Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

phase change material Related Abstracts

14 Numerical Investigation of Thermally Triggered Release Kinetics of Double Emulsion for Drug Delivery Using Phase Change Material

Authors: Yong Ren, Yaping Zhang

Abstract:

A numerical model has been developed to investigate the thermally triggered release kinetics for drug delivery using phase change material as shell of microcapsules. Biocompatible material n-Eicosane is used as demonstration. PCM shell of microcapsule will remain in solid form after the drug is taken, so the drug will be encapsulated by the shell, and will not be released until the target body part of lesion is exposed to external heat source, which will thermally trigger the release kinetics, leading to solid-to-liquid phase change. The findings can lead to better understanding on the key effects influencing the phase change process for drug delivery applications. The facile approach to release drug from core/shell structure of microcapsule can be well integrated with organic solvent free fabrication of microcapsules, using double emulsion as template in microfluidic aqueous two phase system.

Keywords: Microfluidics, phase change material, drug release kinetics, double emulsion

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13 Numerical Study on the Heat Transfer Characteristics of Composite Phase Change Materials

Authors: Liu Lei, Wei Dong, Yang Xiaofeng, Gui Yewei, Du Yanxia, Xiao Guangming

Abstract:

A phase change material (PCM) is a substance which absorbs a large amount of energy when undergoing a change of solid-liquid phase. The good physical and chemical properties of C or SiC foam reveal the possibility of using them as a thermal conductivity enhancer for the PCM. C or SiC foam composite PCM has a high effective conductivity and becomes one of the most interesting thermal storage techniques due to its advantage of simplicity and reliability. The paper developed a numerical method to simulate the heat transfer of SiC and C foam composite PCM, a finite volume technique was used to discretize the heat diffusion equation while the phase change process was modeled using the equivalent specific heat method. The effects of the porosity were investigated based on the numerical method, and the effects of the geometric model of the microstructure on the equivalent thermal conductivity was studies.

Keywords: Heat Transfer, Composite, phase change material, SiC foam

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12 Thermal Characterization of Smart and Large-Scale Building Envelope System in a Subtropical Climate

Authors: Andrey A. Chernousov, Ben Y. B. Chan

Abstract:

The thermal behavior of a large-scale, phase change material (PCM) enhanced building envelope system was studied in regard to the need for pre-fabricated construction in subtropical regions. The proposed large-scale envelope consists of a reinforced aluminum skin, insulation core, phase change material and reinforced gypsum board. The PCM impact on an energy efficiency of an enveloped room was resolved by validation of the Energy Plus numerical scheme and optimization of a smart material location in the core. The PCM location was optimized by a minimization method of a cooling energy demand. It has been shown that there is good agreement between the test and simulation results. The optimal location of the PCM layer in Hong Kong summer conditions has been then recomputed for core thicknesses of 40, 60 and 80 mm. A non-dimensional value of the optimal PCM location was obtained to be same for all the studied cases and the considered external and internal conditions.

Keywords: Energy Efficiency, Thermal Performance, phase change material, PCM optimization

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11 A New Perspective: The Use of Low-Cost Phase Change Material in Building Envelope System

Authors: Andrey A. Chernousov, Ben Y. B. Chan

Abstract:

The use of the low-cost paraffinic phase change material can be rather effective in smart building envelopes in the South China region. Particular attention has to be paid to the PCM optimization as an exploitation conditions and the envelope insulation changes its thermal characteristics. The studied smart building envelope consists of a reinforced aluminum exterior, polymeric insulation foam, phase change material and reinforced interior gypsum board. A prototype sample was tested to validate the numerical scheme using EnergryPlus software. Three scenarios of insulation thermal resistance loss (ΔR/R = 0%, 25%, 50%) were compared with the different PCM thicknesses (tP=0, 1, 2.5, 5 mm). The comparisons were carried out for a west facing enveloped office building (50 storey). PCM optimization was applied to find the maximum efficiency for the different ΔR/R cases. It was found, during the optimization, that the PCM is an important smart component, lowering the peak energy demand up to 2.7 times. The results are not influenced by the insulation aging in terms of ΔR/R during long-term exploitation. In hot and humid climates like Hong Kong, the insulation core of the smart systems is recommended to be laminated completely. This can be very helpful in achieving an acceptable payback period.

Keywords: Energy Efficiency, Thermal Performance, phase change material, smart building envelope, large-scale sandwich panel

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10 Investigation of Heat Transfer Mechanism Inside Shell and Tube Latent Heat Thermal Energy Storage Systems

Authors: Dong Chen, Saeid Seddegh, Xiaolin Wang, Alan D. Henderson, Oliver Oims

Abstract:

The main objective of this research is to study the heat transfer processes and phase change behaviour of a phase change material (PCM) in shell and tube latent heat thermal energy storage (LHTES) systems. The thermal behaviour in a vertical and horizontal shell-and-tube heat energy storage system using a pure thermal conduction model and a combined conduction-convection heat transfer model is compared in this paper. The model is first validated using published experimental data available in literature and then used to study the temperature variation, solid-liquid interface, phase distribution, total melting and solidification time during melting and solidification processes of PCMs. The simulated results show that the combined convection and conduction model can better describe the energy transfer in PCMs during melting process. In contrast, heat transfer by conduction is more significant during the solidification process since the two models show little difference. Also, it was concluded that during the charging process for the horizontal orientation, convective heat transfer has a strong effect on melting of the upper part of the solid PCM and is less significant during melting of the lower half of the solid PCM. However, in the vertical orientation, convective heat transfer is the same active during the entire charging process. In the solidification process, the thermal behavior does not show any difference between horizontal and vertical systems.

Keywords: Melting, Solidification, natural convection, shell and tube heat exchanger, phase change material, latent heat thermal energy storage

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9 CFD Analysis of Solar Floor Radiant Heating System with ‎PCM

Authors: Mohammad Nazififard, Reihane Faghihi

Abstract:

This paper is aimed at understanding convective heat transfer of enclosed phase change material (PCM) in the solar and low-temperature hot water radiant floor heating geometry. In order to obtain the best performance of PCM, a radiant heating structure of the energy storage floor is designed which places heat pipes in the enclosed phase change material (PCM) layer, without concrete in it. The governing equations are numerically solved. The PCM thermal storage time is considered in relation to the floor surface temperature under different hot water temperatures. Moreover the PCM thermal storage time is numerically estimated under different supply water temperatures and flow rate. Results show the PCM floor heating system has a potential of making use of the daytime solar energy for heating at night efficiently.

Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics, Heating System, phase change material, solar floor

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8 Theoretical Model of a Flat Plate Solar Collector Integrated with Phase Change Material

Authors: Mouna Hamed, Ammar B. Brahim

Abstract:

The objective of this work was to develop a theoretical model to study the dynamic thermal behavior of a flat plate solar collector integrated with a phase change material (PCM). The PCM acted as a heat source for the solar system during low intensity solar radiation and night. The energy balance equations for the various components of the collector as well as for the PCM were formulated and numerically solved using MATLAB computational program. The effect of natural convection on heat during the melting process was taken into account by using an effective thermal conductivity. The model was used to investigate the effect of inlet water temperature, water mass flow rate, and PCM thickness on the outlet water temperature and the melt fraction during charging and discharging modes. A comparison with a collector without PCM was made. Results showed that charging and discharging processes of PCM have six stages. The adding of PCM caused a decrease in temperature during charge and an increase during discharge. The rise was most enhanced for higher inlet water temperature, PCM thickness and for lower mass flow rate. Analysis indicated that the complete melting time was shorter than the solidification time due to the high heat transfer coefficient during melting. The increases in PCM height and mass flow rate were not linear with the melting and solidification times.

Keywords: Melting, Thermal Energy Storage, Solidification, phase change material

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7 Soybean Oil Based Phase Change Material for Thermal Energy Storage

Authors: Memet Vezir Kahraman, Emre Basturk

Abstract:

In many developing countries, with the rapid economic improvements, energy shortage and environmental issues have become a serious problem. Therefore, it has become a very critical issue to improve energy usage efficiency and also protect the environment. Thermal energy storage system is an essential approach to match the thermal energy claim and supply. Thermal energy can be stored by heating, cooling or melting a material with the energy and then enhancing accessible when the procedure is reversed. The overall thermal energy storage techniques are sorted as; latent heat or sensible heat thermal energy storage technology segments. Among these methods, latent heat storage is the most effective method of collecting thermal energy. Latent heat thermal energy storage depend on the storage material, emitting or discharging heat as it undergoes a solid to liquid, solid to solid or liquid to gas phase change or vice versa. Phase change materials (PCMs) are promising materials for latent heat storage applications due to their capacities to accumulate high latent heat storage per unit volume by phase change at an almost constant temperature. Phase change materials (PCMs) are being utilized to absorb, collect and discharge thermal energy during the cycle of melting and freezing, converting from one phase to another. Phase Change Materials (PCMs) can generally be arranged into three classes: organic materials, salt hydrates and eutectics. Many kinds of organic and inorganic PCMs and their blends have been examined as latent heat storage materials. Organic PCMs are rather expensive and they have average latent heat storage per unit volume and also have low density. Most organic PCMs are combustible in nature and also have a wide range of melting point. Organic PCMs can be categorized into two major categories: non-paraffinic and paraffin materials. Paraffin materials have been extensively used, due to their high latent heat and right thermal characteristics, such as minimal super cooling, varying phase change temperature, low vapor pressure while melting, good chemical and thermal stability, and self-nucleating behavior. Ultraviolet (UV)-curing technology has been generally used because it has many advantages, such as low energy consumption , high speed, high chemical stability, room-temperature operation, low processing costs and environmental friendly. For many years, PCMs have been used for heating and cooling industrial applications including textiles, refrigerators, construction, transportation packaging for temperature-sensitive products, a few solar energy based systems, biomedical and electronic materials. In this study, UV-curable, fatty alcohol containing soybean oil based phase change materials (PCMs) were obtained and characterized. The phase transition behaviors and thermal stability of the prepared UV-cured biobased PCMs were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The heating process phase change enthalpy is measured between 30 and 68 J/g, and the freezing process phase change enthalpy is found between 18 and 70 J/g. The decomposition of UVcured PCMs started at 260 ºC and reached a maximum of 430 ºC.

Keywords: Thermal Energy Storage, phase change material, fatty alcohol, UV curing

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6 Enhancement of Thermal Performance of Latent Heat Solar Storage System

Authors: Rishindra M. Sarviya, Ashish Agrawal

Abstract:

Solar energy is available abundantly in the world, but it is not continuous and its intensity also varies with time. Due to above reason the acceptability and reliability of solar based thermal system is lower than conventional systems. A properly designed heat storage system increases the reliability of solar thermal systems by bridging the gap between the energy demand and availability. In the present work, two dimensional numerical simulation of the melting of heat storage material is presented in the horizontal annulus of double pipe latent heat storage system. Longitudinal fins were used as a thermal conductivity enhancement. Paraffin wax was used as a heat-storage or phase change material (PCM). Constant wall temperature is applied to heat transfer tube. Presented two-dimensional numerical analysis shows the movement of melting front in the finned cylindrical annulus for analyzing the thermal behavior of the system during melting.

Keywords: Solar energy, numerical study, phase change material, latent heat

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5 Influence of Percentage and Melting Temperature of Phase Change Material on the Thermal Behavior of a Hollow-Brick

Authors: Zakaria Aketouane, Mustapha Malha, Abdellah Bah, Omar Ansari, Mohamed Asbik

Abstract:

The present paper deals with the thermal performance of a hollow-brick filled with Phase Change Material (PCM). The main objective is to study the effect of percentage and melting temperature of the PCM on the thermal inertia and internal surface temperature of the hollow-brick. A numerical model based on the heat transfer equation and the apparent heat capacity method has been validated using experimental study from the literature. The results show that increasing the percentage of the PCM has a significant effect on time lag and decrement factor that define the thermal inertia; the internal temperature is reduced by 1.36°C to 5.39°C for a percentage from 11% to 71% in comparison to a brick without PCM. In addition, an appropriate melting temperature of 37°C has been deduced for the horizontal wall orientation in Rabat in comparison to 27°C and 47°C.

Keywords: time lag, phase change material, decrement factor, appropriate melting temperature, thermal inertia

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4 Energy Efficiency of Secondary Refrigeration with Phase Change Materials and Impact on Greenhouse Gases Emissions

Authors: Anthony Delahaye, Laurence Fournaison, Michel Pons

Abstract:

Secondary refrigeration consists of splitting large-size direct-cooling units into volume-limited primary cooling units complemented by secondary loops for transporting and distributing cold. Such a design reduces the refrigerant leaks, which represents a source of greenhouse gases emitted into the atmosphere. However, inserting the secondary circuit between the primary unit and the ‘users’ heat exchangers (UHX) increases the energy consumption of the whole process, which induces an indirect emission of greenhouse gases. It is thus important to check whether that efficiency loss is sufficiently limited for the change to be globally beneficial to the environment. Among the likely secondary fluids, phase change slurries offer several advantages: they transport latent heat, they stabilize the heat exchange temperature, and the formerly evaporators still can be used as UHX. The temperature level can also be adapted to the desired cooling application. Herein, the slurry {ice in mono-propylene-glycol solution} (melting temperature Tₘ of 6°C) is considered for food preservation, and the slurry {mixed hydrate of CO₂ + tetra-n-butyl-phosphonium-bromide in aqueous solution of this salt + CO₂} (melting temperature Tₘ of 13°C) is considered for air conditioning. For the sake of thermodynamic consistency, the analysis encompasses the whole process, primary cooling unit plus secondary slurry loop, and the various properties of the slurries, including their non-Newtonian viscosity. The design of the whole process is optimized according to the properties of the chosen slurry and under explicit constraints. As a first constraint, all the units must deliver the same cooling power to the user. The other constraints concern the heat exchanges areas, which are prescribed, and the flow conditions, which prevent deposition of the solid particles transported in the slurry, and their agglomeration. Minimization of the total energy consumption leads to the optimal design. In addition, the results are analyzed in terms of exergy losses, which allows highlighting the couplings between the primary unit and the secondary loop. One important difference between the ice-slurry and the mixed-hydrate one is the presence of gaseous carbon dioxide in the latter case. When the mixed-hydrate crystals melt in the UHX, CO₂ vapor is generated at a rate that depends on the phase change kinetics. The flow in the UHX, and its heat and mass transfer properties are significantly modified. This effect has never been investigated before. Lastly, inserting the secondary loop between the primary unit and the users increases the temperature difference between the refrigerated space and the evaporator. This results in a loss of global energy efficiency, and therefore in an increased energy consumption. The analysis shows that this loss of efficiency is not critical in the first case (Tₘ = 6°C), while the second case leads to more ambiguous results, partially because of the higher melting temperature.The consequences in terms of greenhouse gases emissions are also analyzed.

Keywords: Thermodynamics, Optimization, Exergy, phase change material, hydrates

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3 Heat Transfer Enhancement of Structural Concretes Made of Macro-Encapsulated Phase Change Materials

Authors: Ehsan Mohseni, Shanyong Wang, Waiching Tang

Abstract:

Low thermal conductivity of phase change materials (PCMs) affects the thermal performance and energy storage efficiency of latent heat thermal energy storage systems. In the current research, a structural lightweight concrete with function of indoor temperature control was developed using thermal energy storage aggregates (TESA) and nano-titanium (NT). The macro-encapsulated technique was served to incorporate the PCM into the lightweight aggregate through vacuum impregnation. The compressive strength was measured, and the thermal performance of concrete panel was evaluated by using a self-designed environmental chamber. The impact of NT on microstructure was also assessed via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) tests. The test results indicated that NT was able to increase the compressive strength by filling the micro pores and making the microstructure denser and more homogeneous. In addition, the environmental chamber experiment showed that introduction of NT into TESA improved the heat transfer of composites noticeably. The changes were illustrated by the reduction in peak temperatures in the centre, outside and inside surfaces of concrete panels by the inclusion of NT. It can be concluded that NT particles had the capability to decrease the energy consumption and obtain higher energy storage efficiency by the reduction of indoor temperature.

Keywords: Heat Transfer, Nanoparticles, phase change material, macro-encapsulation, microstructure properties

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2 Thermal Regulation of Channel Flows Using Phase Change Material

Authors: Kira Toxopeus, Kamran Siddiqui

Abstract:

Channel flows are common in a wide range of engineering applications. In some types of channel flows, particularly the ones involving chemical or biological processes, the control of the flow temperature is crucial to maintain the optimal conditions for the chemical reaction or to control the growth of biological species. This often becomes an issue when the flow experiences temperature fluctuations due to external conditions. While active heating and cooling could regulate the channel temperature, it may not be feasible logistically or economically and is also regarded as a non-sustainable option. Thermal energy storage utilizing phase change material (PCM) could provide the required thermal regulation sustainably by storing the excess heat from the channel and releasing it back as required, thus regulating the channel temperature within a range in the proximity of the PCM melting temperature. However, in designing such systems, the configuration of the PCM storage within the channel is critical as it could influence the channel flow dynamics, which would, in turn, affect the heat exchange between the channel fluid and the PCM. The present research is focused on the investigation of the flow dynamical behavior in the channel during heat transfer from the channel flow to the PCM thermal energy storage. Offset vertical columns in a narrow channel were used that contained the PCM. Two different column shapes, square and circular, were considered. Water was used as the channel fluid that entered the channel at a temperature higher than that of the PCM melting temperature. Hence, as the water was passing through the channel, the heat was being transferred from the water to the PCM, causing the PCM to store the heat through a phase transition from solid to liquid. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) was used to measure the two-dimensional velocity field of the channel flow as it flows between the PCM columns. Thermocouples were also attached to the PCM columns to measure the PCM temperature at three different heights. Three different water flow rates (0.5, 0.75 and 1.2 liters/min) were considered. At each flow rate, experiments were conducted at three different inlet water temperatures (28ᵒC, 33ᵒC and 38ᵒC). The results show that the flow rate and the inlet temperature influenced the flow behavior inside the channel.

Keywords: Thermal Energy Storage, phase change material, channel flow, thermal regulation

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1 The Application of Artificial Neural Networks for the Performance Prediction of Evacuated Tube Solar Air Collector with Phase Change Material

Authors: SUKHBIR SINGH

Abstract:

This paper describes the modeling of novel solar air collector (NSAC) system by using artificial neural network (ANN) model. The objective of the study is to demonstrate the application of the ANN model to predict the performance of the NSAC with acetamide as a phase change material (PCM) storage. Input data set consist of time, solar intensity and ambient temperature wherever as outlet air temperature of NSAC was considered as output. Experiments were conducted between 9.00 and 24.00 h in June and July 2014 underneath the prevailing atmospheric condition of Kurukshetra (city of the India). After that, experimental results were utilized to train the back propagation neural network (BPNN) to predict the outlet air temperature of NSAC. The results of proposed algorithm show that the BPNN is effective tool for the prediction of responses. The BPNN predicted results are 99% in agreement with the experimental results.

Keywords: Artificial Neural Network, phase change material, solar air collector, Evacuated tube solar air collector

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