Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

PET Related Abstracts

14 PET Image Resolution Enhancement

Authors: Krzysztof Malczewski

Abstract:

PET is widely applied scanning procedure in medical imaging based research. It delivers measurements of functioning in distinct areas of the human brain while the patient is comfortable, conscious and alert. This article presents the new compression sensing based super-resolution algorithm for improving the image resolution in clinical Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scanners. The issue of motion artifacts is well known in Positron Emission Tomography (PET) studies as its side effect. The PET images are being acquired over a limited period of time. As the patients cannot hold breath during the PET data gathering, spatial blurring and motion artefacts are the usual result. These may lead to wrong diagnosis. It is shown that the presented approach improves PET spatial resolution in cases when Compressed Sensing (CS) sequences are used. Compressed Sensing (CS) aims at signal and images reconstructing from significantly fewer measurements than were traditionally thought necessary. The application of CS to PET has the potential for significant scan time reductions, with visible benefits for patients and health care economics. In this study the goal is to combine super-resolution image enhancement algorithm with CS framework to achieve high resolution PET output. Both methods emphasize on maximizing image sparsity on known sparse transform domain and minimizing fidelity.

Keywords: Pattern Recognition, Super-resolution, Image Reconstruction, PET

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13 Study of Poly(Ethylene Terephthalate)-Clay Nanocomposites Prepareted by Extrusion Reactive Method

Authors: F. Zouai, F. Z. Benabid, S. Bouhelal, D. Benachour

Abstract:

A method for the exfoliation of polyethylene terephtalate (PET) - clay nanocomposites has been reported in this study. Montmorillonite clay based polyethylene terephtalate nanocomposites were prepared by reactive melt-mixing. To achieve this, untreated clay was first functionalized with the crosslinking agent compound based mainly on peroxide/sulphur and TMTD as accelerator or activator for sulphur. Furthermore, the different blends composition of PET/clay were directly mixed in melt state in closed chamber of plastograph at given working conditions for short time and in one step process. To investigate the microstructure modification and thermal, mechanical and rheological properties the DSC, WAXS, microhardness, FTIR and tensile properties were performed. The resulting structure of the modified samples shows that total exfoliation appears at 4% w/w of clay to PET matrices. The crystallinity and tensile modulus were correlated by the H microhardness and the DSC shows no significant effect on the cristallinity degree. The mechanical properties were improved significantly. The viscosity decreases for 4% clay and the activation energy is the minimum. The WAXS measurement shows a partial exfoliation without any intercalation which is the most relevant point. The grafting of organic to inorganic nanolayers was observed by Si—O—C and Si—C bonds by FTIR.

Keywords: Nanocomposites, montmorillonite, PET, exfoliation, reactive melt-mixing

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12 Study of Nanoclay Blends Based on PET/PEN Prepared by Reactive Extrusion

Authors: F. Zouai, F. Z. Benabid, S. Bouhelal, D. Benachour

Abstract:

A new route of preparation of compatible blends, based on poly(ethylene terephthalate)(PET)/poly(ethylenenaphthalene2,6-dicarboxylate) (PEN)/clay nanocomposites has been successfully performed in one step by reactive melt extrusion. To achieve this, untreated clay was first purified and functionalized “in situ” with a compound based on an organic peroxide/sulfur mixture and (tetra methyl thiuram disulfide) TMTD as accelerator or activator for sulfur. The PET and PEN materials were first mixed separately in the melt state with different amounts of functionalized clay. It was observed that the compositions PET/4 wt% clay and PEN/7.5 wt% clay showed total exfoliation. These completely exfoliated compositions, called nPET and nPEN, respectively, were used to prepare new nPET/nPEN nanoblends in the same mixing batch. The nPET/nPEN nanoblends were compared to neat blends of PET/PEN. The blends and the nanocomposites were characterized by different techniques: differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS). The micro and nanostructure/properties relationships were investigated. The results of the WAXS measurements study showed that the exfoliation of tetrahedral nanolayers of clay was complete and the octahedral structure disappeared totally. From the different WAXS patterns, it is seen that all samples are amorphous phase. The thermal study showed that there are only one glass transition temperature Tg, one crystallization temperature Tc and one melting temperature Tm for every composition. This indicated that both PET/PEN blends and nPET/nPEN blends were compatible in the entire range of compositions. In addition, nPET/nPEN blends present lower Tc values and higher Tm values than the corresponding neat PET/PEN blends. The obtained results indicate that nPET/nPEN blends are somewhat different from the pure ones in nanostructure and behavior, thus showing the additional effect of nanolayers. The present study allowed establishing good correlations between the different measured properties.

Keywords: Nanocomposites, montmorillonite, PET, exfoliation, reactive melt-mixing, PEN

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11 Electromechanical Reliability of ITO/Ag/ITO Multilayer Coated Pet Substrate for Optoelectronic Application

Authors: D. W. Mohammed, J. Bowen, S. N. Kukureka

Abstract:

Successful design and fabrication of flexible devices for electrode components requires a low sheet resistance, high optical transmittance, high mechanical reliability. Indium tin oxide (ITO) film is currently the predominant transparent conductive oxide (TCO) film in potential applications such as flexible organic light- emitting diodes, flat-panel displays, solar cells, and thin film transistors (TFTs). However ITO films are too brittle and their resistivity is rather high in some cases compared with ITO/Ag/ ITO, and they cannot completely meet flexible optoelectronic device requirements. Therefore, in this work the mechanical properties of ITO /Ag/ITO multilayer film that deposited on Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) compared with the single layered ITO sample were investigated using bending fatigue, twisting fatigue and thermal cycling experiments. The electrical resistance was monitored during the application of mechanical and thermal loads to see the pattern of relationship between the load and the electrical continuity as a consequent of failure. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy were used to provide surface characterization of the mechanically-tested samples. The effective embedment of the Ag layer between upper and lower ITO films led to metallic conductivity and superior flexibility to the single ITO electrode, due to the high failure strain of the ductile Ag layer. These results indicate that flexible ITO/Ag/ITO multilayer electrodes are a promising candidate for use as transparent conductor in flexible displays. They provided significantly reduced sheet resistance compared to ITO, and improved bending and twisting properties both as a function of radius, angle and thermal cycling.

Keywords: Mechanical Properties, PET, ITO/Ag/ITO multilayer, failure strain

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10 Study of Nano Clay Based on Pet

Authors: F. Zouai, F. Z. Benabid, S. Bouhelal, D. Benachoura

Abstract:

A (PET)/clay nano composites has been successfully performed in one step by reactive melt extrusion. The PEN was first mixed in the melt state with different amounts of functionalized clay. It was observed that the composition PET/4 wt% clay showed total exfoliation. These completely exfoliated composition called nPET, was used to prepare new nPET nano composites in the same mixing batch. The nPEN was compared to neat PET. The nanocomposites were characterized by different techniques: differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS). The micro and nanostructure/properties relationships were investigated. From the different WAXS patterns, it is seen that all samples are amorphous phase. In addition, nPET blends present lower Tc values and higher Tm values than the corresponding neat PET. The present study allowed establishing good correlations between the different measured properties.

Keywords: Nanocomposites, montmorillonite, PET, exfoliation, reactive melt-mixing

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9 Influence of Processing Regime and Contaminants on the Properties of Postconsumer Thermoplastics

Authors: Fares Alsewailem

Abstract:

Material recycling of thermoplastic waste offers practical solution for municipal solid waste reduction. Post-consumer plastics such as polyethylene (PE), polyethyleneterephtalate (PET), and polystyrene (PS) may be separated from each other by physical methods such as density difference and hence processed as single plastic, however one should be cautious about the contaminants presence in the waste stream inform of paper, glue, etc. since these articles even in trace amount may deteriorate properties of the recycled plastics especially the mechanical properties. furthermore, melt processing methods used to recycle thermoplastics such as extrusion and compression molding may induce degradation of some of the recycled plastics such as PET and PS. In this research, it is shown that care should be taken when processing recycled plastics by melt processing means in two directions, first contaminants should be extremely minimized, and secondly melt processing steps should also be minimum.

Keywords: Mechanical, Recycling, PET, HDPE

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8 Behavior of Pet Packaging on Quality Characteristics of an Algerian Virgin Olive Oil Under Various Conditions of Storage

Authors: Hamitri-Guerfi Fatiha, Madani Khodir, Youyou Ahcene, Mekimene Lekhder

Abstract:

Virgin olive oil is appreciated by consumers, the quality of the oil is regulated by the international olive oil council depends on its chemical composition, so, the correct packing conditions are a prerequisite to preserve oil color, flavor, and nutriments, from production to consumption. The contact of food with various materials of packaging, since the production, until their consumption constitutes one of the essential aspects of food safety (directive 76/833/CEE). In Algeria, plastic bottles, although, they are economic and light are largely used at packaging olive oil but not used in other countries. This is due to migration phenomena that can occur from these materials. Thus, the goal of this work is to examine the physicochemical behavior of the couple packaging plastic-oil during their exposure to three temperatures corresponding to the conditions of storage applied in Algeria. Like, it is difficult to compare blowers of bottles which are heavy engineering, it comes out from this study that the effect of heat, the absorption of water, the constraints of storage of acidity, as well as the composition of oil, the PET bottles showed a remarkable structural instability, this defect of quality was confirmed by the analysis of morphology by electronic scan microscopy. These bottles present a total migration significantly higher than the threshold of acceptance. Moreover, a metal contamination of oil by its packaging was confirmed by the spectroscopy of atomic absorption and a microanalysis. The differences observed between the results of the microanalysis applied and the mechanical characterizations of the various bottles are reported, showing the reality of the container-contents exchanges.

Keywords: Stability, Interaction, virgin olive oil, PET

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7 Study of the Montmorillonite Effect on PET/Clay and PEN/Clay Nanocomposites

Authors: F. Zouai, F. Z. Benabid, S. Bouhelal, D. Benachour

Abstract:

Nanocomposite polymer / clay are relatively important area of research. These reinforced plastics have attracted considerable attention in scientific and industrial fields because a very small amount of clay can significantly improve the properties of the polymer. The polymeric matrices used in this work are two saturated polyesters ie polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polyethylene naphthalate (PEN).The success of processing compatible blends, based on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET)/ poly(ethylene naphthalene) (PEN)/clay nanocomposites in one step by reactive melt extrusion is described. Untreated clay was first purified and functionalized ‘in situ’ with a compound based on an organic peroxide/ sulfur mixture and (tetramethylthiuram disulfide) as the activator for sulfur. The PET and PEN materials were first separately mixed in the molten state with functionalized clay. The PET/4 wt% clay and PEN/7.5 wt% clay compositions showed total exfoliation. These compositions, denoted nPET and nPEN, respectively, were used to prepare new n(PET/PEN) nanoblends in the same mixing batch. The n(PET/PEN) nanoblends were compared to neat PET/PEN blends. The blends and nanocomposites were characterized using various techniques. Microstructural and nanostructural properties were investigated. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results showed that the exfoliation of tetrahedral clay nanolayers is complete and the octahedral structure totally disappears. It was shown that total exfoliation, confirmed by wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) measurements, contributes to the enhancement of impact strength and tensile modulus. In addition, WAXS results indicated that all samples are amorphous. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) study indicated the occurrence of one glass transition temperature Tg, one crystallization temperature Tc and one melting temperature Tm for every composition. This was evidence that both PET/PEN and nPET/nPEN blends are compatible in the entire range of compositions. In addition, the nPET/nPEN blends showed lower Tc and higher Tm values than the corresponding neat PET/PEN blends. In conclusion, the results obtained indicate that n(PET/PEN) blends are different from the pure ones in nanostructure and physical behavior.

Keywords: Nanocomposites, montmorillonite, blends, PET, exfoliation, reactive melt-mixing, DSC, PEN, DRX, plastograph

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6 Automatic Staging and Subtype Determination for Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma Using PET Image Texture Analysis

Authors: Seyhan Karaçavuş, Bülent Yılmaz, Ömer Kayaaltı, Semra İçer, Arzu Taşdemir, Oğuzhan Ayyıldız, Kübra Eset, Eser Kaya

Abstract:

In this study, our goal was to perform tumor staging and subtype determination automatically using different texture analysis approaches for a very common cancer type, i.e., non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). Especially, we introduced a texture analysis approach, called Law’s texture filter, to be used in this context for the first time. The 18F-FDG PET images of 42 patients with NSCLC were evaluated. The number of patients for each tumor stage, i.e., I-II, III or IV, was 14. The patients had ~45% adenocarcinoma (ADC) and ~55% squamous cell carcinoma (SqCCs). MATLAB technical computing language was employed in the extraction of 51 features by using first order statistics (FOS), gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM), gray-level run-length matrix (GLRLM), and Laws’ texture filters. The feature selection method employed was the sequential forward selection (SFS). Selected textural features were used in the automatic classification by k-nearest neighbors (k-NN) and support vector machines (SVM). In the automatic classification of tumor stage, the accuracy was approximately 59.5% with k-NN classifier (k=3) and 69% with SVM (with one versus one paradigm), using 5 features. In the automatic classification of tumor subtype, the accuracy was around 92.7% with SVM one vs. one. Texture analysis of FDG-PET images might be used, in addition to metabolic parameters as an objective tool to assess tumor histopathological characteristics and in automatic classification of tumor stage and subtype.

Keywords: Texture Analysis, PET, cancer stage, cancer cell type, non-small cell lung carcinoma

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5 Clay Effect on PET/Clay and PEN/Clay Nanocomposites Properties

Authors: F. Zouai, F. Z. Benabid, S. Bouhelal, D. Benachour

Abstract:

Reinforced plastics or nanocomposites have attracted considerable attention in scientific and industrial fields because a very small amount of clay can significantly improve the properties of the polymer. The polymeric matrices used in this work are two saturated polyesters, i.e., polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polyethylene naphthalate (PEN). The success of processing compatible blends, based on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET)/poly(ethylene naphthalene) (PEN)/clay nanocomposites in one step by reactive melt extrusion is described. Untreated clay was first purified and functionalized ‘in situ’ with a compound based on an organic peroxide/ sulfur mixture and (tetramethylthiuram disulfide) as the activator for sulfur. The PET and PEN materials were first separately mixed in the molten state with functionalized clay. The PET/4 wt% clay and PEN/7.5 wt% clay compositions showed total exfoliation. These compositions, denoted nPET and nPEN, respectively, were used to prepare new n(PET/PEN) nanoblends in the same mixing batch. The n(PET/PEN) nanoblends were compared to neat PET/PEN blends. The blends and nanocomposites were characterized using various techniques. Microstructural and nanostructural properties were investigated. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results showed that the exfoliation of tetrahedral clay nanolayers is complete, and the octahedral structure totally disappears. It was shown that total exfoliation, confirmed by wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) measurements, contributes to the enhancement of impact strength and tensile modulus. In addition, WAXS results indicated that all samples are amorphous. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) study indicated the occurrence of one glass transition temperature Tg, one crystallization temperature Tc and one melting temperature Tm for every composition.

Keywords: Nanocomposites, montmorillonite, PET, exfoliation, reactive melt-mixing, DSC, PEN, DRX, plastograph

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4 Quinazoline Analogue as a Pet Tracer for Imaging PDE10A: Radiosynthesis and Biological Evaluation

Authors: Neelam Kumari, Anjani Kumar Tiwari, Anil Mishra

Abstract:

The family of phosphodiesterases (PDEs) plays a critical role in control of the level, localization, and duration of intracellular 3’-5’-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and 3’-5’-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) signals by specifically hydrolyzing these cyclic nucleotides. As the involvement of cyclic nucleotide second messengers in cell signaling and homeostasis is established, the regulation of these pathways in the brain by various PDE isoforms is an area of considerable interest, as they are involved in nearly all brain functions and in the etiology of neuropsychiatric diseases. The PDE10A isoform, isolated from different species and characterized regarding structure and function, has received much attention in recent years, particularly in the context of schizophrenia and Huntington’s disease, which are both related to a role of PDE10A in the regulation of striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission. Quinazoline analogue 1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-6,7-dimethoxyquinazoline, was evaluated as specific PET marker for phosphodiesterase (PDE) 10A. Here, we report the radiosynthesis of [11C]2 and the in vitro and in vivo evaluation of [11C]2 as a potential positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracer for imaging PDE10A in the central nervous system (CNS). The radiosynthesis of [11C]2 was achieved by O-methylation of the corresponding des-methyl precursor with [11C]methyl iodide. [11C]2 was obtained with ∼50% radiochemical yield. PET imaging studies in rat brain displayed initial specific uptake with very rapid clearance of [11C]2 from brain. Though [11C]2 is not an ideal radioligand for clinical imaging of PDE10A in the CNS. Modified analogue of quinazoline having a higher potency for inhibiting PDE10A and improved pharmacokinetic properties will be necessary for imaging this enzyme with PET.

Keywords: PET, quinazoline, PDE10A, radiotracer

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3 Modified Acetamidobenzoxazolone Based Biomarker for Translocator Protein Mapping during Neuroinflammation

Authors: Neelam Kumari, Anjani Kumar Tiwari, Anil Mishra

Abstract:

The 18-kDa translocator protein (TSPO) previously called as peripheral benzodiazepine receptor, is proven biomarker for variety of neuroinflammation. TSPO is tryptophane rich five transmembranal protein found on outer mitochondrial membrane of steroid synthesising and immunomodulatory cells. In case of neuronal damage or inflammation the expression level of TSPO get upregulated as an immunomodulatory response. By utilizing Benzoxazolone as a basic scaffold, series of TSPO ligands have been designed followed by their screening through in silico studies. Synthesis has been planned by employing convergent methodology in six high yielding steps. For the synthesized ligands the ‘in vitro’ assay was performed to determine the binding affinity in term of Ki. On ischemic rat brain, autoradiography studies were also carried to check the specificity and affinity of the designed radiolabelled ligand for TSPO.Screening was performed on the basis of GScore of CADD based schrodinger software. All the modified and better prospective compound were successfully carried out and characterized by spectroscopic techniques (FTIR, NMR and HRMS). In vitro binding assay showed best binding affinity Ki = 6.1+ 0.3 for TSPO over central benzodiazepine receptor (CBR) Ki > 200. ARG studies indicated higher uptake of two analogues on the lesion side compared with that on the non-lesion side of ischemic rat brains. Displacement experiments with unlabelled ligand had minimized the difference in uptake between the two sides which indicates the specificity of the ligand towards TSPO receptor.

Keywords: Imaging, PET, TSPO, Acetamidobenzoxazolone

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2 Role of Imaging in Alzheimer's Disease Trials: Impact on Trial Planning, Patient Recruitment and Retention

Authors: Kohkan Shamsi

Abstract:

Background: MRI and PET are now extensively utilized in Alzheimer's disease (AD) trials for patient eligibility, efficacy assessment, and safety evaluations but including imaging in AD trials impacts site selection process, patient recruitment, and patient retention. Methods: PET/MRI are performed at baseline and at multiple follow-up timepoints. This requires prospective site imaging qualification, evaluation of phantom data, training and continuous monitoring of machines for acquisition of standardized and consistent data. This also requires prospective patient/caregiver training as patients must go to multiple facilities for imaging examinations. We will share our experience form one of the largest AD programs. Lesson learned: Many neurological diseases have a similar presentation as AD or could confound the assessment of drug therapy. The inclusion of wrong patients has ethical and legal issues, and data could be excluded from the analysis. Centralized eligibility evaluation read process will be discussed. Amyloid related imaging abnormalities (ARIA) were observed in amyloid-β trials. FDA recommended regular monitoring of ARIA. Our experience in ARIA evaluations in large phase III study at > 350 sites will be presented. Efficacy evaluation: MRI is utilized to evaluate various volumes of the brain. FDG PET or amyloid PET agents has been used in AD trials. We will share our experience about site and central independent reads. Imaging logistic issues that need to be handled in the planning phase will also be discussed as it can impact patient compliance thereby increasing missing data and affecting study results. Conclusion: imaging must be prospectively planned to include standardizing imaging methodologies, site selection process and selecting assessment criteria. Training should be transparently conducted and documented. Prospective patient/caregiver awareness of imaging requirement is essential for patient compliance and reduction in missing imaging data.

Keywords: MRI, Patient Recruitment, alzheimer's disease, Retention, PET, ARIA

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1 Quantification and Evaluation of Tumors Heterogeneity Utilizing Multimodality Imaging

Authors: Ramin Ghasemi Shayan, Morteza Janebifam

Abstract:

Tumors are regularly inhomogeneous. Provincial varieties in death, metabolic action, multiplication and body part are watched. There’s expanding proof that strong tumors may contain subpopulations of cells with various genotypes and phenotypes. These unmistakable populaces of malignancy cells can connect during a serious way and may contrast in affectability to medications. Most tumors show organic heterogeneity1–3 remembering heterogeneity for genomic subtypes, varieties inside the statement of development variables and genius, and hostile to angiogenic factors4–9 and varieties inside the tumoural microenvironment. These can present as contrasts between tumors in a few people. for instance, O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase, a DNA fix compound, is hushed by methylation of the quality advertiser in half of glioblastoma (GBM), adding to chemosensitivity, and improved endurance. From the outset, there includes been specific enthusiasm inside the usage of dissemination weighted imaging (DWI) and dynamic complexity upgraded MRI (DCE-MRI). DWI sharpens MRI to water dispersion inside the extravascular extracellular space (EES) and is wiped out with the size and setup of the cell populace. Additionally, DCE-MRI utilizes dynamic obtaining of pictures during and after the infusion of intravenous complexity operator. Signal changes are additionally changed to outright grouping of differentiation permitting examination utilizing pharmacokinetic models. PET scan modality gives one of a kind natural particularity, permitting dynamic or static imaging of organic atoms marked with positron emanating isotopes (for example, 15O, 18F, 11C). The strategy is explained to a colossal radiation portion, which points of confinement rehashed estimations, particularly when utilized together with PC tomography (CT). At long last, it's of incredible enthusiasm to quantify territorial hemoglobin state, which could be joined with DCE-CT vascular physiology estimation to create significant experiences for understanding tumor hypoxia.

Keywords: Heterogeneity, Magnetic resonance imaging, PET, computerized tomography scan

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