Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Persuasion Related Abstracts

7 Social Accountability: Persuasion and Debate to Contain Corruption

Authors: A. Lambert-Mogiliansky


In this paper, we investigate the properties of simple rules for reappointment aimed at holding a public official accountable and monitor his activity. The public official allocates budget resources to various activities which results in the delivery of public services to citizens. He has discretion over the use of resource so he can divert some of them for private ends. Because of a liability constraint, zero diversion can never be secured in all states. The optimal reappointment mechanism under complete information is shown to exhibit some leniency thus departing from the zero tolerance principle. Under asymmetric information (about the state), a rule with random verification in a pre-announced subset is shown to be optimal in a class of common rules. Surprisingly, those common rules make little use of hard information about service delivery when available. Similarly, PO's claim about his record is of no value to improve the performance of the examined rules. In contrast requesting that the PO defends his records publicly can be very useful if the service users are given the chance to refute false claims with cheap talk complaints: the first best complete information outcome can be approached in the absence of any observation by the manager of the accountability mechanism.

Keywords: Corruption, Accountability, Debate, Persuasion

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6 A Semantic Analysis of Modal Verbs in Barak Obama’s 2012 Presidential Campaign Speech

Authors: Kais A. Kadhim


This paper is a semantic analysis of the English modals in Obama’s speech. The main objective of this study is to analyze selected modal auxiliaries identified in selected speeches of Obama’s campaign based on Coates’ (1983) semantic clusters. A total of fifteen speeches of Obama’s campaign were selected as the primary data and the modal auxiliaries selected for analysis include will, would, can, could, should, must, ought, shall, may and might. All the modal auxiliaries taken from the speeches of Barack Obama were analyzed based on the framework of Coates’ semantic clusters. Such analytical framework was carried out to examine how modal auxiliaries are used in the context of persuading people in Obama’s campaign speeches. The findings reveal that modals of intention, prediction, futurity and modals of possibility, ability, permission are mostly used in Obama’s campaign speeches.

Keywords: Speech, meaning, Persuasion, modals

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5 Intended-Actual First Asking/Offer Price Discrepancies and Their Impact on Negotiation Behaviour and Outcomes

Authors: Liuyao Chai, Colin Clark


Analysis of 574 participants in a simulated two-person distributive negotiation revealed that the first price 245 (42.7%) of these participants actually asked/offered for the item under negotiation (a used car) differed from the first price they previously stated they intended to ask/offer during their negotiation. This discrepancy between a negotiator’s intended first asking/offer price and his/her actual first asking/offer price had a significant and economically consequential impact on both the course and the outcomes of the negotiations studied. Participants whose actual first price remained the same as their intended first price tended to secure better negotiation outcomes. Moreover, participants who changed their intended first price tended to obtain relatively lower outcomes regardless of whether their modified first announced price had created a negotiating position that was ‘stronger’ or ‘weaker’ than if they had opened with their intended first price. Subsequent investigation of over twenty negotiation behaviours and pre-negotiation perceptual variables within this dataset indicated that the three types of first price announcers—i.e. intended first asking/offer price ‘weakeners’, ‘maintainers’ and ‘strengtheners’— comprised persons who tended to have significantly different pre-negotiation perceptions and behaved in systematically different ways during their negotiation. Typically, the most negative, outcome-compromising consequences of changing, weakening or strengthening an intended first price occurred at the very beginning of a negotiation when participants exchanged their actual first asking/offer prices.

Keywords: Business Communication, Persuasion, Negotiation, intended first asking/offer prices, bargaining

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4 Ideology and Lexicogrammar: Discourse Against the Power in Lyrical Texts (XIII, XVII and XX Centuries)

Authors: Ulisses Tadeu Vaz de Oliveira


The development of multifunctional studies in the theoretical-methodological perspective of the Systemic-Functional Grammar (SFG) and the increasing number of critical literary studies have introduced new opportunities for the study of ideologies and societies, but also brought up new challenges across and within many areas. In this regard, the Critical Linguistics researches allow a form of pairing a textual linguistic analysis method (micro level) with a social language theory in political and ideological processes (macro level), presented in the literature. This presentation will report on strategies to criticize power holders in literary productions from three distinct eras, namely: (a) Satirical Galego-Portuguese chants of Gil Pérez Conde (thirteenth century), (b) Poems of Gregorio de Matos Guerra (seventeenth century), and (c) Songs of Chico Buarque de Holanda (twentieth century). The analysis of these productions is based on the SFG proposals, which considers the clause as a social event. Therefore, the structure serves to realize three concurrent meanings (metafunctions): Ideational, Interpersonal and Textual. The presenter aims to shed light on the core issues relevant to the successes of the authors to criticize authorities in repressive times while caring about face-threatening and politeness. The effective and meaningful critical discourse was a way of moving the society`s chains towards new ideologies reflected in the lexicogrammatical choices made and the rhetorical functions of the persuasive structures used by the authors.

Keywords: Literature, Ideology, Persuasion, systemic-functional grammar

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3 The Effect of the Hemispheres of the Brain and the Tone of Voice on Persuasion

Authors: Rica Jell de Laza, Jose Alberto Fernandez, Andrea Marie Mendoza, Qristin Jeuel Regalado


This study investigates whether participants experience different levels of persuasion depending on the hemisphere of the brain and the tone of voice. The experiment was performed on 96 volunteer undergraduate students taking an introductory course in psychology. The participants took part in a 2 x 3 (Hemisphere: left, right x Tone of Voice: positive, neutral, negative) Mixed Factorial Design to measure how much a person was persuaded. Results showed that the hemisphere of the brain and the tone of voice used did not significantly affect the results individually. Furthermore, there was no interaction effect. Therefore, the hemispheres of the brain and the tone of voice employed play insignificant roles in persuading a person.

Keywords: Persuasion, dichotic listening, brain hemisphere, tone of voice

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2 The Impact of Online Advertising on Generation Y’s Purchase Decision in Malaysia

Authors: Mui Joo Tang, Eang Teng Chan


Advertising is commonly used to foster sales and reputation of an institution. It is at first the growth of print advertising that has increased the population and number of periodicals of newspaper and its circulation. The rise of Internet and online media has somehow blurred the role of media and advertising though the intention is still to reach out to audience and to increase sales. The relationship between advertising and audience on a product purchase through persuasion has been developing from print media to online media. From the changing media environment and audience, it is the concern of this research to study the impact of online advertising to such a relationship cycle. The content of online advertisements is much of text, multimedia, photo, audio and video. The messages of such content format may indeed bring impacts to its audience and its credibility. This study is therefore reflecting the effectiveness of online advertisement and its influences on generation Y in their purchasing behavior. This study uses Media Dependency Theory to analyze the relationship between the impact of online advertisement and media usage pattern of generation Y. Hierarchy of Effectiveness Model is used as a marketing communication model to study the effectiveness of advertising and further to determine the impact of online advertisement on generation Y in their purchasing decision making. This research uses online survey to reach out the sample of generation Y. The results have shown that online advertisements do not affect much on purchase decision making even though generation Y relies much on the media content including online advertisement for its information and believing in its credibility. There are few other external factors that may interrupt the effectiveness of online advertising. The very obvious influence of purchasing behavior is actually derived from the peers.

Keywords: Persuasion, Purchase Decision, Online Advertising, print media, generation Y

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1 Cognition in Context: Investigating the Impact of Persuasive Outcomes across Face-to-Face, Social Media and Virtual Reality Environments

Authors: Claire Tranter, Coral Dando


Gathering information from others is a fundamental goal for those concerned with investigating crime, and protecting national and international security. Persuading an individual to move from an opposing to converging viewpoint, and an understanding on the cognitive style behind this change can serve to increase understanding of traditional face-to-face interactions, as well as synthetic environments (SEs) often used for communication across varying geographical locations. SEs are growing in usage, and with this increase comes an increase in crime being undertaken online. Communication technologies can allow people to mask their real identities, supporting anonymous communication which can raise significant challenges for investigators when monitoring and managing these conversations inside SEs. To date, the psychological literature concerning how to maximise information-gain in SEs for real-world interviewing purposes is sparse, and as such this aspect of social cognition is not well understood. Here, we introduce an overview of a novel programme of PhD research which seeks to enhance understanding of cross-cultural and cross-gender communication in SEs for maximising information gain. Utilising a dyadic jury paradigm, participants interacted with a confederate who attempted to persuade them to the opposing verdict across three distinct environments: face-to-face, instant messaging, and a novel virtual reality environment utilising avatars. Participants discussed a criminal scenario, acting as a two-person (male; female) jury. Persuasion was manipulated by the confederate claiming an opposing viewpoint (guilty v. not guilty) to the naïve participants from the outset. Pre and post discussion data, and observational digital recordings (voice and video) of participant’ discussion performance was collected. Information regarding cognitive style was also collected to ascertain participants need for cognitive closure and biases towards jumping to conclusions. Findings revealed that individuals communicating via an avatar in a virtual reality environment reacted in a similar way, and thus equally persuasive, when compared to individuals communicating face-to-face. Anonymous instant messaging however created a resistance to persuasion in participants, with males showing a significant decline in persuasive outcomes compared to face to face. The findings reveal new insights particularly regarding the interplay of persuasion on gender and modality, with anonymous instant messaging enhancing resistance to persuasion attempts. This study illuminates how varying SE can support new theoretical and applied understandings of how judgments are formed and modified in response to advocacy.

Keywords: Virtual Reality, Social Media, Persuasion, applied cognition

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