Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

Pest Related Abstracts

9 The Effect of Four Local Plant Extract on the Control of Rice Weevil, Sitophilus oryzae L.

Authors: Banaz Sdiq Abdulla

Abstract:

Four local species (Allium sativum, Capsicum annum, Anethum graveolens, and Ocimum basilicum) were evaluated in the laboratory of Biolog Department, College of Education, for their ability to protect stored rice from the infection by weevil Sitophilus oryzae. Aqueous extracts of the plant species were applied as direct admixture of three concentrations levels of 1%, 2.5%, and 5% (W/V) to assess for mortality, adult emergence, and repellency and weight losses. The results showed that Al. sativum extracts was the most effective as it gave the highest mortality (90%)at 5% concentration followed by Capsicum annum (80%) on the 4th day post treatment, the result showed that the plant extract of different concentrations exhibited different level of reduction in adult emergence and different repellency of adults of Sitophilus oryzae. Allium sativum recorded the lowest mean number of adult emergence (8) followed by Capsicum annum (10) at 5% concentration, while Capsicum annum was found to be revealed complete repellent agent (100%) repellency on the 6th hours against Sitophilus oryzae followed by Allium sativum and Anethum graveolens (81.8%). There was a significant (P>0.05) reduction in the weight lossed by the weevils with less damaged recorded on grain treated with Allium sativum and Capsicum annum (1.6%) and (2.3%) respectively.

Keywords: Pest, Rice, plant extraction, protectant

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8 Determination of Harmful Important Mite (ACARI) and Nematoda Species, Their Distribution and Their Control Possibility on Garlic and Onion Growing Areas in Turkey

Authors: Cihan Cilbircioğlu

Abstract:

Allium sativum L.(garlic) and Allium. cepa L. (onion) are the most common species of the Allium spp. and are produced at the very high rate all over the world. The yield loss caused by pests is the most important problem in the production of these crops. In the absence of control measures, yield loss would be around 35% on average. The yield loss sometimes depending on the pest species and population density can reach about 100%. Mites and nematodes are the most important pests of them. These pests that cause damage to A. sativum and A. cepa shows a wide range of taxonomic categories. The number of common pest mite and nematode species that cause damage to either A. sativum and A. cepa are over 20 species. In this study, detailed information on morphology, life cycle, management, and symptoms of the economically most important harmful important mite (acari) and nematode species of onion and garlic has been provided through careful survey of corresponding researches in Turkey and given information about new practices and approaches on their controls.

Keywords: Turkey, Pest, garlic, onion, acari, nematoda control methods

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7 Spatio-Temporal Pest Risk Analysis with ‘BioClass’

Authors: Vladimir A. Todiras

Abstract:

Spatio-temporal models provide new possibilities for real-time action in pest risk analysis. It should be noted that estimation of the possibility and probability of introduction of a pest and of its economic consequences involves many uncertainties. We present a new mapping technique that assesses pest invasion risk using online BioClass software. BioClass is a GIS tool designed to solve multiple-criteria classification and optimization problems based on fuzzy logic and level set methods. This research describes a method for predicting the potential establishment and spread of a plant pest into new areas using a case study: corn rootworm (Diabrotica spp.), tomato leaf miner (Tuta absoluta) and plum fruit moth (Grapholita funebrana). Our study demonstrated that in BioClass we can combine fuzzy logic and geographic information systems with knowledge of pest biology and environmental data to derive new information for decision making. Pests are sensitive to a warming climate, as temperature greatly affects their survival and reproductive rate and capacity. Changes have been observed in the distribution, frequency and severity of outbreaks of Helicoverpa armigera on tomato. BioClass has demonstrated to be a powerful tool for applying dynamic models and map the potential future distribution of a species, enable resource to make decisions about dangerous and invasive species management and control.

Keywords: Pest, Risk, classification, model

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6 Bionomics of Cryptophlebia Ombrodelta Lower (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), a Major Pest of Tamarind, Tamarindus Indica in Bastar Tribal Belt of Chhattisgarh, India

Authors: R. K. Patel

Abstract:

The experiment entitled “Bionomics of Cryptophlebia ombrodelta Lower (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), a Major Pest of Tamarind, Tamarindus indica in Bastar tribal belt of Chhattisgarh” was conducted at S. G. College of Agriculture and Research Station, Jagdalpur (Chhattisgarh) during 2014-15. The moth, Cryptophlebia ombrodelta (Lower) is very destructive pest to tamarind, Tamarindus indica. The mature larva is pinkish in colour whereas, the moth is generally grayish in colour and it lays pale yellowish - white, flat and round eggs near the peduncle joint of pod (fruit) or on the pod surface. The newly hatched larva enters into the fruit by making hole packed with excreta. It completes three to four generation in a year and can cause fourty two per cent loss to tamarind fruits. The morphological details of this pest were studied.

Keywords: Pest, Bionomics, loss, Cryptophlebia ombrodelta, Tamarind, Tamarindus indica

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5 Alkaloid Levels in Experimental Lines of Ryegrass in Southtern Chile

Authors: Leonardo Parra, Manuel Chacón-Fuentes, Andrés Quiroz

Abstract:

One of the most important factors in beef and dairy production in the world as well as also in Chile, is related to the correct choice of cultivars or mixtures of forage grasses and legumes to ensure high yields and quality of grassland. However, a great problem is the persistence of the grasses as a result of the action of different hypogeous as epigean pests. The complex insect pests associated with grassland include white grubs (Hylamorpha elegans, Phytoloema herrmanni), blackworm (Dalaca pallens) and Argentine stem weevil (Listronotus bonariensis). In Chile, the principal strategy utilized for controlling this pest is chemical control, through the use of synthetic insecticides, however, underground feeding habits of larval and flight activity of adults makes this uneconomic method. Furthermore, due to problems including environmental degradation, development of resistance and chemical residues, there is a worldwide interest in the use of alternative environmentally friendly pest control methods. In this sense, in recent years there has been an increasing interest in determining the role of endophyte fungi in controlling epigean and hypogeous pest. Endophytes from ryegrass (Lolium perenne), establish a biotrophic relationship with the host, defined as mutualistic symbiosis. The plant-fungi association produces a “cocktail of alkaloids” where peramine is the main toxic substance present in endophyte of ryegrass and responsible for damage reduction of L. bonariensis. In the last decade, few studies have been developed on the effectiveness of new ryegrass cultivars carriers of endophyte in controlling insect pests. Therefore, the aim of this research is to provide knowledge concerning to evaluate the alkaloid content, such as peramine and Lolitrem B, present in new experimental lines of ryegrass and feasible to be used in grasslands of southern Chile. For this, during 2016, ryegrass plants of six experimental lines and two commercial cultivars sown at the Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias Carrillanca (Vilcún, Chile) were collected and subjected to a process of chemical extraction to identify and quantify the presence of peramine and lolitrem B by the technique of liquid chromatography of high resolution (HPLC). The results indicated that the experimental lines EL-1 and EL-3 had high content of peramine (0.25 and 0.43 ppm, respectively) than with lolitrem B (0.061 and 0.19 ppm, respectively). Furthermore, the higher contents of lolitrem B were detected in the EL-4 and commercial cultivar Alto (positive control) with 0.08 and 0.17 ppm, respectively. Peramine and lolitrem B were not detected in the cultivar Jumbo (negative control). These results suggest that EL-3 would have potential as future cultivate because it has high content of peramine, alkaloid responsible for controlling insect pest. However, their current role on the complex insects attacking ryegrass grasslands should be evaluated. The information obtained in this research could be used to improve control strategies against hypogeous and epigean pests of grassland in southern Chile and also to reduce the use of synthetic pesticides.

Keywords: Pest, HPLC, Lolitrem B, peramine

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4 Biodiversity and Distribution of Tettigonioidea, Ensifera of Pakistan

Authors: Riffat Sultana Pathan, Waheed Ali Panhwar, Muhammad Saeed Wagan

Abstract:

Tettigonioidea are phytophagous insects damaging agricultural crops, forest, fruit orchards, berry shrubs, and grasses. The material was collected from different agricultural fields of rice, sugarcane, wheat, maize surrounding by different grasses. Beside this, forest, hilly areas, semi-desert and desert regions were also inspected time to time. All material was captured, killed and stored by using the standard entomological method. As a result of extensive survey fair numbers were captured from the different climatic zone of country. Seven sub-families of Tettigonioidea viz: Pseudophyllinae, Phaneropterinae, Conocephalinae, Tettigoniinae, Hexacentrinae, Mecopodinae and Decticinae came in collection. This fauna contributes 29 new records to Pakistan and 5 new species to science. Beside this, a brief description of each supra-generic category of Tettigonioidea along with photographs and synonymy is also documented. In addition to this, detailed list of host plants from Pakistan was also composed. This study provides important data for Integrated Pest Management (IPM) of Tettigonioidea biodiversity conservation and grassland restoration in Pakistan.

Keywords: Agriculture, Pest, conocephalinae, phaneropterinae, tettigoniidae

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3 Extraction and Quantification of Peramine Present in Dalaca pallens, a Pest of Grassland in Southtern Chile

Authors: Daniel Martinez, Leonardo Parra, Manuel Chacón-Fuentes, Andrés Quiroz, Fernando Ortega, Jorge Pizarro

Abstract:

Control of Dalaca pallens or blackworms, one of the most important hypogeous pest in grassland in southern Chile, is based on the use of broad-spectrum insecticides such as organophosphates and pyrethroids. However, the rapid development of insecticide resistance in field populations of this insect and public concern over the environmental impact of these insecticides has resulted in the search for other control methods. Specifically, the use of endophyte fungi for controlling pest has emerged as an interesting and promising strategy. Endophytes from ryegrass (Lolium perenne), establish a biotrophic relationship with the host, defined as mutualistic symbiosis. The plant-fungi association produces alkaloids where peramine is the main toxic substance against Listronotus bonariensis, the most important epigean pest of ryegrass. Nevertheless, the effect of peramina on others pest insects, such as D. pallens, to our knowledge has not been studied, and also its possible metabolization in the body of the larvae. Therefore, we addressed the following research question: Do larvae of D. pallens store peramine after consumption of ryegrass endophyte infected (E+)? For this, specimens of blackworms were fed with ryegrass plant of seven experimental lines and one commercial cultivar endophyte free (E-) sown at the Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias Carillanca (Vilcún, Chile). Once the feeding period was over, ten larvae of each treatment were examined. Individuals were dissected, and their gut was removed to exclude any influence of remaining material. The rest of the larva's body was dried at 60°C by 24-48 h and ground into a fine powder using a mortar. 25 mg of dry powder was transferred to a microcentrifuge tube and extracted in 1 mL of a mixture of methanol:water:formic acid. Then, the samples were centrifuged at 16,000 rpm for 3 min, and the supernatant was colected and injected in the liquid chromatography of high resolution (HPLC). The results confirmed the presence of peramine in the larva's body of D. pallens. The insects that fed the experimental lines LQE-2 and LQE-6 were those where peramine was present in high proportion (0.205 and 0.199 ppm, respectively); while LQE-7 and LQE-3 obtained the lowest concentrations of the alkaloid (0.047 and 0.053 ppm, respectively). Peramine was not detected in the insects when the control cultivar Jumbo (E-) was tested. These results evidenced the storage and metabolism of peramine during consumption of the larvae. However, the effect of this alkaloid present in 'future ryegrass cultivars' (LQE-2 and LQE-6) on the performance and survival of blackworms must be studied and confirmed experimentally.

Keywords: Pest, HPLC, alkaloid, blackworms

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2 Determinant Factor of Farm Household Fruit Tree Planting: The Case of Habru Woreda, North Wollo

Authors: Getamesay Kassaye Dimru

Abstract:

The cultivation of fruit tree in degraded areas has two-fold importance. Firstly, it improves food availability and income, and secondly, it promotes the conservation of soil and water improving, in turn, the productivity of the land. The main objectives of this study are to identify the determinant of farmer's fruit trees plantation decision and to major fruit production challenges and opportunities of the study area. The analysis was made using primary data collected from 60 sample household selected randomly from the study area in 2016. The primary data was supplemented by data collected from a key informant. In addition to the descriptive statistics and statistical tests (Chi-square test and t-test), a logit model was employed to identify the determinant of fruit tree plantation decision. Drought, pest incidence, land degradation, lack of input, lack of capital and irrigation schemes maintenance, lack of misuse of irrigation water and limited agricultural personnel are the major production constraints identified. The opportunities that need to further exploited are better access to irrigation, main road access, endowment of preferred guava variety, experience of farmers, and proximity of the study area to research center. The result of logit model shows that from different factors hypothesized to determine fruit tree plantation decision, age of the household head accesses to market and perception of farmers about fruits' disease and pest resistance are found to be significant. The result has revealed important implications for the promotion of fruit production for both land degradation control and rehabilitation and increasing the livelihood of farming households.

Keywords: Pest, irrigation, Fruit, degradation

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1 Mass Pheromone Trapping on Red Palm Weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Oil Palm Plantations of Terengganu

Authors: Wahizatul Afzan Azmi, Nur Ain Farhah Ros Saidon Khudri, Mohamad Haris Hussain, Tse Seng Chuah

Abstract:

Malaysia houses a broad range of palm trees species and some of these palm trees are very crucial for the country’s social and economic development, especially the oil palm trees. However, the destructive pest of the various palms species, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) or known as Red Palm Weevil (RPW) was first detected in Terengganu in 2007. Recently, the pattern of infestation has move from coastal lines toward inland areas. After the coconut plantations, it is presumed that the RPW will be a serious threat to the oil palm plantations in Malaysia. Thus, this study was carried out to detect the presence and distribution of Red Palm Weevil (RPW) in selected oil palm plantations of Terengganu. A total of 42 traps were installed in the three oil palm plantations in Terengganu and were inspected every week for two months. Oil palm plantation A collected significantly higher adults RPW compared to the other locations. Generally, females of RPW were significantly higher than male individuals. Females were collected more as the synthetic aggregation pheromone used, ferrugineol was synthesized from the male aggregation pheromone of adult RPW. Oil palm plantation A collected the highest number of RPW might be due to the abundance of soft part in the host plant as the oil palm trees age ranged between 6 to 10 years old. As a conclusion, RPW presence was detected in some oil palm plantations of Terengganu and immediate action is crucially needed before it is too late.

Keywords: Pest, oil palm, red palm weevil, pheromone

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