Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

Persian Gulf Related Abstracts

14 Heavy Metal Distribution in Tissues of Two Commercially Important Fish Species, Euryglossa orientalis and Psettodes erumei

Authors: Zahra Khoshnood, Reza Khoshnood, Ali Hajinajaf, Farzad Fahim, Behdokht Hajinajaf, Farhad Fahim

Abstract:

In 2013, 24 fish samples were taken from two fishery regions in Bandar-Abbas and Bandar-Lengeh, the fishing grounds north of Hormoz Strait (Persian Gulf) near the Iranian coastline. The two flat fishes were oriental sole (Euryglossa orientalis) and deep flounder (Psettodes erumei). Using the ROPME method (MOOPAM) for chemical digestion, Cd concentration was measured with a nonflame atomic absorption spectrophotometry technique. The average concentration of Cd in the edible muscle tissue of deep flounder was measured in Bandar-Abbas and was found to be 0.15±.06 µg g-1. It was 0.1±.05 µg.g-1 in Bandar-Lengeh. The corresponding values for oriental sole were 0.2±0.13 and 0.13±0.11 µg.g-1. The average concentration of Cd in the liver tissue of deep flounder in Bandar-Abbas was 0.22±.05 µg g-1 and that in Bandar-Lengeh was 0.2±0.04 µg.g-1. The values for oriental sole were 0.31±0.09 and 0.24±0.13 µg g-1 in Bandar-Abbas and Bandar-Lengeh, respectively.

Keywords: Trace Metal, Euryglossa orientalis, Psettodes erumei, Persian Gulf

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13 Determination of Heavy Metals (Cd, Pb, Hg, Cu, Fe, Mn, Al, As, Ni and Zn) in 6 Important Commercial Fish Species in North of Hormoz Strait

Authors: Zahra Khoshnood, Maryam Ehsanpour, Majid Afkhami ‎

Abstract:

The concentrations of 10 heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Hg, Cu, Fe, Mn, Al, As, Ni, Zn) were measured in muscle, gill and liver of 6 species from Hormoz Strait in north coast of Persian Gulf in 12 months (April 2009 – March 2010). All samples were analyzed three times for Cd, Pb, Cu, Fe, Mn, Al, As, Ni, Zn by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and for Hg by LECO AMA254 Advanced Mercury Analyzer. Results of this study showed that iron had the highest concentration (total mean concentration) in all species, followed by Zn, Cu, Ni, Al, Pb, Mn, Cd, Hg and lowest concentration in three tissues was As. In addition, the accumulation of metals was species-dependent, and was higher in Scomberomorous commerson and Scomberomorous guttatus (p<0.05) and the lowest concentration was record in Pampus argenteus (p<0.05).

Keywords: Heavy Metals, Persian Gulf, Hormoz strait, Scomberomorous guttatus, Scomberomorous commerson, Pampus argenteus

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12 Health Risks Evaluation of Heavy Metals in Sea Food from Persian ‎Gulf

Authors: Maryam Ehsanpour, Majid Afkhami ‎, Mohsen Ehsanpour, Fatemeh Afkhami ‎

Abstract:

Heavy metals are increasingly being released into natural waters from geological and anthropogenic sources. The distribution of several heavy metals (Cd, Pb) was investigated in muscle, liver in six different fish species seasonally collected in Persian Gulf (autumn 2009-summer 2010). The concentrations of all metals were lower in flesh than those recorded in liver due to their physiological roles. The THQ index for fish was calculated. Estimation of target hazard quotients calculations for the contaminated fish consumption was calculated to evaluate the effect of pollution on health. Total metal THQs values (Pb and Cd) for adults were 0.05 and 0.04 in Bushehr and Bandar-Genaveh, respectively, and for children they were 0.08 and 0.05 in Bandar-Abbas and Bandar-Lengeh, respectively.

Keywords: Heavy Metals, Health Risks, Persian Gulf, THQ index

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11 Plasma Biochemistry Values in Wild Hawksbill Turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) during Nesting and Foraging Seasons in Qeshm Island, Persian Gulf

Authors: Maryam Ehsanpour, Majid Afkhami ‎, Mohsen Ehsanpour, Fateme Afkhami

Abstract:

Normal reference ranges of biochemical parameters are considered important for assessing and monitoring the health status of sea turtles. For this means, serum biochemistry determinations were analyzed in normal adult nesting and foraging hawksbill turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata). Blood samples were collected in March–April during nesting season and December-November in the foraging season. Plasma biochemistry values, except for creatinine and lipase were significant between the two periods. FBS, cholesterol, triglycerides, ALP (alkaline phosphatase), AST (aspartate aminotransferase), bilirubin, total protein, LDH (lactate dehydrogenase), CK (creatine kinase) and amylase were significantly higher in nesting season than foraging season (P<0.05). On the other hand urea, ALT (alanine aminotransferase) and albumin in the nesting season were significantly lower than foraging season (P<0.05). It was concluded that the nesting E. imbricata showed significant variation in their biochemical profile due to reproductive output. This study has produced working reference intervals useful for hawksbill turtles for future conservation and rehabilitation projects in the Persian Gulf and may be of assistance in similar programs worldwide.

Keywords: Persian Gulf, plasma biochemistry, nesting, foraging, hawksbill turtles

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10 Effects of PAHs on Blood Thyroidal Hormones of Liza klunzingeri in the Northern Part of Hormuz Strait (Persian Gulf)

Authors: Maryam Ehsanpour, Majid Afkhami ‎, Mohsen Ehsanpour, Fateme Afkhami

Abstract:

This study was conducted to determine the effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on thyroidal hormones of Liza klunzingeri and to monitor marine pollution from northern part of Hormuz strait (Persian Gulf). Results showed the highest total PAHs levels (268.56 µg/kg) were in the fish samples and the lowest are obtained from water samples (3.12 µg/kg). Also, highest of PAHs levels in fish, sediment and water were found in St3. There was a positive correlation between T3 and T4, with PAHs results. T4 had a significant positive correlation (P<0.05).

Keywords: PAHs, Persian Gulf, Liza klunzingeri, thyroidal hormones, Hormuz Strait

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9 Mercury Detection in Two Fishes from the Persian Gulf

Authors: Zahra Khoshnood, Mehdi Kazaie, Sajedeh Neisi

Abstract:

In 2013, 24 fish samples were taken from two fishery regions in the north of Persian Gulf near the Iranian coastal lines. The two flatfishes were Yellofin seabream (Acanthopagrus latus) and Longtail tuna (Thannus tonggol). We analyzed total Hg concentration of liver and muscle tissues by Mercury Analyzer (model LECO AMA 254). The average concentration of total Hg in edible Muscle tissue of deep-Flounder was measured in Bandar-Abbas and was found to be 18.92 and it was 10.19 µg.g-1 in Bandar-Lengeh. The corresponding values for Oriental sole were 8.47 and 0.08 µg.g-1. The average concentration of Hg in liver tissue of deep-Flounder, in Bandar-Abbas was 25.49 and that in Bandar-Lengeh was 12.52 µg.g-1.the values for Oriental sole were 11.88 and 3.2 µg.g-1 in Bandar-Abbas and Bandar-Lengeh, respectively.

Keywords: Mercury, Persian Gulf, Acanthopagrus latus, Thannus tonggol

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8 Shark Resources in the Iranian Waters of the Persian Gulf

Authors: Nassir Niamaimandi, Mehrdad Hosaini Shabankareh

Abstract:

This study was analyzed the annual catch and trawl survey data of sharks in the northern part of the Persian Gulf (26˚ 30΄ to 30˚ 00΄N and 49˚ 00΄ to 56˚ 00΄E) from 2004 to 2009. Trawl survey was conducted by research vessel Ferdous, equipped with bottom trawl nets in meshes 400mm and 80mm at the body, and cod-end, respectively. Ten stratums were selected in the study area and 199 stations were randomly trawled. The density (CPUA) of shark resources was estimated based on swept area method. The annual total catch was obtained from Iranian fisheries organization (Shilat). The results of catch per unit area showed 250.7 kg/nm2 in 2004 to 49.7 kg/nm2 in 2009. There was a high degree of variability of CPUA among different areas and the maximum was estimated 1870.8 kg/nm2 in Nayband and Mogham. In catch composition data, sharks have a decreasing trend from 4.2% in 2004 to 2.9% in 2009 that shows a decline with an annual average 1.3% during 2004-2009. This results suggesting that the shark resource is overexploited and the current effort is far higher than the effort required harvesting optimum yields.

Keywords: Persian Gulf, shark resources, Iranian waters, Trawl survey

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7 Investigation of the Possible Correlation of Earthquakes with a Red Tide Occurrence in the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea

Authors: Hadis Hosseinzadehnaseri

Abstract:

The red tide is a kind of algae blooming, caused different problems at different sizes for the human life and the environment, so it has become one of the serious global concerns in the field of Oceanography in few recent decades. This phenomenon has affected on Iran's water, especially the Persian Gulf's since last few years. Collecting data associated with this phenomenon and comparison in different parts of the world is significant as a practical way to study this phenomenon and controlling it. Effective factors to occur this phenomenon lead to the increase of the required nutrients of the algae or provide a good environment for blooming. In this study, we examined the probability of relation between the earthquake and the harmful algae blooming in the Persian Gulf's water through comparing the earthquake data and the recorded Red tides. On the one hand, earthquakes can cause changes in seawater temperature that is effective in creating a suitable environment and the other hand, it increases the possibility of water nutrients, and its transportation in the seabed, so it can play a principal role in the development of red tide occurrence. Comparing the distribution spatial-temporal maps of the earthquakes and deadly red tides in the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea, confirms the hypothesis, why there is a meaningful relation between these two distributions. Comparing the number of earthquakes around the world as well as the number of the red tides in many parts of the world indicates the correlation between these two issues. This subject due to numerous earthquakes, especially in recent years and in the southern part of the country should be considered as a warning to the possibility of re-occurrence of a critical state of red tide in a large scale, why in the year 2008, the number of recorded earthquakes have been more than near years. In this year, the distribution value of the red tide phenomenon in the Persian Gulf got measured about 140,000 square kilometers and entire Oman Sea, with 10 months Survival in the area, which is considered as a record among the occurred algae blooming in the world. In this paper, we could obtain a logical and reasonable relation between the earthquake frequency and this phenomenon occurrence, through compilation of statistics relating to the earthquakes in the southern Iran, from 2000 to the end of the first half of 2013 and also collecting statistics on the occurrence of red tide in the region as well as examination of similar data in different parts of the world. As shown in Figure 1, according to a survey conducted on the earthquake data, the most earthquakes in the southern Iran ranks first in the fourth Gregorian calendar month In April, coincided with Ordibehesht and Khordad in Persian calendar and then in the tenth Gregorian calendar month In October, coincided in Aban and Azar in Persian calendar.

Keywords: Persian Gulf, red tide, earth quake, harmful algae bloom

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6 Effect of Pollutions on Mangrove Forests of Nayband National Marine Park

Authors: Esmaeil Kouhgardi, Elaheh Shakerdargah

Abstract:

The mangrove ecosystem is a complex of various inter-related elements in the land-sea interface zone which is linked with other natural systems of the coastal region such as corals, sea-grass, coastal fisheries and beach vegetation. The mangrove ecosystem consists of water, muddy soil, trees, shrubs, and their associated flora, fauna and microbes. It is a very productive ecosystem sustaining various forms of life. Its waters are nursery grounds for fish, crustacean, and mollusk and also provide habitat for a wide range of aquatic life, while the land supports a rich and diverse flora and fauna, but pollutions may affect these characteristics. Iran has the lowest share of Persian Gulf pollution among the eight littoral states; environmental experts are still deeply concerned about the serious consequences of the pollution in the oil-rich gulf. Prolongation of critical conditions in the Persian Gulf has endangered its aquatic ecosystem. Water purification equipment, refineries, wastewater emitted by onshore installations, especially petrochemical plans, urban sewage, population density and extensive oil operations of Arab states are factors contaminating the Persian Gulf waters. Population density has been the major cause of pollution and environmental degradation in the Persian Gulf. Persian Gulf is a closed marine environment which is connected to open waterways only from one way. It usually takes between three and four years for the gulf's water to be completely replaced. Therefore, any pollution entering the water will remain there for a relatively long time. Presently, the high temperature and excessive salt level in the water have exposed the marine creatures to extra threats, which mean they have to survive very tough conditions. The natural environment of the Persian Gulf is very rich with good fish grounds, extensive coral reefs and pearl oysters in abundance, but has become increasingly under pressure due to the heavy industrialization and in particular the repeated major oil spillages associated with the various recent wars fought in the region. Pollution may cause the mortality of mangrove forests by effect on root, leaf and soil of the area. Study was showed the high correlation between industrial pollution and mangrove forests health in south of Iran and increase of population, coupled with economic growth, inevitably caused the use of mangrove lands for various purposes such as construction of roads, ports and harbors, industries and urbanization.

Keywords: Environment, Pollution, Population, mangrove forest, Persian Gulf

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5 Biogeochemical Study of Polycuclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Its Physiological Response in Mudskippre (B. dussumieri) along the North western Coasts of the Persian Gulf

Authors: Ali Mashinchian Moradi, Mahmood Sinaei

Abstract:

Study on the biomarkers to assess health status of marine ecosystems has an important value in biomonitoring of marine environment. Accordingly, accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediment, water and tissues (liver and gill) of mudskipper (Boleophthalmus dussmieri) and some physiological responses like lysosomal membrane change in haemocytes and the Glutathione-S Transferase (GST) activity in the liver were measured in mudskippers. Samples were collected from five sites along the noth western cost of the Persian Gulf. PAHs concentration was measured by HPLC method. The activity of GST enzyme was analysed by spectrophotometric method. Total PAH concentration in coastal seawater, sediments, liver and gill tissues ranged between 0.80-18.34 ug/L, 113.550-3384.34 ng/g dw, 3.99-46.64 ng/g dw and 3.11-17.This study showed that PAH concentrations in this region are not higher than available standards. The findings revile that lysosomal membrane destabilization and liver GST activities are highly sensitive to PAHs in mudskipper, B. dussumieri. Sediment PAH concentrations were strongly correlated with biomarkers, indicating PAHs were biologically available to fish. Thus, mudskipper perceived to be good sentinel organism for PAH pollution biomonitoring.

Keywords: Biomarker, PAHs, Persian Gulf, mudskipper

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4 Effects of Oil Pollution on Euryglossa orientalis and Psettodes erumei in the Persian Gulf

Authors: Zahra Khoshnood, Reza Khoshnood, Maryam Ehsanpour, Majid Afkhami ‎, Rastin Afkhami

Abstract:

Marine pollution is a global environmental problem. Different human activities on land, in the water and in the air contribute to the contamination of seawater, sediments and organisms with potentially toxic substances. Contaminants can be natural substances or artificially produced compounds. After discharge into the sea, contaminants can stay in the water in dissolved form or they can be removed from the water column through sedimentation to the bottom sediments. Histopathological alterations can be used as indicators for the effects of various anthropogenic pollutants on organisms and are a reflection of the overall health of the entire population in the ecosystem. These histo pathological biomarkers are closely related to other biomarkers of stress since many pollutants have to undergo metabolic activation in order to be able to provoke cellular change in the affected organism. In order to make evaluation of the effects of oil pollution, some heavy metals bioaccumulation and explore their histopathological effects on hepatocytes of Oriental sole (Euryglossa orientalis) and Deep flounder (Psettodes erumei), fishes caught from two areas of north coast of the Persian Gulf: Bandar Abbass and Bandar Lengeh. Concentrations of Ni and V in liver of both species in two sampling regions were in following order: Bandar abbass Bandar lengeh; also between two species, these quantities were higher in P. erumei than E. orientalis in both sampling regions. Histopathology of the liver shows some cellular alterations including: degeneration, necrosis and tissue disruption, and histopathological effects were severe in P. erumei than E. orientalis. Results showed that Bandar Abbass region was more polluted than Bandar Lengeh, and because Ni and V were oil pollution indicators, and two flat fishes were benthic, they can receive considerable amount of oil pollution through their biological activities like feeding. Also higher amounts of heavy metal concentrations and major histopathological effects in E. orientalis showed strong relationship between benthic habitat of the fish and amounts of received pollutants from water and sediments, because E. orientalis is more related to the bottom than P. erumei.

Keywords: Heavy Metals, Oil Pollution, Persian Gulf, flatfishes

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3 Screening for Antibacterial, Antifungal and Cytotoxic Agents in Three Hard Coral Species from Persian Gulf

Authors: Majid Afkhami ‎, Rastin Afkhami, Maryam Ehsanpou, Flora Mohammadizadeh, Amirhoushang Bahri

Abstract:

Within the frame of a biodiversity and bioactivity study of marine macro organisms from the Persian Gulf, three hard coral species extracts were investigated for cytotoxic, antibacterial and antifungal activities against five human pathogenic microorganisms. All concentrations of extracts from three hard corals showed no antifungal activity towards the tested strains. In antibacterial assays, the hard coral extracts showed significant activity solely against Staphylococcus aureus with MICs ranging from 3 to 9 μg/ml. The highest antibacterial activity was found in the aqueous methanol extract of Porites compressa with an inhibition zone of 22 mm against Staphylococcus aureus at 18 μg/ml extract concentration. Methanol extracts from Porites harrisoi and Porites compressa exhibited only weak cytotoxic activities. It is important for future research to concentrate on finding the mechanisms employed by corals to defend themselves against invasion, the mechanism of infections and the type of chemical compounds in coral extracts that inhibit antibacterial growth or proliferation in underexplored areas such as the Persian Gulf.

Keywords: Antibacterial, Antifungal, cytotoxic, Persian Gulf, hard corals

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2 Isolation, Characterization and Screening of Antimicrobial Producing Actinomycetes from Sediments of Persian Gulf

Authors: I. Zamani, M. Jabari, H. Alijani, S. Matroodi, H. Zolqarnein, A. Sharafi

Abstract:

Actinomycetes, Gram-positive bacteria, are interesting as a main producer of secondary metabolites and are important industrially and pharmaceutically. The marine environment is a potential source for new actinomycetes, which can provide novel bioactive compounds and industrially important enzymes. The aims of this study were to isolate and identify novel actinomycetes from Persian Gulf sediments and screen these isolates for the production of secondary metabolites, especially antibiotics, Using phylogenetic (16S rRNA gene sequence), morphological and biochemical analyses. 15 different actinomycete strains from Persian Gulf sediments at a depth of 5-10 m were identified. DNA extraction was done using Cinnapure DNA Kit. PCR amplification of 16S rDNA gene was performed using F27 and R1492 primers. Phylogenetic tree analysis was performed using the MEGA 6 software. Most of the isolated strains belong to the genus namely Streptomyces (14), followed by Nocardiopsis (1). Antibacterial assay of the isolates supernatant was performed using a standard disc diffusion assay with replication (n=3). The results of disk diffusion assay showed that most active strain against Proteus volgaris and Bacillus cereus was AMJ1 (16.46±0.2mm and 13.78±0.2mm, respectively), against Salmonella sp. AMJ7 was the most effective strain (10.13±0.2mm), and AMJ1 and AHA5 showed more inhibitory activity against Escherichia coli (8.04±0.02 mm and 8.2±0.03 ). The AMJ6 strain showed best antibacterial activity against Klebsiella sp. (8.03±0.02mm). Antifungal activity of AMJ2 showed that it was most active strain against complex (16.05±0.02mm) and against Aspergillus flavus strain AMJ1 was most active strain (16.4±0.2mm) and highest antifungal activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum gyp serum and Candida albicans, were shown by AHA1 (21.03±0.02mm), AHA3 and AHA7 (18±0.03mm), AMJ6 (21.03±0.2mm) respectively. Our results revealed that the marine actinomycetes of Persian Gulf sediments were potent source of novel antibiotics and bioactive compounds and indicated that the antimicrobial metabolites were extracellular. Most of the secondary metabolites and antibiotics are extracellular in nature and extracellular products of actinomycetes show potent antimicrobial activities.

Keywords: Marine Actinomycetes, antibacterial activity, antifungal activity, Persian Gulf

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1 Biomass and CPUA Estimation and Distribution Pattern of Saurida Tumbil in the Northwest of Persian Gulf

Authors: Negar Ghotbeddin, Tooraj Valinassab, Izadpanah Zeinab, Mohammad Azhir

Abstract:

It is reported on results of a trawls survey in 2011 to assess the amount of biomass and Catch Per Unit of Area (CPUA) and also to determine the distribution pattern of Synodonidae family of demersal fishes (with emphasize on great lizardfish, Saurida tumbil) as one the most important and commercial fish species in the northwest of Persian Gulf. Samples were collected at a total 65 trawl stations selected a stratified random procedure. The study area was stratified to five strata (A to E) covering the depth layers of 10-20, 20-30 and 30-50 m. The catch rates of CPUA and biomass of lizardfishes were estimated to be approximately 316.20 kg/nm2, and 2902.1 tons, respectively. The highest value of biomass of Synodontids was recorded in the east of the study area, Bordkhoon to Dayer (stratum D & E, approximately 1310.6 tonnes) and in depth layer of 30-50 m; and the lowest value was estimated for stratum A (West of Khuzestan Province) and in depth layer of 10-20 m. On the other hand, the highest CPUA was recorded in stratum D and depth layer of 20-30 m; and the lowest value for stratum A and 10-20 m depth. It was concluded that stratum D (namely from Bordkhoon to Dayer) contains the best fishing area from the point of higher density and distribution of Synodontidae in the covering area, and from the point of depth distribution, they are found in depths more than 30 m.

Keywords: biomass, Distribution, Persian Gulf, Saurida tumbil, CPUA, fishing area

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