Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

Pharmacokinetics Related Abstracts

12 Determination of Marbofloxacin in Pig Plasma Using LC-MS/MS and Its Application to the Pharmacokinetic Studies

Authors: Jeong Woo Kang, MiYoung Baek, Ki-Suk Kim, Kwang-Jick Lee, ByungJae So


Introduction: A fast, easy and sensitive detection method was developed and validated by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of marbofloxacin in pig plasma which was further applied to study the pharmacokinetics of marbofloxacin. Materials and Methods: The plasma sample (500 μL) was mixed with 1.5 ml of 0.1% formic acid in MeCN to precipitate plasma proteins. After shaking for 20 min, The mixture was centrifuged at 5,000 × g for 30 min. It was dried under a nitrogen flow at 50℃. 500 μL aliquot of the sample was injected into the LC-MS/MS system. Chromatographic analysis was carried out mobile phase gradient consisting 0.1% formic acid in D.W. (A) and 0.1% formic acid in MeCN (B) with C18 reverse phase column. Mass spectrometry was performed using the positive ion mode and the selected ion monitoring (MRM). Results and Conclusions: The method validation was performed in the sample matrix. Good linearities (R2>0.999) were observed and the quantified average recoveries of marbofloxacin were 87 - 92% at level of 10 ng g-1 -100 ng g-1. The percent of coefficient of variation (CV) for the described method was less than 10 % over the range of concentrations studied. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were 2 and 5 ng g-1, respectively. This method has also been applied successfully to pharmacokinetic analysis of marbofloxacin after intravenous (IV), intramuscular (IM) and oral administration (PO). The mean peak plasma concentration (Cmax) was 2,597 ng g-1at 0.25 h, 2,587 ng g-1at 0.44 h and 2,355 ng g-1at 1.58 h for IV, IM and PO, respectively. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0–t) was 24.8, 29.0 and 25.2 h μg/mL for IV, IM and PO, respectively. The elimination half-life (T1/2) was 8.6, 13.1 and 9.5 for IV, IM and PO, respectively. Bioavailability (F) of the marbofloxacin in pig was 117 and 101 % for IM and PO, respectively. Based on these result, marbofloxacin does not have any obstacles as therapeutics to develop the oral formulations such as tablets and capsules.

Keywords: Pharmacokinetics, marbofloxacin, LC-MS/MS, chromatographic

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11 A Validated UPLC-MS/MS Assay Using Negative Ionization Mode for High-Throughput Determination of Pomalidomide in Rat Plasma

Authors: Muzaffar Iqbal, Essam Ezzeldin, Khalid A. Al-Rashood


Pomalidomide is a second generation oral immunomodulatory agent, being used for the treatment of multiple myeloma in patients with disease refractory to lenalidomide and bortezomib. In this study, a sensitive UPLC-MS/MS assay was developed and validated for high-throughput determination of pomalidomide in rat plasma using celecoxib as an internal standard (IS). Liquid liquid extraction using dichloromethane as extracting agent was employed to extract pomalidomide and IS from 200 µL of plasma. Chromatographic separation was carried on Acquity BEHTM C18 column (50 × 2.1 mm, 1.7 µm) using an isocratic mobile phase of acetonitrile:10 mM ammonium acetate (80:20, v/v), at a flow rate of 0.250 mL/min. Both pomalidomide and IS were eluted at 0.66 ± 0.03 and 0.80 ± 0.03 min, respectively with a total run time of 1.5 min only. Detection was performed on a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer using electrospray ionization in negative mode. The precursor to product ion transitions of m/z 272.01 → 160.89 for pomalidomide and m/z 380.08 → 316.01 for IS were used to quantify them respectively, using multiple reaction monitoring mode. The developed method was validated according to regulatory guideline for bioanalytical method validation. The linearity in plasma sample was achieved in the concentration range of 0.47–400 ng/mL (r2 ≥ 0.997). The intra and inter-day precision values were ≤ 11.1% (RSD, %) whereas accuracy values ranged from - 6.8 – 8.5% (RE, %). In addition, other validation results were within the acceptance criteria and the method was successfully applied in a pharmacokinetic study of pomalidomide in rats.

Keywords: Pharmacokinetics, LC-MS/MS, pomalidomide, celecoxib

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10 Pharmacokinetics, Dosage Regimen and in Vitro Plasma Protein Binding of Danofloxacin following Intravenous Administration in Adult Buffaloes

Authors: Zahid Manzoor, Shaukat Hussain Munawar, Zahid Iqbal, Imran Ahmad Khan, Abdul Aziz, Hafiz Muhammad Qasim


The present study was aimed to investigate the pharmacokinetics behavior and optimal dosage regimen of danofloxacin in 8 adult healthy buffaloes of local breed (Nili Ravi) following single intravenous administration at the dose of 2.5 mg/kg body weight. Plasma drug concentrations at various time intervals were measured by HPLC method. In vitro plasma protein binding was determined employing the ultrafiltration technique. The distribution and elimination of danofloxacin was rapid, as indicated by the values (Mean±SD) of distribution half-life (t1/2α = 0.25±0.09 hours) and elimination half life (t1/2β = 3.26±0.43 hours), respectively. Volume of distribution at steady state (Vss) was 1.14±0.12 L/kg, displaying its extensive distribution into various body fluids and tissues. The high value of AUC (9.80±2.14 µg/ reflected the vast area of the body covered by drug concentration. The mean residence time was noted to be 4.78±0.52 hours. On the basis of pharmacokinetic parameters, a suitable intravenous regimen for danofloxacin in adult buffaloes would be 6.5 mg/kg to be repeated after 12 hours intervals. The present study is the foremost pharmacokinetic study of danofloxacin in the local species which would provide the valueable contribution in the local manufacturing of danofloxacin in Pakistan in future.

Keywords: Pharmacokinetics, danofloxacin, plasma protein binding, buffaloes, dosage regimen

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9 MCD-017: Potential Candidate from the Class of Nitroimidazoles to Treat Tuberculosis

Authors: Gurleen Kour, Mowkshi Khullar, B. K. Chandan, Parvinder Pal Singh, Kushalava Reddy Yumpalla, Gurunadham Munagala, Ram A. Vishwakarma, Zabeer Ahmed


New chemotherapeutic compounds against multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) are urgently needed to combat drug resistance in tuberculosis (TB). Apart from in-vitro potency against the target, physiochemical properties and pharmacokinetic properties play an imperative role in the process of drug discovery. We have identified novel nitroimidazole derivatives with potential activity against mycobacterium tuberculosis. One lead candidates, MCD-017, which showed potent activity against H37Rv strain (MIC=0.5µg/ml) and was further evaluated in the process of drug development. Methods: Basic physicochemical parameters like solubility and lipophilicity (LogP) were evaluated. Thermodynamic solubility was determined in PBS buffer (pH 7.4) using LC/MS-MS. The partition coefficient (Log P) of the compound was determined between octanol and phosphate buffered saline (PBS at pH 7.4) at 25°C by the microscale shake flask method. The compound followed Lipinski’s rule of five, which is predictive of good oral bioavailability and was further evaluated for metabolic stability. In-vitro metabolic stability was determined in rat liver microsomes. The hepatotoxicity of the compound was also determined in HepG2 cell line. In vivo pharmacokinetic profile of the compound after oral dosing was also obtained using balb/c mice. Results: The compound exhibited favorable solubility and lipophilicity. The physical and chemical properties of the compound were made use of as the first determination of drug-like properties. The compound obeyed Lipinski’s rule of five, with molecular weight < 500, number of hydrogen bond donors (HBD) < 5 and number of hydrogen bond acceptors(HBA) not more then 10. The log P of the compound was less than 5 and therefore the compound is predictive of exhibiting good absorption and permeation. Pooled rat liver microsomes were prepared from rat liver homogenate for measuring the metabolic stability. 99% of the compound was not metabolized and remained intact. The compound did not exhibit cytoxicity in hepG2 cells upto 40 µg/ml. The compound revealed good pharmacokinetic profile at a dose of 5mg/kg administered orally with a half life (t1/2) of 1.15 hours, Cmax of 642ng/ml, clearance of 4.84 ml/min/kg and a volume of distribution of 8.05 l/kg. Conclusion : The emergence of multi drug resistance (MDR) and extensively drug resistant (XDR) Tuberculosis emphasize the requirement of novel drugs active against tuberculosis. Thus, the need to evaluate physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties in the early stages of drug discovery is required to reduce the attrition associated with poor drug exposure. In summary, it can be concluded that MCD-017 may be considered a good candidate for further preclinical and clinical evaluations.

Keywords: Pharmacokinetics, Physicochemical properties, Mycobacterium Tuberculosis, hepatotoxicity

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8 Disposition Kinetics of Ciprofloxacin after Intramuscular Administration in Lohi Sheep

Authors: Zahid Iqbal, Ijaz Javed, Riaz Hussain, Ibadullah Jan, Amir Ali Khan


This study was conducted to investigate the disposition kinetics of ciprofloxacin and calculate its optimal dosage in Pakistani sheep of Lohi breed. Injectable preparation of ciprofloxacin was given intramuscularly to eight sheep at a dose of 5 mg/Kg. Before administration of drug blood sample was drawn from each animal. Post drug administration, blood samples were also drawn at various predetermined time periods. Drug concentration in the blood samples was assessed through high performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC). Data were best described by two compartment open model and different pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters were calculated. Cmax of 1.97 ± 0.15 µg/ml was reached at Tmax of 0.88 ± 0.09 hours. Half life of absorption (t1/2 abs) was observed to be 0.63 ± 0.16 hours while t1/2 α (distribution half life) and t1/2 ß (elimination half life) were found to be 0.46 ± 0.05 and 2.93 ± 0.45 hours, respectively. Vd (apparent volume of distribution) was calculated as 2.89 ± 0.30 L/kg while AUC (area under the curve) was 7.19 ± 0.38 µ and CL (total body clearance) was 0.75 ± 0.04 L/hr/kg. Using these parameters, an optimal intramuscular dosage of ciprofloxacin in adult Lohi sheep was calculated as 21.43 mg/kg, advised to be repeated after 24 hours. From this, we came to the conclusion that calculated dose was much higher than the dose advised by the foreign manufacturer and to avoid antimicrobial resistance, it is advised that this locally investigated dosage regimen should be strictly followed in local sheep.

Keywords: Pharmacokinetics, HPLC, Sheep, ciprofloxacin, dosage regimen

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7 Molecular Modeling a Tool for Postulating the Mechanism of Drug Interaction: Glimepiride Alters the Pharmacokinetics of Sildenafil Citrate in Diabetic Nephropathy Animals

Authors: Alok Shiomurti Tripathi, Ajay Kumar Timiri, Papiya Mitra Mazumder, Anil Chandewar


The present study evaluates the possible drug interaction between glimepiride (GLIM) and sildenafil citrate (SIL) in streptozotocin (STZ) induced in diabetic nephropathic (DN) animals and also postulates the possible mechanism of interaction by molecular modeling studies. Diabetic nephropathy was induced by single dose of STZ (60 mg/kg, ip) and confirms it by assessing the blood and urine biochemical parameters on 28th day of its induction. Selected DN animals were used for the drug interaction between GLIM (0.5mg/kg, p.o.) and SIL (2.5 mg/kg, p.o.) after 29th and 70th day of protocol. Drug interaction were assessed by evaluating the plasma drug concentration using HPLC-UV and also determine the change in the biochemical parameter in blood and urine. Mechanism of the interaction was postulated by molecular modeling study using Maestro module of Schrodinger software. DN was confirmed as there was significant alteration in the blood and urine biochemical parameter in STZ treated groups. The concentration of SIL increased significantly (p<0.001) in rat plasma when co administered with GLIM after 70th day of protocol. Molecular modelling study revealed few important interactions with rat serum albumin and CYP2C9.GLIM has strong hydrophobic interaction with binding site residues of rat serum albumin compared to SIL. Whereas, for CYP2C9, GLIM has strong hydrogen bond with polar contacts and hydrophobic interactions than SIL. Present study concludes that bioavailability of SIL increases when co-administered chronically with GLIM in the management of DN animals and mechanism has been supported by molecular modeling studies.

Keywords: Pharmacokinetics, Homology Modeling, Diabetic Nephropathy, glimepiride, sildenafil citrate, schrodinger

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6 Pharmacokinetic Monitoring of Glimepiride and Ilaprazole in Rat Plasma by High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode Array Detection

Authors: Anil P. Dewani, Alok S. Tripathi, Anil V. Chandewar


Present manuscript reports the development and validation of a quantitative high performance liquid chromatography method for the pharmacokinetic evaluation of Glimepiride (GLM) and Ilaprazole (ILA) in rat plasma. The plasma samples were involved with Solid phase extraction process (SPE). The analytes were resolved on a Phenomenex C18 column (4.6 mm× 250 mm; 5 µm particle size) using a isocratic elution mode comprising methanol:water (80:20 % v/v) with pH of water modified to 3 using Formic acid, the total run time was 10 min at 225 nm as common wavelength, the flow rate throughout was 1ml/min. The method was validated over the concentration range from 10 to 600 ng/mL for GLM and ILA, in rat plasma. Metformin (MET) was used as Internal Standard. Validation data demonstrated the method to be selective, sensitive, accurate and precise. The limit of detection was 1.54 and 4.08 and limit of quantification was 5.15 and 13.62 for GLM and ILA respectively, the method demonstrated excellent linearity with correlation coefficients (r2) 0.999. The intra and inter-day precision (RSD%) values were < 2.0% for both ILA and GLM. The method was successfully applied in pharmacokinetic studies followed by oral administration in rats.

Keywords: Pharmacokinetics, HPLC, SPE, glimepiride, ilaprazole

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5 Pharmacokinetics and Safety of Pacritinib in Patients with Hepatic Impairment and Healthy Volunteers

Authors: Suliman Al-Fayoumi, Sherri Amberg, Huafeng Zhou, Jack W. Singer, James P. Dean


Pacritinib is an oral kinase inhibitor with specificity for JAK2, FLT3, IRAK1, and CSF1R. In clinical studies, pacritinib was well tolerated with clinical activity in patients with myelofibrosis. The most frequent adverse events (AEs) observed with pacritinib are gastrointestinal (diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting; mostly grade 1-2 in severity) and typically resolve within 2 weeks. A human ADME mass balance study demonstrated that pacritinib is predominantly cleared via hepatic metabolism and biliary excretion (>85% of administered dose). The major hepatic metabolite identified, M1, is not thought to materially contribute to the pharmacological activity of pacritinib. Hepatic diseases are known to impair hepatic blood flow, drug-metabolizing enzymes, and biliary transport systems and may affect drug absorption, disposition, efficacy, and toxicity. This phase 1 study evaluated the pharmacokinetics (PK) and safety of pacritinib and the M1 metabolite in study subjects with mild, moderate, or severe hepatic impairment (HI) and matched healthy subjects with normal liver function to determine if pacritinib dosage adjustments are necessary for patients with varying degrees of hepatic insufficiency. Study participants (aged 18-85 y) were enrolled into 4 groups based on their degree of HI as defined by Child-Pugh Clinical Assessment Score: mild (n=8), moderate (n=8), severe (n=4), and healthy volunteers (n=8) matched for age, BMI, and sex. Individuals with concomitant renal dysfunction or progressive liver disease were excluded. A single 400 mg dose of pacritinib was administered to all participants. Blood samples were obtained for PK evaluation predose and at multiple time points postdose through 168 h. Key PK parameters evaluated included maximum plasma concentration (Cmax), time to Cmax (Tmax), area under the plasma concentration time curve (AUC) from hour zero to last measurable concentration (AUC0-t), AUC extrapolated to infinity (AUC0-∞), and apparent terminal elimination half-life (t1/2). Following treatment, pacritinib was quantifiable for all study participants at 1 h through 168 h postdose. Systemic pacritinib exposure was similar between healthy volunteers and individuals with mild HI. However, there was a significant difference between those with moderate and severe HI and healthy volunteers with respect to peak concentration (Cmax) and plasma exposure (AUC0-t, AUC0-∞). Mean Cmax decreased by 47% and 57% respectively in participants with moderate and severe HI vs matched healthy volunteers. Similarly, mean AUC0-t decreased by 36% and 45% and mean AUC0-∞ decreased by 46% and 48%, respectively in individuals with moderate and severe HI vs healthy volunteers. Mean t1/2 ranged from 51.5 to 74.9 h across all groups. The variability on exposure ranged from 17.8% to 51.8% across all groups. Systemic exposure of M1 was also significantly decreased in study participants with moderate or severe HI vs. healthy participants and individuals with mild HI. These changes were not significantly dissimilar from the inter-patient variability in these parameters observed in healthy volunteers. All AEs were grade 1-2 in severity. Diarrhea and headache were the only AEs reported in >1 participant (n=4 each). Based on these observations, it is unlikely that dosage adjustments would be warranted in patients with mild, moderate, or severe HI treated with pacritinib.

Keywords: Pharmacokinetics, pacritinib, myelofibrosis, hepatic impairment

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4 Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Valsartan in Dog following a Single Oral Administration

Authors: In-Hwan Baek


Valsartan is a potent and highly selective antagonist of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor, and is widely used for the treatment of hypertension. The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic properties of the valsartan in dogs following oral administration of a single dose using quantitative modeling approaches. Forty beagle dogs were randomly divided into two group. Group A (n=20) was administered a single oral dose of valsartan 80 mg (Diovan® 80 mg), and group B (n=20) was administered a single oral dose of valsartan 160 mg (Diovan® 160 mg) in the morning after an overnight fast. Blood samples were collected into heparinized tubes before and at 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12 and 24 h following oral administration. The plasma concentrations of the valsartan were determined using LC-MS/MS. Non-compartmental pharmacokinetic analyses were performed using WinNonlin Standard Edition software, and modeling approaches were performed using maximum-likelihood estimation via the expectation maximization (MLEM) algorithm with sampling using ADAPT 5 software. After a single dose of valsartan 80 mg, the mean value of maximum concentration (Cmax) was 2.68 ± 1.17 μg/mL at 1.83 ± 1.27 h. The area under the plasma concentration-versus-time curve from time zero to the last measurable concentration (AUC24h) value was 13.21 ± 6.88 μg·h/mL. After dosing with valsartan 160 mg, the mean Cmax was 4.13 ± 1.49 μg/mL at 1.80 ± 1.53 h, the AUC24h was 26.02 ± 12.07 μg·h/mL. The Cmax and AUC values increased in proportion to the increment in valsartan dose, while the pharmacokinetic parameters of elimination rate constant, half-life, apparent of total clearance, and apparent of volume of distribution were not significantly different between the doses. Valsartan pharmacokinetic analysis fits a one-compartment model with first-order absorption and elimination following a single dose of valsartan 80 mg and 160 mg. In addition, high inter-individual variability was identified in the absorption rate constant. In conclusion, valsartan displays the dose-dependent pharmacokinetics in dogs, and Subsequent quantitative modeling approaches provided detailed pharmacokinetic information of valsartan. The current findings provide useful information in dogs that will aid future development of improved formulations or fixed-dose combinations.

Keywords: Modeling, Pharmacokinetics, valsartan, dose-dependent

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3 A Computational Study Concerning the Biological Effects of the Most Commonly Used Phthalates

Authors: Dana Craciun, Daniela Dascalu, Adriana Isvoran


Phthalates are a class of plastic additives that are used to enhance the physical properties of plastics and as solvents in paintings and some of them proved to be of particular concern for the human health. There are insufficient data concerning the health risks of phthalates and further research on evaluating their effects in humans is needed. As humans are not volunteers for such experiments, computational analysis may be used to predict the biological effects of phthalates in humans. Within this study we have used some computational approaches (SwissADME, admetSAR, FAFDrugs) for predicting the absorption, distribution, metabolization, excretion and toxicity (ADME-Tox) profiles and pharmacokinetics for the most common used phthalates. These computational tools are based on quantitative structure-activity relationship modeling approach. The predictions are further compared to the known effects of each considered phthalate in humans and correlations between computational results and experimental data are discussed. Our data revealed that phthalates are a class of compounds reflecting high toxicity both when ingested and when inhaled, but by inhalation their toxicity is even greater. The predicted harmful effects of phthalates are: toxicity and irritations of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts, dyspnea, skin and eye irritations and disruption of the functions of liver and of the reproductive system. Many of investigated phthalates are predicted to be able to inhibit some of the cytochromes involved in the metabolism of numerous drugs and consequently to affect the efficiency of administrated treatments for many diseases and to intensify the adverse drugs reactions. The obtained predictions are in good agreement with clinical data concerning the observed effects of some phthalates in cases of acute exposures. Our study emphasizes the possible health effects of numerous phthalates and underlines the applicability of computational methods for predicting the biological effects of xenobiotics.

Keywords: Pharmacokinetics, Biological Effects, phthalates, ADME-Tox

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2 Development of Lipid Architectonics for Improving Efficacy and Ameliorating the Oral Bioavailability of Elvitegravir

Authors: Bushra Nabi, Saleha Rehman, Sanjula Baboota, Javed Ali


Aim: The objective of research undertaken is analytical method validation (HPLC method) of an anti-HIV drug Elvitegravir (EVG). Additionally carrying out the forced degradation studies of the drug under different stress conditions to determine its stability. It is envisaged in order to determine the suitable technique for drug estimation, which would be employed in further research. Furthermore, comparative pharmacokinetic profile of the drug from lipid architectonics and drug suspension would be obtained post oral administration. Method: Lipid Architectonics (LA) of EVR was formulated using probe sonication technique and optimized using QbD (Box-Behnken design). For the estimation of drug during further analysis HPLC method has been validation on the parameters (Linearity, Precision, Accuracy, Robustness) and Limit of Detection (LOD) and Limit of Quantification (LOQ) has been determined. Furthermore, HPLC quantification of forced degradation studies was carried out under different stress conditions (acid induced, base induced, oxidative, photolytic and thermal). For pharmacokinetic (PK) study, Albino Wistar rats were used weighing between 200-250g. Different formulations were given per oral route, and blood was collected at designated time intervals. A plasma concentration profile over time was plotted from which the following parameters were determined:

Keywords: Pharmacokinetics, AIDS, HPLC, nanostructured lipid carriers, Elvitegravir

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1 The Influence of Gender on Itraconazole Pharmacokinetic Parameters in Healthy Adults

Authors: Milijana N. Miljkovic, Viktorija M. Dragojevic-Simic, Nemanja K. Rancic, Vesna M. Jacevic, Snezana B. Djordjevic, Momir M. Mikov, Aleksandra M. Kovacevic


Itraconazole (ITZ) is a weak base and extremely lipophilic compound, with water solubility as a rate-limiting step in its absorption from the gastrointestinal tract. Its absolute bioavailability, about 55%, is maximal when its oral formulation, capsules, are taken immediately after a full meal. Peak plasma concentrations (Cmax) are reached within 2 to 5 hrs after their administration. ITZ undergoes extensive hepatic metabolism by human CYP3A4 isoenzyme and more than 30 different metabolites have been identified. One of the main ones is hydroxyitraconazole (HITZ), in which plasma concentrations are almost twice higher than those of ITZ. Gender differences in drug PK (Pharmacokinetics) have already been recognized, but variations in metabolism are believed to be their major cause. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of gender on ITZ PK parameters after administration of oral capsule formulation, following 100 mg single dosing in healthy adult volunteers under fed conditions. The single-center, open-label PK study was performed. PK analyses included PK parameters obtained after a single 100 mg dose administration of itraconazole capsules to 48 females and 66 males. Blood samples were collected at pre-dose and up to 72.0 h after administration (1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, 5.0, 5.5, 6.0, 7.0, 9.0, 12.0, 24.0, 36.0 and 72.0 hrs). The calculated pharmacokinetic parameters, based on the plasma concentrations of itraconazole and hydroxyitraconazole, were Cmax, AUClast, and AUCtot. Plasma concentrations of ITZ and HITZ were determined using a validated liquid chromatographic method with mass spectrometric detection, while pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated using non-compartmental methods. The pharmacokinetic analyses were performed using Kinetica software version 5.0. The mean value of ITZ Cmaxmen was 74.79 ng/ml, and Cmaxwomen was 51.291 ng/ml (independent samples test; p = 0.005). Hydroxyitraconazole had a mean value of Cmaxmen 106.37 ng/ml, and the mean value Cmaxwomen was 70.05 ng/ml. Women had, on average, lower AUClast and Cmax than men. AUClastmen for ITZ was 736.02 ng/mL*h and AUClastwomen was 566.62 ng/mL*h, while AUClastmen for HITZ was 1154.80 was ng/mL*h and AUClastwomen for HITZ was 708.12 ng/mL*h (independent samples test; p = 0.033). The mean values of ITZ AUCtotmen were 884.73 ng/mL*h and AUCtotwomen was 685.10 ng/mL*h. AUCtotmen for HITZ was 1290.41 ng/mL*h, while AUCtotwomen for HIZT was 788.60 ng/mL*h (p < 0.001). The results could point out to lower oral bioavailability of ITZ in women, since values of Cmax, AUClast, and AUCtot of both ITZ and HITZ were significantly lower in women than in men, respectively. The reason may be higher expression and activity of CYP3A4 in women than in men, but there also may be differences in other PK parameters. High variability of both ITZ and HITZ concentrations in both genders confirmed that ITZ is a highly variable drug. Further examinations of its PK are needed to justify strategies for therapeutic drug monitoring in patients treated by this antifungal agent.

Keywords: Gender, Pharmacokinetics, itraconazole, hydroxyitraconazole

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