Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

Perspectives Related Abstracts

10 Teacher Education and Curriculum Innovation in Nigeria: Issues and Perspectives

Authors: Kenneth Uzochukwu Ezugwu

Abstract:

The quest for adequate teacher education is a serious task for the educational system in Nigeria because teachers are the major translators of education programmes in the classroom. The production of well trained teachers will enhance quality of the products of the school system. It is in this respect that the national policy on education posited that no educational system can rise above the quality of teachers. It is in the light of the above that this paper discusses and brought to the fore certain issues as the re-introduction of teacher training colleges, competitive entry requirement into teacher education and continuous on-the-job training as areas of needed innovation.

Keywords: Teacher Education, Issues, Perspectives, Curriculum Innovation

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9 The Study of the Perspectives on Economic Development in Bilateral Investment Treaties

Authors: Anuj Kumar Vaksha

Abstract:

In the post cold war era the foreign direct investments have come to be considered as one of the most critical factors for economic development of a country particularly for the capital scarce countries like the developing and the under developed countries. The rush for foreign direct investments have led to intense competition between the countries treaties to attract foreign investments by entering into alluring Bilateral Investment Treaties (BITs). The Bilateral Investment Treaties are the intergovernmental legal framework for the promotion of private investments from one country to other. With more than 3000 BITs, the web of such BITs are the most dominant development of International Law in the post cold war era. The essence of all these BITs are bilateral cooperation for economic development and thus it is actually the theme of economic development around which the International Law had developed most dominantly in the post cold war era. Within the framework of two generally accepted premises that foreign direct investments are critical for economic development and the bilateral investment treaties are critical for promotion of foreign direct investments, the research paper seeks to explore the perspectives and paradigms on economic development as embodied in various Bilateral Investment Treaties. It seeks to address how and in what manners the perspectives on economic development as embodied in bilateral investment varies between the developed, developing and underdeveloped countries. It goes without saying that economic development is a very broad, complex and operationally intricate concept. In the paradigm of International Law it becomes much more complex and intricate. Understanding the concept of economic development from the perspectives of Bilateral Investment Treaties is a novel idea with far reaching significance. Such a perspective on economic development would help in enriching the contemporary International Law perspectives and paradigms on economic development.

Keywords: Economic Development, Perspectives, International Law, bilateral investment treaties

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8 Retrospection and Introspection on the Three-Decade Sight Translation Research in China—Bibliometric Analysis of CNKI (1987—2015) Relevant Articles

Authors: Wei Deng

Abstract:

Based on sorting and analyzing related literature on CNKI for nearly three decades between 1987—2015, this paper, adopting the method of bibliometrics, summarized and reviewed the domestic research on sight translation from three aspects. The analysis concluded the following findings: 1) The majority research had focused on the noumenon of sight translation. The rest of the three main research perspectives are in descending order: sight translation teaching, sight translation skills and other associated skills, and cognitive research of sight translation. 2) The domestic research increased significantly in recent five years, but there is much room for the quality. 3) The non-empirical study has had higher proportion, while the empirical study is unitary with the lack of triangle validation. This paper suggested that sight translation being in sore need of unified definition, multilingual, even interdisciplinary cooperation.

Keywords: Perspectives, tendency, bibliometric analysis, sight translation

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7 Understanding Indigenous Perspectives and Critical Knowledge in International Law

Authors: Radhika Jagtap

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Contemporary scholarship in international legal theory is investigating new avenues of providing alternatives to dominant concepts. Indigenous peoples’ philosophies and perspectives developed through them provide a fertile ground to explore similar alternative ideas. This review paper evaluates the theorized accounts of indigenous scholarships which have contributed towards a rich body of knowledge generating alternative visions on dominant notions of ‘post coloniality’, ‘resistance’ and ‘globalization’. Further, it shall assess the relevance of such a project in shaping contemporary international legal thought. Traditional or classical international law has been opined to be highly influenced by the colonial and imperialist history which also left a mark on the way dominant discourses of resistance and globalization are read in mainstream international law. The paper shall first define what do we mean by indigenous philosophy and what kind of indigeneity is that inclusive of. Second, the paper defines the dominant discourse and then counters the same with the alternative indigenous perspective in the case of each concept that is in question. Finally, the paper shall conclude with certain theoretical findings – that the post coloniality, from indigenous perspective, lead to the further marginalization of indigeneity, especially in the third world; that human rights as the sole means of representing resistance in international law ends up making it a very state-centric discipline and last, that globalization from an indigenous, marginalised perspective is not as celebrated as it is in mainstream international law. Major scholarly works that shall be central to the discussion are those of Linda Tuiwahi Smith, Ella Shohat and David Harvey. The nature of the research shall be inductive and involve mostly theoretical review of scholarly works.

Keywords: Globalization, Perspectives, Indigenous, post colonial

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6 Perspectives of Healthcare Workers on Healthcare-Associated Infections and Infection Control in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Abha, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Esther Paul, Ibrahim A. M. Alzaydani, Al Hakami, Caryl Beynon

Abstract:

Research Objectives and Goal: The main aim of the current study was to explore the perspectives of healthcare workers on Healthcare-associated infections (HAI) and infection control measures in a tertiary care Hospital in Abha, Saudi Arabia. As per our knowledge, this is perhaps the first qualitative study on HAI to be done in Saudi Arabia. The goal of the study was to understand the perspectives of the healthcare workers on the current protocol and guidelines for HAI and infections control measures in the hospital, the effectiveness of the current protocol for HAI and infection control measures and ways of reducing the incidence of HAI and improve infection control measures. Methods used: A qualitative research design was used to collect the data from 25 healthcare workers consisting of doctors and nurses, recruited by Snowball strategy via semi-structured interviews which were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim immediately. An interview guide consisting of open-ended questions about the existing HAI and infection control practices in the healthcare facility, the awareness of the healthcare workers about HAI and the need for safe infection control measures were used to collect the data. The transcribed data were analyzed using the thematic analysis method. Results: Using thematic analysis four themes were identified.1.Knowledge of HAI and infection control 2. Infection control measures in practice 3. The gap in infection control measures and HAI 4. Required Implementations. The first theme covered the participants' knowledge on HAI, its definition, the types of HAI and the infection control measures.Most of the participants were aware of HAI and had some idea of the definition of HAI, its significance and the dangers posed by HAI, but few residents had no idea of the types of HAI. The second theme was focussed on the infection control measures in practice. Most of the participants were aware of the importance of infection control measures like hand hygiene, catheter care, and waste disposal. The nurses were responsible for most of the disinfection and sterilization measures and practiced it effectively. However, some doctors and residents had no inkling about these measures. The third theme emphasized that although most of the participants were aware of HAI and infection control measures and were in practice. There were some lacunae regarding their knowledge of the different types of HAI, Personal Protective Equipment practices, communication among the healthcare personnel and the hospital administrations and the means of waste disposal. The fourth and the final theme identified that most of the participants felt the need for implementations of changes regarding existing protocols, workshops/seminars, methods of waste disposal and sterilization and disinfection practices. Conclusion: The current qualitative study concluded that there is a need for better educational programs and hands-on training for all the healthcare personnel including the paramedical staff as well. The residents should have adequate knowledge of infection control practices to guide the nurses and should share the responsibility with the nurses in the practice of effective infection control measures

Keywords: Qualitative, Perspectives, healthcare-associated infections, infection control measures

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5 Parents and Stakeholders’ Perspectives on Early Reading Intervention Implemented as a Curriculum for Children with Learning Disabilities

Authors: Bander Mohayya Alotaibi

Abstract:

The valuable partnerships between parents and teachers may develop positive and effective interactions between home and school. This will help these stakeholders share information and resources regarding student academics during ongoing interactions. Thus, partnerships will build a solid foundation for both families and schools to help children succeed in school. Parental involvement can be seen as an effective tool that can change homes and communities and not just schools’ systems. Seeking parents and stakeholders’ attitudes toward learning and learners can help schools design a curriculum. Subsequently, this information can be used to find ways to help improve the academic performance of students, especially in low performing schools. There may be some conflicts when designing curriculum. In addition, designing curriculum might bring more educational expectations to all the sides. There is a lack of research that targets the specific attitude of parents toward specific concepts on curriculum contents. More research is needed to study the perspective that parents of children with learning disabilities (LD) have regarding early reading curriculum. Parents and stakeholders’ perspectives on early reading intervention implemented as a curriculum for children with LD was studied through an advanced quantitative research. The purpose of this study seeks to understand stakeholders and parents’ perspectives of key concepts and essential early reading skills that impact the design of curriculum that will serve as an intervention for early struggler readers who have LD. Those concepts or stages include phonics, phonological awareness, and reading fluency as well as strategies used in house by parents. A survey instrument was used to gather the data. Participants were recruited through 29 schools and districts of the metropolitan area of the northern part of Saudi Arabia. Participants were stakeholders including parents of children with learning disability. Data were collected using distribution of paper and pen survey to schools. Psychometric properties of the instrument were evaluated for the validity and reliability of the survey; face validity, content validity, and construct validity including an Exploratory Factor Analysis were used to shape and reevaluate the structure of the instrument. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) used to find differences between the variables. The study reported the results of the perspectives of stakeholders toward reading strategies, phonics, phonological awareness, and reading fluency. Also, suggestions and limitations are discussed.

Keywords: Curriculum, Intervention, Perspectives, Learning disability, Stakeholders, Parents, early reading

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4 Social Entrepreneurship Core Dimensions and Influential Perspectives: An Exploratory Study

Authors: Filipa Lancastre, Carmen Lages, Filipe Santos

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The concept of social entrepreneurship (SE) remains ambiguous and deprived of a widely accepted operational definition. We argue that an awareness about the consensual constituent elements of SE from all key players from its ecosystem as well as a deeper understanding of apparently divergent perspectives will allow the different stakeholders (social entrepreneurs, corporations, investors, policymakers, the beneficiaries themselves) to bridge and cooperate for societal value co-creation in trying to solve our most pressing societal issues. To address our research question –what are the dimensions of SE that are consensual and controversial across existing perspectives? – We designed a two-step qualitative study. In a first step, we conducted an extensive literature review, collecting and analyzing 155 different SE definitions. From this initial step, we extracted and characterized three consensual and six controversial dimensions of the SE concept. In a second step, we conducted 20 semi-structured interviews with practitioners that are actively involved in the SE field. The goal of this second step was to verify if the literature did not capture any key dimension, understand how the dimensions related to each other and to understand the rationale behind them. The dimensions of the SE concept were extracted based on the relevance of each theme and on the theoretical relationship among them. To identify the relevance, we used as a proxy the frequency of each theme was referred to in our sample of definitions. To understand relationships, as identified in the previous section, we included concepts from both the management and psychology literature, such as the Entrepreneurial Orientation concept from the entrepreneurship literature, the Subjective Well Being construct from psychology literature, and the Resource-Based Theory from the strategy literature. This study has two main contributions; First, the identification of (consensual and controversial) dimensions of SE that exist across scattered definitions from the academic and practitioner literature. Second, a framework that parsimoniously synthesizes four dominant perspectives of SE and relates them with the SE dimensions. Assuming the contested nature of the SE concept, it is not expected that these views will be reconciled at the academic or practitioner field level. In future research, academics can, however, be aware of the existence of different understandings of SE and avoid bias towards a single view, developing holistic studies on SE phenomena or comparing differences by studying their underlying assumptions. Additionally, it is important that researchers make explicit the perspective they are embracing to ensure consistency among the research question, sampling procedures and implications of results. At the practitioner level, individuals or groups following different logics are predictably mutually suspicious and might benefit from taking stock of other perspectives on SE, building bridges and fostering cross-fertilization to the benefit of the SE ecosystem for which all contribute.

Keywords: social entrepreneurship, Conceptualization, Perspectives, dimensions

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3 Healthcare Professionals' Perspectives on Warfarin Therapy at Lao-Luxembourg Heart Centre, Mahosot Hospital, Lao PDR

Authors: Vanlounni Sibounheuang, Wanarat Anusornsangiam, Pattarin Kittiboonyakun, Chanthanom Manithip

Abstract:

In worldwide, one of the most common use of oral anticoagulant is warfarin. Its margin between therapeutic inhibition of clot formation and bleeding complications is narrow. Mahosot Hospital, warfarin clinic had not been established yet. The descriptive study was conducted by investigating drug-related problems of outpatients using warfarin, the value of the international normalized ratio (INR) higher than normal ranges (25.40 % of the total 272 outpatients) were mostly identified at Lao-Luxembourg Heart Centre, Mahosot Hospital, Lao PDR. This result led to the present study conducting qualitative interviews in order to help establish a warfarin clinic at Mahosot Hospital for the better outcomes of patients using warfarin. The purpose of this study was to explore perspectives of healthcare professional providing services for outpatients using warfarin. The face to face, in-depth interviews were undertaken among nine healthcare professionals (doctor=3, nurse=3, pharmacist=3) working at out-patient clinic, Lao-Luxembourg Heart Centre, Mahosot Hospital, Lao PDR. The interview guides were developed, and they were validated by the experts in the fields of qualitative research. Each interview lasted approximately 20 minutes. Three major themes emerged; healthcare professional’s experiences of current practice problems with warfarin therapy, healthcare professionals’ views of medical problems related to patients using warfarin, and healthcare professionals’ perspectives on ways of service improvement. All healthcare professionals had the same views that it’s difficult to achieve INR goal for individual patients because of some important patient barriers especially lack of knowledge about to use warfarin properly and safety, patients not regularly follow-up due to problems with transportations and financial support. Doctors and nurses agreed to have a pharmacist running a routine warfarin clinic and provided counselling to individual patients on the following points: how to take drug properly and safety, drug-drug and food-drug interactions, common side effects and how to manage them, lifestyle modifications. From the interviews, some important components of the establishment of a warfarin clinic included financial support, increased human resources, improved the system of keeping patients’ medical records, short course training for pharmacists. This study indicated the acceptance of healthcare professionals on the important roles of pharmacists and the feasibility of setting up warfarin clinic by working together with the multidisciplinary health care team in order to help improve health outcomes of patients using warfarin at Mahosot Hospital, Lao PDR.

Keywords: Perspectives, healthcare professional, warfarin therapy, Mahosot Hospital

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2 The Enquiry of Food Culture Products, Practices and Perspectives: An Action Research on Teaching and Learning Food Culture from International Food Documentary Films

Authors: Tsuiping Chen

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It has always been an international consensus that food forms a big part of any culture since the old times. However, this idea has not been globally concretized until the announcement of including food or cuisine as intangible cultural heritage by UNESCO in 2010. This announcement strengthens the value of food culture, which is getting more and more notice by every country. Although Taiwan is not one of the members of the United Nations, we cannot detach ourselves from this important global trend, especially when we have a lot of culinary students expected to join the world culinary job market. These students should have been well educated with the knowledge of world food culture to make them have the sensibility and perspectives for the occurring global food issues before joining the culinary jobs. Under the premise of the above concern, the researcher and also the instructor took on action research with one class of students in the 'Food Culture' course watching, discussing, and analyzing 12 culinary documentary films selected from one decade’s (2007-2016) of Berlin Culinary Cinema in one semester of class hours. In addition, after class, the students separated themselves into six groups and joined 12 times of one-hour-long focus group discussion on the 12 films conducted by the researcher. Furthermore, during the semester, the students submitted their reflection reports on each film to the university e-portfolio system. All the focus discussions and reflection reports were recorded and collected for further analysis by the researcher and one invited film researcher. Glaser and Strauss’ Grounded Theory (1967) constant comparison method was employed to analyze the collected data. Finally, the findings' results were audited by all participants of the research. All the participants and the researchers created 200 items of food culture products, 74 items of food culture practices, and 50 items of food culture perspectives from the action research journey through watching culinary documentaries. The journey did broaden students’ points of view on world food culture and enhance their capability on perspective construction for food culture. Four aspects of significant findings were demonstrated. First, learning food culture through watching Berlin culinary films helps students link themselves to the happening global food issues such as food security, food poverty, and food sovereignty, which direct them to rethink how people should grow, share and consume food. Second, watching different categories of documentary food films enhances students’ strong sense of responsibility for ensuring healthy lives and promoting well-being for all people in every corner of the world. Third, watching these documentary films encourages students to think if the culinary education they have accepted in this island is inclusive and the importance of quality education, which can promote lifelong learning. Last but not least, the journey of the culinary documentary film watching in the 'Food Culture' course inspires students to take pride in their profession. It is hoped the model of teaching food culture with culinary documentary films will inspire more food culture educators, researchers, and the culinary curriculum designers.

Keywords: Practices, Food culture, Perspectives, action research, culinary documentary films, food culture products

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1 A Tool for Assessing Performance and Structural Quality of Business Process

Authors: Mariem Kchaou, Wiem Khlif, Faiez Gargouri

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Modeling business processes is an essential task when evaluating, improving, or documenting existing business processes. To be efficient in such tasks, a business process model (BPM) must have high structural quality and high performance. Evidently, evaluating the performance of a business process model is a necessary step to reduce time, cost, while assessing the structural quality aims to improve the understandability and the modifiability of the BPMN model. To achieve these objectives, a set of structural and performance measures have been proposed. Since the diversity of measures, we propose a framework that integrates both structural and performance aspects for classifying them. Our measure classification is based on business process model perspectives (e.g., informational, functional, organizational, behavioral, and temporal), and the elements (activity, event, actor, etc.) involved in computing the measures. Then, we implement this framework in a tool assisting the structural quality and the performance of a business process. The tool helps the designers to select an appropriate subset of measures associated with the corresponding perspective and to calculate and interpret their values in order to improve the structural quality and the performance of the model.

Keywords: Performance, Perspectives, tool, measures, classification framework, structural quality

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