvent removal. The results indicate that the product is purely rutile. The vibrational frequencies of two main absorption bands of prepared samples are discussed from the results of the FTIR analysis. The formation of nanosphere of diameter of the order of 10 nm, has been confirmed by FESEM. The optical band gap was found by using UV-Visible spectrum. From photoluminescence spectra, a strong emission was observed. The obtained results suggest that this method provides a simple, efficient and versatile technique for preparing TiO2 nanoparticles and it has the potential to be applied to other systems for photocatalytic activity.

Keywords: Phase Transition, TiO2 nanoparticles, chemical precipitation route, Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy (FTIR), micro-Raman spectroscopy, UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Photoluminescence Spectroscopy (PL) and Field Effect Scanning electron microscopy (FESEM)

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6 Dynamic Mechanical Analysis of Supercooled Water in Nanoporous Confinement and Biological Systems

Authors: Viktor Soprunyuk, Wilfried Schranz, Patrick Huber


In the present work, we show that Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) with a measurement frequency range f= 0.2 - 100 Hz is a rather powerful technique for the study of phase transitions (freezing and melting) and glass transitions of water in geometrical confinement. Inserting water into nanoporous host matrices, like e.g. Gelsil (size of pores 2.6 nm and 5 nm) or Vycor (size of pores 10 nm) allows one to study size effects occurring at the nanoscale conveniently in macroscopic bulk samples. One obtains valuable insight concerning confinement induced changes of the dynamics by measuring the temperature and frequency dependencies of the complex Young's modulus Y* for various pore sizes. Solid-liquid transitions or glass-liquid transitions show up in a softening or the real part Y' of the complex Young's modulus, yet with completely different frequency dependencies. Analysing the frequency dependent imaginary part of the Young´s modulus in the glass transition regions for different pore sizes we find a clear-cut 1/d-dependence of the calculated glass transition temperatures which extrapolates to Tg(1/d=0)=136 K, in agreement with the traditional value of water. The results indicate that the main role of the pore diameter is the relative amount of water molecules that are near an interface within a length scale of the order of the dynamic correlation length x. Thus we argue that the observed strong pore size dependence of Tg is an interfacial effect, rather than a finite size effect. We obtained similar signatures of Y* near glass transitions in different biological objects (fruits, vegetables, and bread). The values of the activation energies for these biological materials in the region of glass transition are quite similar to the values of the activation energies of supercooled water in the nanoporous confinement in this region. The present work was supported by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF, project Nr. P 28672 – N36).

Keywords: Biological Systems, Glasses, nanoporous materials, Liquids, Phase Transition, amorphous systems

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5 Supramolecular Approach towards Novel Applications: Battery, Band Gap and Gas Separation

Authors: Sudhakara Naidu Neppalli, Tejas S. Bhosale


It is well known that the block copolymer (BCP) can form a complex molecule, through non-covalent bonds such as hydrogen bond, ionic bond and co-ordination bond, with low molecular weight compound as well as with macromolecules, which provide vast applications, includes the alteration of morphology and properties of polymers. Hence we covered the research that, the importance of non-covalent bonds in increasing the non-favourable segmental interactions of the blocks was well examined by attaching and detaching the bonds between the BCP and additive. We also monitored the phase transition of block copolymer and effective interaction parameter (χeff) for Li-doped polymers using small angle x-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy. The effective interaction parameter (χeff) between two block components was evaluated using Leibler theory based on the incompressible random phase approximation (RPA) for ionized BCP in a disordered state. Furthermore, conductivity experiments demonstrate that the ionic conductivity in the samples quenched from the different structures is morphology-independent, while it increases with increasing ion salt concentration. Morphological transitions, interaction parameter, and thermal stability also examined in quarternized block copolymer. D-spacing was used to estimate effective interaction parameter (χeff) of block components in weak and strong segregation regimes of ordered phase. Metal-containing polymer has been the topic of great attention in recent years due to their wide range of potential application. Similarly, metal- ligand complex is used as a supramolecular linker between the polymers giving rise to a ‘Metallo-Supramolecule assembly. More precisely, functionalized polymer end capped with 2, 2’:6’, 2”- terpyridine ligand can be selectively complexed with wide range of transition metal ions and then subsequently attached to other terpyridine terminated polymer block. In compare to other supramolecular assembly, BCP involved metallo-supramolecule assembly offers vast applications such as optical activity, electrical conductivity, luminescence and photo refractivity.

Keywords: Phase Transition, Conductivity, block copolymer, interaction parameter, band gap

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4 Energy Conservation and H-Theorem for the Enskog-Vlasov Equation

Authors: Eugene Benilov, Mikhail Benilov


The Enskog-Vlasov (EV) equation is a widely used semi-phenomenological model of gas/liquid phase transitions. We show that it does not generally conserve energy, although there exists a restriction on its coefficients for which it does. Furthermore, if an energy-preserving version of the EV equation satisfies an H-theorem as well, it can be used to rigorously derive the so-called Maxwell construction which determines the parameters of liquid-vapor equilibria. Finally, we show that the EV model provides an accurate description of the thermodynamics of noble fluids, and there exists a version simple enough for use in applications.

Keywords: Phase Transition, Enskog collision integral, hard spheres, kinetic equation

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3 Metaphor Institutionalization as Phase Transition: Case Studies of Chinese Metaphors

Authors: Xuri Tang, Ting Pan


Metaphor institutionalization refers to the propagation of a metaphor that leads to its acceptance in speech community as a norm of the language. Such knowledge is important to both theoretical studies of metaphor and practical disciplines such as lexicography and language generation. This paper reports an empirical study of metaphor institutionalization of 14 Chinese metaphors. It first explores the pattern of metaphor institutionalization by fitting the logistic function (or S-shaped curve) to time series data of conventionality of the metaphors that are automatically obtained from a large-scale diachronic Chinese corpus. Then it reports a questionnaire-based survey on the propagation scale of each metaphor, which is measured by the average number of subjects that can easily understand the metaphorical expressions. The study provides two pieces of evidence supporting the hypothesis that metaphor institutionalization is a phrase transition: (1) the pattern of metaphor institutionalization is an S-shaped curve and (2) institutionalized metaphors generally do not propagate to the whole community but remain in equilibrium state. This conclusion helps distinguish metaphor institutionalization from topicalization and other types of semantic change.

Keywords: Phase Transition, metaphor institutionalization, propagation scale, s-shaped curve

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2 Morphotropic Phase Boundary in Ferromagnets: Unusual Magnetoelastic Behavior In Tb₁₋ₓNdₓCo₂

Authors: Adil Murtaza, Muhammad Tahir Khan, Awais Ghani, Chao Zhou, Sen Yang, Xiaoping Song


The morphotropic phase boundary (MPB); a boundary between two different crystallographic symmetries in the composition–temperature phase diagram has been widely studied in ferroelectrics and recently has drawn interest in ferromagnets for obtaining enhanced large field-induced strain. At MPB, the system gets a compressed free energy state, which allows the polarization to freely rotate and hence results in a high magnetoelastic response (e.g., high magnetization, low coercivity, and large magnetostriction). Based on the same mechanism, we designed MPB in a ferromagnetic Tb₁₋ₓNdₓCo₂ system. The temperature-dependent magnetization curves showed spin reorientation (SR); which can be explained by a two-sublattice model. Contrary to previously reported MPB involved ferromagnetic systems, the MPB composition of Tb₀.₃₅Nd₀.₆₅Co₂ exhibits a low saturation magnetization (MS), indicating a compensation of the Tb and Nd magnetic moments at MPB. The coercive field (HC) under a low magnetic field and first anisotropy constant (K₁) shows a minimum value at MPB composition of x=0.65. A detailed spin configuration diagram is provided for the Tb₁₋ₓNdₓCo₂ around the composition for the anisotropy compensation; this can guide the development of novel magnetostrictive materials. The anisotropic magnetostriction (λS) first decreased until x=0.8 and then continuously increased in the negative direction with further increase of Nd concentration. In addition, the large ratio between magnetostriction and the absolute values of the first anisotropy constant (λS/K₁) appears at MPB, indicating that Tb₀.₃₅Nd₀.₆₅Co₂ has good magnetostrictive properties. Present work shows an anomalous type of MPB in ferromagnetic materials, revealing that MPB can also lead to a weakening of magnetoelastic behavior as shown in the ferromagnetic Tb₁₋ₓNdₓCo₂ system. Our work shows the universal presence of MPB in ferromagnetic materials and suggests the differences between different ferromagnetic MPB systems that are important for substantial improvement of magnetic and magnetostrictive properties. Based on the results of this study, similar MPB effects might be achieved in other ferroic systems that can be used for technological applications. The finding of magnetic MPB in the ferromagnetic system leads to some important significances. First, it provides a better understanding of the fundamental concept of spin reorientation transitions (SRT) like ferro-ferro transitions are not only reorientation of magnetization but also crystal symmetry change upon magnetic ordering. Second, the flattened free energy corresponding to a low energy barrier for magnetization rotation and enhanced magnetoelastic response near MPB. Third, to attain large magnetostriction with MPB approach two terminal compounds have different easy magnetization directions below Curie temperature Tc in order to accomplish the weakening of magnetization anisotropy at MPB (as in ferroelectrics), thus easing the magnetic domain switching and the lattice distortion difference between two terminal compounds should be large enough, e.g., lattice distortion of R symmetry ˃˃ lattice distortion of T symmetry). So that the MPB composition agrees to a nearly isotropic state along with large ‘net’ lattice distortion, which is revealed in a higher value of magnetostriction.

Keywords: magnetization, Magnetostriction, Phase Transition, morphotropic phase boundary (MPB)

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1 Natural Emergence of a Core Structure in Networks via Clique Percolation

Authors: A. Melka, N. Slater, A. Mualem, Y. Louzoun


Networks are often presented as containing a “core” and a “periphery.” The existence of a core suggests that some vertices are central and form the skeleton of the network, to which all other vertices are connected. An alternative view of graphs is through communities. Multiple measures have been proposed for dense communities in graphs, the most classical being k-cliques, k-cores, and k-plexes, all presenting groups of tightly connected vertices. We here show that the edge number thresholds for such communities to emerge and for their percolation into a single dense connectivity component are very close, in all networks studied. These percolating cliques produce a natural core and periphery structure. This result is generic and is tested in configuration models and in real-world networks. This is also true for k-cores and k-plexes. Thus, the emergence of this connectedness among communities leading to a core is not dependent on some specific mechanism but a direct result of the natural percolation of dense communities.

Keywords: Phase Transition, Cliques, percolation, core structure

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