Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

Phase Change Materials Related Abstracts

12 Temperature Control and Thermal Management of Cylindrical Lithium Batteries Using Phase Change Materials (PCMs)

Authors: S. M. Sadrameli, Y. Azizi

Abstract:

Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) have shown to be one of the most reliable energy storage systems for electric cars in the recent years. Ambient temperature has a significant impact on the performance, lifetime, safety and cost of such batteries. Increasing the temperature degrade the lithium batteries more quickly while working at low-temperature environment results reducing the power and energy capability of the system. A thermal management system has been designed and setup in laboratory scale for controlling the temperature at optimum conditions using PEG-1000 with the melting point in the range of 33-40 oC as a phase change material. Aluminum plates have been installed in the PCM to increase the thermal conductivity and increasing the heat transfer rate. Experimental tests have been run at different discharge rates and ambient temperatures to investigate the effects of temperature on the efficiency of the batteries. The comparison has been made between the system of 6 batteries with and without PCM and the results show that PCM with aluminum plates decrease the surface temperature of the batteries that would result better performance and longer lifetime of the batteries.

Keywords: Thermal Management, Lithium-Ion Batteries, Phase Change Materials, temperature control

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11 Optimum Switch Temperature for Phase Change Materials in Buildings

Authors: El Hadi Bouguerra, Nouredine Retiel

Abstract:

To avoid or at least to attenuate the global warming, it is essential to reduce the energy consumption of the buildings where the biggest potential of savings exists. The impending danger can come from the increase in the needs of air conditioning not only because of the climate warming but also the fast equipping of emerging or developing countries. Passive solutions exist and others are in promising development and therefore, must be applied wherever it is possible. Even if they do not always avoid the resort to an active cooling (mechanical), they allow lowering the load at an acceptable level which can be possibly taken in relay by the renewable energies. These solutions have the advantage to be relatively less expensive and especially adaptable to the existing housing. However, it is the internal convection resistance that controls the heat exchange between the phase change materials (PCM) and the indoor temperature because of the very low heat coefficients of natural convection. Therefore, it is reasonable to link the switch temperature Tm to the temperature of the substrate (walls and ceiling) because conduction heat transfer is dominant. In this case, external conditions (heat sources such as solar irradiation and ambient temperatures) and conductivities of envelope constituents are the most important factors. The walls are not at the same temperature year round; therefore, it is difficult to set a unique switch temperature for the whole season, making the average values a key parameter. With this work, the authors’ aim is to see which parameters influence the optimum switch temperature of a PCM and additionally, if a better selection of PCMs relating to their optimum temperature can enhance their energetic performances.

Keywords: Energy Conservation, Phase Change Materials, PCM, low energy building

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10 Numerical Investigation of Thermal Energy Storage System with Phase Change Materials

Authors: Mayank Srivastava, Mrityunjay Kumar Sinha

Abstract:

The position of interface and temperature variation of phase change thermal energy storage system under constant heat injection and radiative heat injection is analysed during charging/discharging process by Heat balance integral method. The charging/discharging process is solely governed by conduction. Phase change material is kept inside a rectangular cavity. Time-dependent fixed temperature and radiative boundary condition applied on one wall, all other walls are thermally insulated. Interface location and temperature variation are analysed by using MATLAB.

Keywords: Phase Change Materials, conduction, melting/solidification, Stefan’s number

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9 Thermal and Flammability Properties of Paraffin/Nanoclay Composite Phase Change Materials Incorporated in Building Materials for Thermal Energy Storage

Authors: Awni H. Alkhazaleh, Baljinder K. Kandola

Abstract:

In this study, a form-stable composite Paraffin/Nanoclay (PA-NC) has been prepared by absorbing PA into porous particles of NC to be used for low-temperature latent heat thermal energy storage. The leakage test shows that the maximum mass fraction of PA that can be incorporated in NC without leakage is 60 wt.%. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) has been used to measure the thermal properties of the PA and PA-NC both before and after incorporation in plasterboard (PL). The mechanical performance of the samples has been evaluated in flexural mode. The thermal energy storage performance has been studied using a small test chamber (100 mm × 100 mm × 100 mm) made from 10 mm thick PL and measuring the temperatures using thermocouples. The flammability of the PL+PL-NC has been discussed using a cone calorimeter. The results indicate that the form composite PA has good potential for use as thermal energy storage materials in building applications.

Keywords: Building materials, Thermal Energy Storage, Phase Change Materials, flammability

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8 Poly(Ethylene Glycol)-Silicone Containing Phase Change Polymer for Thermal Energy Storage

Authors: Swati Sundararajan, Asit B. Samui, Prashant S. Kulkarni

Abstract:

The global energy crisis has led to extensive research on alternative sources of energy. The gap between energy supply and demand can be met by thermal energy storage techniques, of which latent heat storage is most effective in the form of phase change materials (PCMs). Phase change materials utilize latent heat absorbed or released over a narrow temperature range of the material undergoing phase transformation, to store energy. The latent heat can be utilized for heating or cooling purposes. It can also be used for converting to electricity. All these actions amount to minimizing the load on electricity demand. These materials retain this property over repeated number of cycles. Different PCMs differ in the phase change temperature and the heat storage capacities. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) was cross-linked to hydroxyl-terminated poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) in the presence of cross-linker, tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and catalyst, dibutyltin dilaurate. Four different ratios of PEG and PDMS were reacted together, and the composition with the lowest PEG concentration resulted in the formation of a flexible solid-solid phase change membrane. The other compositions are obtained in powder form. The enthalpy values of the prepared PCMs were studied by using differential scanning calorimetry and the crystallization properties were analyzed by using X-ray diffraction and polarized optical microscopy. The incorporation of silicone moiety was expected to reduce the hydrophilic character of PEG, which was evaluated by measurement of contact angle. The membrane forming ability of this crosslinked polymer can be extended to several smart packaging, building and textile applications. The detailed synthesis, characterization and performance evaluation of the crosslinked polymer blend will be incorporated in the presentation.

Keywords: Thermal Energy Storage, Phase Change Materials, poly(ethylene glycol), poly(dimethyl siloxane)

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7 Phase Changing Dicationic Polymeric Ionic Liquid with CO2 Capture Abilities

Authors: Swati Sundararajan, Asit B. Samui, Prashant S. Kulkarni

Abstract:

Polymeric ionic liquids combine the properties of ionic liquids and polymers into a single material which has gained massive interest in the recent years. These ionic liquids offer several advantages such as high phase change enthalpy, wide temperature range, chemical and thermal stability, non-volatility and the ability to make them task-specific. Separation of CO2 is an area of critical importance due to the concerns over greenhouse gasses leading to global warming. Thermal energy storage materials, also known as phase change materials absorb latent heat during fusion process and release the absorbed energy to the surrounding environment during crystallization. These materials retain this property over a number of cycles and therefore, are useful for bridging the gap between energy requirement and use. In an effort to develop materials, which will help in minimizing the growing energy demand and environmental concerns, a series of dicationic poly(ethylene glycol) based polymeric ionic liquids were synthesized. One part of an acrylate of poly(ethylene glycol) was reacted with imidazolium quarternizing agent and the second part was reacted with triazolium quarternizing agent. These two different monomers were then copolymerized to prepare dicationic polymeric ionic liquid. These materials were characterized for solid-liquid phase transition and the enthalpy by using differential scanning calorimetry. The CO2 capture studies were performed on a fabricated setup with varying pressure range from 1-20 atm. The findings regarding the prepared materials, having potential dual applications in the fields of thermal energy storage and CO2 capture, will be discussed in the presentation.

Keywords: CO2 Capture, Thermal Energy Storage, Phase Change Materials, polyethylene glycol, polymeric ionic liquids

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6 High Power Thermal Energy Storage for Industrial Applications Using Phase Change Material Slurry

Authors: Anastasia Stamatiou, Ludger J. Fischer, Markus Odermatt, Dominic Leemann, Joerg Worlitschek

Abstract:

The successful integration of thermal energy storage in industrial processes is expected to play an important role in the energy turnaround. Latent heat storage technologies can offer more compact thermal storage at a constant temperature level, in comparison to conventional, sensible thermal storage technologies. The focus of this study is the development of latent heat storage solutions based on the Phase Change Slurry (PCS) concept. Such systems promise higher energy densities both as refrigerants and as storage media while presenting better heat transfer characteristics than conventional latent heat storage technologies. This technology is expected to deliver high thermal power and high-temperature stability which makes it ideal for storage of process heat. An evaluation of important batch processes in industrial applications set the focus on materials with a melting point in the range of 55 - 90 °C. Aluminium ammonium sulfate dodecahydrate (NH₄Al(SO₄)₂·12H₂O) was chosen as the first interesting PCM for the next steps of this study. The ability of this material to produce slurries at the relevant temperatures was demonstrated in a continuous mode in a laboratory test-rig. Critical operational and design parameters were identified.

Keywords: Phase Change Materials, Thermal Properties, esters, latent heat storage

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5 A Review on Application of Phase Change Materials in Textiles Finishing

Authors: Mazyar Ahrari, Ramin Khajavi, Mehdi Kamali Dolatabadi, Tayebeh Toliyat, Abosaeed Rashidi

Abstract:

Fabric as the first and most common layer that is in permanent contact with human skin is a very good interface to provide coverage, as well as heat and cold insulation. Phase change materials (PCMs) are organic and inorganic compounds which have the capability of absorbing and releasing noticeable amounts of latent heat during phase transitions between solid and liquid phases at a low temperature range. PCMs come across phase changes (liquid-solid and solid-liquid transitions) during absorbing and releasing thermal heat; so, in order to use them for a long time, they should have been encapsulated in polymeric shells, so-called microcapsules. Microencapsulation and nanoencapsulation methods have been developed in order to reduce the reactivity of a PCM with outside environment, promoting the ease of handling, decreasing the diffusion and evaporation rates. Methods of incorporation of PCMs in textiles such as electrospinning and determining thermal properties had been summarized. Paraffin waxes catch a lot of attention due to their high thermal storage density, repeatability of phase change, thermal stability, small volume change during phase transition, chemical stability, non-toxicity, non-flammability, non-corrosive and low cost and they seem to play a key role in confronting with climate change and global warming. In this article, we aimed to review the researches concentrating on the characteristics of PCMs and new materials and methods of microencapsulation.

Keywords: Thermal Energy Storage, Phase Change Materials, thermoregulation, microencapsulation, nanoencapsulation

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4 Analyzing the Heat Transfer Mechanism in a Tube Bundle Air-PCM Heat Exchanger: An Empirical Study

Authors: Denis Bruneau, Alain Sommier, Maria De Los Angeles Ortega, Patrick Sebastian, Jean-Pierre Nadeau, Saed Raji

Abstract:

Phase change materials (PCM) present attractive features that made them a passive solution for thermal comfort assessment in buildings during summer time. They show a large storage capacity per volume unit in comparison with other structural materials like bricks or concrete. If their use is matched with the peak load periods, they can contribute to the reduction of the primary energy consumption related to cooling applications. Despite these promising characteristics, they present some drawbacks. Commercial PCMs, as paraffines, offer a low thermal conductivity affecting the overall performance of the system. In some cases, the material can be enhanced, adding other elements that improve the conductivity, but in general, a design of the unit that optimizes the thermal performance is sought. The material selection is the departing point during the designing stage, and it does not leave plenty of room for optimization. The PCM melting point depends highly on the atmospheric characteristics of the building location. The selection must relay within the maximum, and the minimum temperature reached during the day. The geometry of the PCM container and the geometrical distribution of these containers are designing parameters, as well. They significantly affect the heat transfer, and therefore its phenomena must be studied exhaustively. During its lifetime, an air-PCM unit in a building must cool down the place during daytime, while the melting of the PCM occurs. At night, the PCM must be regenerated to be ready for next uses. When the system is not in service, a minimal amount of thermal exchanges is desired. The aforementioned functions result in the presence of sensible and latent heat storage and release. Hence different types of mechanisms drive the heat transfer phenomena. An experimental test was designed to study the heat transfer phenomena occurring in a circular tube bundle air-PCM exchanger. An in-line arrangement was selected as the geometrical distribution of the containers. With the aim of visual identification, the containers material and a section of the test bench were transparent. Some instruments were placed on the bench for measuring temperature and velocity. The PCM properties were also available through differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) tests. An evolution of the temperature during both cycles, melting and solidification were obtained. The results showed some phenomena at a local level (tubes) and on an overall level (exchanger). Conduction and convection appeared as the main heat transfer mechanisms. From these results, two approaches to analyze the heat transfer were followed. The first approach described the phenomena in a single tube as a series of thermal resistances, where a pure conduction controlled heat transfer was assumed in the PCM. For the second approach, the temperature measurements were used to find some significant dimensionless numbers and parameters as Stefan, Fourier and Rayleigh numbers, and the melting fraction. These approaches allowed us to identify the heat transfer phenomena during both cycles. The presence of natural convection during melting might have been stated from the influence of the Rayleigh number on the correlations obtained.

Keywords: Convection, Phase Change Materials, conduction, air-PCM exchangers

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3 Constructal Enhancement of Fins Design Integrated to Phase Change Materials

Authors: Varun Joshi, Manish K. Rathod

Abstract:

The latent heat thermal energy storage system is a thrust area of research due to exuberant thermal energy storage potential. The thermal performance of PCM is significantly augmented by installation of the high thermal conductivity fins. The objective of the present study is to obtain optimum size and location of the fins to enhance diffusion heat transfer without altering overall melting time. Hence, the constructal theory is employed to eliminate, resize, and re-position the fins. A numerical code based on conjugate heat transfer coupled enthalpy porosity approached is developed to solve Navier-Stoke and energy equation.The numerical results show that the constructal fin design has enhanced the thermal performance along with the increase in the overall volume of PCM when compared to conventional. The overall volume of PCM is found to be increased by half of total of volume of fins. The elimination and repositioning the fins at high temperature gradient from low temperature gradient is found to be vital.

Keywords: fins, Phase Change Materials, constructal theory, enthalpy porosity approach

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2 The Design and Implementation of a Calorimeter for Evaluation of the Thermal Performance of Materials: The Case of Phase Change Materials

Authors: Zahra Hamedani, Ebrahim Solgi, Henry Skates, Behrouz Mohammad Kari, Ruwan Fernando

Abstract:

The use of thermal energy storage (TES) as part of a passive design strategy can reduce a building’s energy demand. TES materials do this by increasing the lag between energy consumption and energy supply by absorbing, storing and releasing energy in a controlled manner. The increase of lightweight construction in the building industry has made it harder to utilize thermal mass. Consequently, Phase Change Materials (PCMs) are a promising alternative as they can be manufactured in thin layers and used with lightweight construction to store latent heat. This research investigates utilizing PCMs, with the first step being measuring their performance under experimental conditions. To do this requires three components. The first is a calorimeter for measuring indoor thermal conditions, the second is a pyranometer for recording the solar conditions: global, diffuse and direct radiation and the third is a data-logger for recording temperature and humidity for the studied period. This paper reports on the design and implementation of an experimental setup used to measure the thermal characteristics of PCMs as part of a wall construction. The experimental model has been simulated with the software EnergyPlus to create a reliable simulation model that warrants further investigation.

Keywords: Phase Change Materials, experimental evaluation, EnergyPlus, night ventilation

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1 Development of Expanded Perlite-Caprylicacid Composite for Temperature Maintainance in Buildings

Authors: Akhila Konala, Jagadeeswara Reddy Vennapusa, Sujay Chattopadhyay

Abstract:

The energy consumption of humankind is growing day by day due to an increase in the population, industrialization and their needs for living. Fossil fuels are the major source of energy to satisfy energy needs, which are non-renewable energy resources. So, there is a need to develop green resources for energy production and storage. Phase change materials (PCMs) derived from plants (green resources) are well known for their capacity to store the thermal energy as latent heat during their phase change from solid to liquid. This property of PCM could be used for storage of thermal energy. In this study, a composite with fatty acid (caprylic acid; M.P 15°C, Enthalpy 179kJ/kg) as a phase change material and expanded perlite as support porous matrix was prepared through direct impregnation method for thermal energy storage applications. The prepared composite was characterized using Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM), Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA), and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. The melting point of the prepared composite was 15.65°C, and the melting enthalpy was 82kJ/kg. The surface nature of the perlite was observed through FESEM. It was observed that there are micro size pores in the perlite surface, which were responsible for the absorption of PCM into perlite. In TGA thermogram, the PCM loss from composite was started at ~90°C. FTIR curves proved there was no chemical interaction between the perlite and caprylic acid. So, the PCM composite prepared in this work could be effective to use in temperature maintenance of buildings.

Keywords: Thermal Energy, Composite, Phase Change Materials, PCM, perlite, caprylic acid

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