Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

Peshawar Related Abstracts

3 Lessons from Patients Expired due to Severe Head Injuries Treated in Intensive Care Unit of Lady Reading Hospital Peshawar

Authors: Mumtaz Ali, Hamzullah Khan, Khalid Khanzada, Shahid Ayub, Aurangzeb Wazir

Abstract:

Objective: To analyse the death of patients treated in neuro-surgical ICU for severe head injuries from different perspectives. The evaluation of the data so obtained to help improve the health care delivery to this group of patients in ICU. Study Design: It is a descriptive study based on retrospective analysis of patients presenting to neuro-surgical ICU in Lady Reading Hospital, Peshawar. Study Duration: It covered the period between 1st January 2009 to 31st December 2009. Material and Methods: The Clinical record of all the patients presenting with the clinical radiological and surgical features of severe head injuries, who expired in neuro-surgical ICU was collected. A separate proforma which mentioned age, sex, time of arrival and death, causes of head injuries, the radiological features, the clinical parameters, the surgical and non surgical treatment given was used. The average duration of stay and the demographic and domiciliary representation of these patients was noted. The record was analyzed accordingly for discussion and recommendations. Results: Out of the total 112 (n-112) patients who expired in one year in the neuro-surgical ICU the young adults made up the majority 64 (57.14%) followed by children, 34 (30.35%) and then the elderly age group: 10 (8.92%). Road traffic accidents were the major cause of presentation, 75 (66.96%) followed by history of fall; 23 (20.53%) and then the fire arm injuries; 13 (11.60%). The predominant CT scan features of these patients on presentation was cerebral edema, and midline shift (diffuse neuronal injuries). 46 (41.07%) followed by cerebral contusions. 28 (25%). The correctable surgical causes were present only in 18 patients (16.07%) and the majority 94 (83.92%) were given conservative management. Of the 69 (n=69) patients in which CT scan was repeated; 62 (89.85%) showed worsening of the initial CT scan abnormalities while in 7 cases (10.14%) the features were static. Among the non surgical cases both ventilatory therapy in 7 (6.25%) and tracheostomy in 39 (34.82%) failed to change the outcome. The maximum stay in the neuro ICU leading upto the death was 48 hours in 35 (31.25%) cases followed by 31 (27.67%) cases in 24 hours; 24 (21.42%) in one week and 16 (14.28%) in 72 hours. Only 6 (5.35%) patients survived more than a week. Patients were received from almost all the districts of NWFP except. The Hazara division. There were some Afghan refugees as well. Conclusion: Mortality following the head injuries is alarmingly high despite repeated claims about the professional and administrative improvement. Even places like ICU could not change the out come according to the desired aims and objectives in the present set up. A rethinking is needed both at the individual and institutional level among the concerned quarters with a clear aim at the more scientific grounds. Only then one can achieve the desired results.

Keywords: Pediatrics, Geriatrics, Glasgow Coma Scale, Peshawar

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2 Climate Change and Food Security: Effects of Ozone on Crops in North-West Pakistan

Authors: Abdul Wahid, Muhammad Nauman Ahmad, Patrick Büker, Sofia Khalid, Leon Van Den Berg, Hamid Ullah Shah, Lisa Emberson, Sally A. Power, Mike Ashmore

Abstract:

Although ozone is well-documented to affect crop yields in the densely populated Indo-Gangetic Plain, there is little knowledge of its effects around cities in more remote areas of South Asia. We surveyed crops around the city of Peshawar, Pakistan for visible injury, linking this to passive measurements of ozone concentrations. Foliar injury was found in the field on potato, onion and cotton when the mean monthly ozone concentration reached 35-55ppb. The symptoms on onion were reproduced in ozone fumigation experiments, which also showed that daytime ozone concentrations of 60ppb and above significantly reduce the growth of Pakistani varieties of both spinach (Beta vulgaris) and onion. Aphid infestation on spinach was also reduced at these elevated ozone concentrations. The ozone concentrations in Peshawar are comparable to those through many parts of northern south Asia, where ozone may therefore be a significant threat to sensitive vegetable crops in peri-urban regions.

Keywords: Air Pollution, vegetable crops, ozone, Peshawar, south asia

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1 Optimization of Municipal Solid Waste Management in Peshawar Using Mathematical Modelling and GIS with Focus on Incineration

Authors: Irshad HUSSAIN, Usman Jilani, Ibad Khurram

Abstract:

Environmentally sustainable waste management is a challenging task as it involves multiple and diverse economic, environmental, technical and regulatory issues. Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) is more challenging in developing countries like Pakistan due to lack of awareness, technology and human resources, insufficient funding, inefficient collection and transport mechanism resulting in the lack of a comprehensive waste management system. This work presents an overview of current MSWM practices in Peshawar, the provincial capital of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan and proposes a better and sustainable integrated solid waste management system with incineration (Waste to Energy) option. The diverted waste would otherwise generate revenue; minimize land fill requirement and negative impact on the environment. The proposed optimized solution utilizing scientific techniques (like mathematical modeling, optimization algorithms and GIS) as decision support tools enhances the technical & institutional efficiency leading towards a more sustainable waste management system through incorporating: - Improved collection mechanisms through optimized transportation / routing and, - Resource recovery through incineration and selection of most feasible sites for transfer stations, landfills and incineration plant. These proposed methods shift the linear waste management system towards a cyclic system and can also be used as a decision support tool by the WSSP (Water and Sanitation Services Peshawar), agency responsible for the MSWM in Peshawar.

Keywords: Optimization, Mathematical Modeling, Incineration, GIS, Peshawar, municipal solid waste management

Procedia PDF Downloads 245