Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Pharmacogenetics Related Abstracts

7 Pharmacogenetics of Uridine Diphosphate Glucuronosyltransferase (UGT1A9) Genetic Polymorphism on Sodium Valproate Pharmacokinetics in Epilepsy

Authors: Murali Munisamy, Gauthaman Karunakaran, Mubarak Al-Gahtany, Vivekanandhan Subbiah, M. Manjari Tripati


Background: Sodium valproate is a widely prescribed broad-spectrum anti-epileptic drug. It shows high inter-individual variability in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics and has a narrow therapeutic range. We evaluated the effects of polymorphic uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase (UGT1A9) metabolizing enzyme on the pharmacokinetics of sodium valproate in the patients with epilepsy who showed toxicity to therapy. Methods: Genotype analysis of the patients was made with polymerase chain–restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) with sequencing. Plasma drug concentrations were measured with reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and concentration–time data were analyzed by using a non-compartmental approach. Results: The results of this study suggested a significant genotypic as well as allelic association with valproic acid toxicity for UGT1A9 polymorphic enzymes. The elimination half-life (t 1/2=40.2 h) of valproic acid was longer and the clearance rate (CL=937 ml/h) was lower in the poor metabolizers group of UGT1A9 polymorphism who showed toxicity than in the intermediate metabolizers group (t1/2=35.5 h, CL=1042 ml/h) or the extensive metabolizers group (t1/2=26. h, CL=1,302 ml/h). Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the UGT1A9 genetic polymorphism plays a significant role in the steady state concentration of sodium valproate, and it thereby has an impact on the toxicity of the sodium valproate used in the patients with epilepsy.

Keywords: Pharmacogenetics, Polymorphism, UGT1A9, sodium valporate

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6 Prevalence of Cyp2d6 and Its Implications for Personalized Medicine in Saudi Arabs

Authors: Hamsa T. Tayeb, Mohammad A. Arafah, Dana M. Bakheet, Duaa M. Khalaf, Agnieszka Tarnoska, Nduna Dzimiri


Background: CYP2D6 is a member of the cytochrome P450 mixed-function oxidase system. The enzyme is responsible for the metabolism and elimination of approximately 25% of clinically used drugs, especially in breast cancer and psychiatric therapy. Different phenotypes have been described displaying alleles that lead to a complete loss of enzyme activity, reduced function (poor metabolizers – PM), hyperfunctionality (ultrarapid metabolizers–UM) and therefore drug intoxication or loss of drug effect. The prevalence of these variants may vary among different ethnic groups. Furthermore, the xTAG system has been developed to categorized all patients into different groups based on their CYP2D6 substrate metabolization. Aim of the study: To determine the prevalence of the different CYP2D6 variants in our population, and to evaluate their clinical relevance in personalized medicine. Methodology: We used the Luminex xMAP genotyping system to sequence 305 Saudi individuals visiting the Blood Bank of our Institution and determine which polymorphisms of CYP2D6 gene are prevalent in our region. Results: xTAG genotyping showed that 36.72% (112 out of 305 individuals) carried the CYP2D6_*2. Out of the 112 individuals with the *2 SNP, 6.23% had multiple copies of *2 SNP (19 individuals out of 305 individuals), resulting in an UM phenotype. About 33.44% carried the CYP2D6_*41, which leads to decreased activity of the CYP2D6 enzyme. 19.67% had the wild-type alleles and thus had normal enzyme function. Furthermore, 15.74% carried the CYP2D6_*4, which is the most common nonfunctional form of the CYP2D6 enzyme worldwide. 6.56% carried the CYP2D6_*17, resulting in decreased enzyme activity. Approximately 5.73% carried the CYP2D6_*10, consequently decreasing the enzyme activity, resulting in a PM phenotype. 2.30% carried the CYP2D6_*29, leading to decreased metabolic activity of the enzyme, and 2.30% carried the CYP2D6_*35, resulting in an UM phenotype, 1.64% had a whole-gene deletion CYP2D6_*5, thus resulting in the loss of CYP2D6 enzyme production, 0.66% carried the CYP2D6_*6 variant. One individual carried the CYP2D6_*3(B), producing an inactive form of the enzyme, which leads to decrease of enzyme activity, resulting in a PM phenotype. Finally, one individual carried the CYP2D6_*9, which decreases the enzyme activity. Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that different CYP2D6 variants are highly prevalent in ethnic Saudi Arabs. This finding sets a basis for informed genotyping for these variants in personalized medicine. The study also suggests that xTAG is an appropriate procedure for genotyping the CYP2D6 variants in personalized medicine.

Keywords: Pharmacogenetics, Polymorphism, Psychiatric Treatment, CYP2D6, hormonal breast cancer, Saudi population

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5 Genetic and Non-Genetic Factors Affecting the Response to Clopidogrel Therapy

Authors: Snezana Mugosa, Zoran Todorovic, Zoran Bukumiric, Ivan Radosavljevic, Natasa Djordjevic


Introduction: Various studies have shown that the frequency of clopidogrel resistance ranges from 4-40%. The aim of this study was to provide in depth analysis of genetic and non-genetic factors that influence clopidogrel resistance in cardiology patients. Methods: We have conducted a prospective study in 200 hospitalized patients hospitalized at Cardiology Centre of the Clinical Centre of Montenegro. CYP2C19 genetic testing was conducted, and the PREDICT score was calculated in 102 out of 200 patients treated with clopidogrel in order to determine the influence of genetic and non-genetic factors on outcomes of interest. Adverse cardiovascular events and adverse reactions to clopidogrel were assessed during 12 months follow up period. Results: PREDICT score and CYP2C19 enzymatic activity were found to be statistically significant predictors of expressing lack of therapeutic efficacy of clopidogrel by multivariate logistic regression, without multicollinearity or interaction between the predictors (p = 0.002 and 0.009, respectively). Conclusions: Pharmacogenetics analyses that were done in the Montenegrin population of patients for the first time suggest that these analyses can predict patient response to the certain therapy. Stepwise approach could be used in assessing the clopidogrel resistance in cardiology patients, combining the PREDICT score, platelet aggregation test, and genetic testing for CYP2C19 polymorphism.

Keywords: Pharmacogenetics, Pharmacotherapy, clopidogrel, PREDICT score

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4 Genetic Variation in CYP4F2 and VKORC1: Pharmacogenomics Implications for Response to Warfarin

Authors: Zinhle Cindi, Collet Dandara, Mpiko Ntsekhe, Edson Makambwa, Miguel Larceda


Background: Warfarin is the most commonly used drug in the management of thromboembolic disease. However, there is a huge variability in the time, number of doses or starting doses for patients to achieve the required international normalised ratio (INR) which is compounded by a narrow therapeutic index. Many genetic-association studies have reported on European and Asian populations which have led to the designing of specific algorithms that are now being used to assist in warfarin dosing. However, very few or no studies have looked at the pharmacogenetics of warfarin in African populations, yet, huge differences in dosage requirements to reach the same INR have been observed. Objective: We set out to investigate the distribution of 3 SNPs CYP4F2 c.1347C > T, VKORC1 g.-1639G > A and VKORC1 c.1173C > T among South African Mixed Ancestry (MA) and Black African patients. Methods: DNA was extracted from 383 participants and subsequently genotyped using PCR/RFLP for the CYP4F2 c.1347 (V433M) (rs2108622), VKORC1 g.-1639 (rs9923231) and VKORC1 c.1173 (rs9934438) SNPs. Results: Comparing the Black and MA groups, significant differences were observed in the distribution of the following genotypes; CYP4F2 c.1347C/T (23% vs. 39% p=0.03). All VKORC1 g.-1639G > A genotypes (p < 0.006) and all VKORC1 c.1173C > T genotypes (p < 0.007). Conclusion: CYP4F2 c.1347T (V433M) reduces CYP4F2 protein levels and therefore expected to affect the amount of warfarin needed to block vitamin k recycling. The VKORC1 g-1639A variant alters transcriptional regulation therefore affecting the function of vitamin k epoxide reductase in vitamin k production. The VKORC1 c.1173T variant reduces the enzyme activity of VKORC1 consequently enhancing the effectiveness of warfarin. These are preliminary results; more genetic characterization is required to understand all the genetic determinants affecting how patients respond to warfarin.

Keywords: Algorithms, Pharmacogenetics, warfarin, thromboembolic disease

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3 CYP2D6*4 Allele Frequency and Extrapyramidal Side Effects during Haloperidol Therapy Among Russians and Tatars: A Pilot Study

Authors: Irina S. Burashnikova, Dmitriy A. Sychev, Ruslan Y. Kazakov


Сytochrome P450 CYP2D6 activity affects antipsychotic therapy safety. CYP2D6*4 polymorphism frequency varies among different ethnic groups. We studied CYP2D6*4 polymorphism frequency in Tatar and Russian schizophrenic patients and association of CYP2D6*4 polymorphism and extrapyramidal disorders (EPD) frequency in schizophrenic patients on haloperidol monotherapy in daily doses up to 20 mg. Results: Heterozygous CYP2D6*4 allele carrier frequency among Tatars was lower (23.8% vs 32.4% in Russians), but the differences did not reach statistical significance. CYP2D6*4 allele frequency among Tatars was also lower (11.9% vs 24.3% in Russians), but the difference was not quite significant (p=0.0592). Average daily haloperidol dose in the group without EPD was significantly higher than in the group with EPD (11.35±4.6 vs 13.87±3.3 mg, p=0.0252), but average daily haloperidol dose/weight ratios in the compared groups had no significant differences. Statistically significant association between EPD development and heterozygous CYP2D6*1/*4 genotype and CYP2D6*4 allele carrier frequency was revealed among all schizophrenic patients and among those of Tatar nationality. Further well designed pharmacogenetic studies in different Russian regions are needed to improve psychotropic therapy safety and to establish evidence-based indications for pharmacogenetic testing in clinical practice.

Keywords: Pharmacogenetics, Schizophrenia, Antipsychotic, CYP2D6 polymorphism, ethnic differences of CYP2D6*4 allele frequency, extrapyramidal side effects/disorder, Russians, Tatars

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2 Prenatal Use of Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SRIs) and Congenital Heart Anomalies (CHA): An Exploratory Pharmacogenetics Study

Authors: Aizati N. A. Daud, Jorieke E. H. Bergman, Wilhelmina S. Kerstjens-Frederikse, Pieter Van Der Vlies, Eelko Hak, Rolf M. F. Berger, Henk Groen, Bob Wilffert


Prenatal use of SRIs was previously associated with Congenital Heart Anomalies (CHA). The aim of the study is to explore whether pharmacogenetics plays a role in this teratogenicity using a gene-environment interaction study. A total of 33 case-mother dyads and 2 mother-only (children deceased) registered in EUROCAT Northern Netherlands were included in a case-only study. Five case-mother dyads and two mothers-only were exposed to SRIs (paroxetine=3, fluoxetine=2, venlafaxine=1, paroxetine and venlafaxine=1) in the first trimester of pregnancy. The remaining 28 case-mother dyads were not exposed to SRIs. Ten genes that encode the enzymes or proteins important in determining fetal exposure to SRIs or its mechanism of action were selected: CYPs (CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6), ABCB1 (placental P-glycoprotein), SLC6A4 (serotonin transporter) and serotonin receptor genes (HTR1A, HTR1B, HTR2A, and HTR3B). All included subjects were genotyped for 58 genetic variations in these ten genes. Logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the interaction odds ratio (OR) between genetic variations and SRIs exposure on the risk of CHA. Due to low phenotype frequencies of CYP450 poor metabolizers among exposed cases, the OR cannot be calculated. For ABCB1, there was no indication of changes in the risk of CHA with any of the ABCB1 SNPs in the children and their mothers. Several genetic variations of the serotonin transporter and receptors (SLC6A4 5-HTTLPR and 5-HTTVNTR, HTR1A rs1364043, HTR1B rs6296 & rs6298, HTR3B rs1176744) were associated with an increased risk of CHA, but with too limited sample size to reach statistical significance. For SLC6A4 genetic variations, the mean genetic scores of the exposed case-mothers tended to be higher than the unexposed mothers (2.5 ± 0.8 and 1.88 ± 0.7, respectively; p=0.061). For SNPs of the serotonin receptors, the mean genetic score for exposed cases (children) tended to be higher than the unexposed cases (3.4 ± 2.2, and 1.9 ± 1.6, respectively; p=0.065). This study might be among the first to explore the potential gene-environment interaction between pharmacogenetic determinants and SRIs use on the risk of CHA. With small sample sizes, it was not possible to find a significant interaction. However, there were indications for a role of serotonin receptor polymorphisms in fetuses exposed to SRIs on fetal risk of CHA which warrants further investigation.

Keywords: Pharmacogenetics, Heart Defects, Gene-Environment Interaction, teratogenicity, serotonin reuptake inhibitors

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1 Association between G2677T/A MDR1 Polymorphism with the Clinical Response to Disease Modifying Anti-Rheumatic Drugs in Rheumatoid Arthritis

Authors: Alan Ruiz-Padilla, Brando Villalobos-Villalobos, Yeniley Ruiz-Noa, Claudia Mendoza-Macías, Claudia Palafox-Sánchez, Miguel Marín-Rosales, Álvaro Cruz, Rubén Rangel-Salazar


Introduction: In patients with rheumatoid arthritis, resistance or poor response to disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARD) may be a reflection of the increase in g-P. The expression of g-P may be important in mediating the effluence of DMARD from the cell. In addition, P-glycoprotein is involved in the transport of cytokines, IL-1, IL-2 and IL-4, from normal lymphocytes activated to the surrounding extracellular matrix, thus influencing the activity of RA. The involvement of P-glycoprotein in the transmembrane transport of cytokines can serve as a modulator of the efficacy of DMARD. It was shown that a number of lymphocytes with glycoprotein P activity is increased in patients with RA; therefore, P-glycoprotein expression could be related to the activity of RA and could be a predictor of poor response to therapy. Objective: To evaluate in RA patients, if the G2677T/A MDR1 polymorphisms is associated with differences in the rate of therapeutic response to disease-modifying antirheumatic agents in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Material and Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted. Fifty seven patients with RA were included. They had an active disease according to DAS-28 (score >3.2). We excluded patients receiving biological agents. All the patients were followed during 6 months in order to identify the rate of therapeutic response according to the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria. At the baseline peripheral blood samples were taken in order to identify the G2677T/A MDR1 polymorphisms using PCR- Specific allele. The fragment was identified by electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gels stained with ethidium bromide. For statistical analysis, the genotypic and allelic frequencies of MDR1 gene polymorphism between responders and non-responders were determined. Chi-square tests as well as, relative risks with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were computed to identify differences in the risk for achieving therapeutic response. Results: RA patients had a mean age of 47.33 ± 12.52 years, 87.7% were women with a mean for DAS-28 score of 6.45 ± 1.12. At the 6 months, the rate of therapeutic response was 68.7 %. The observed genotype frequencies were: for G/G 40%, T/T 32%, A/A 19%, G/T 7% and for A/A genotype 2%. Patients with G allele developed at 6 months of treatment, higher rate for therapeutic response assessed by ACR20 compared to patients with others alleles (p=0.039). Conclusions: Patients with G allele of the - G2677T/A MDR1 polymorphisms had a higher rate of therapeutic response at 6 months with DMARD. These preliminary data support the requirement for a deep evaluation of these and other genotypes as factors that may influence the therapeutic response in RA.

Keywords: Pharmacogenetics, Rheumatoid Arthritis, p-glycoprotein, MDR1, therapeutic response

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