Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

peroxidase Related Abstracts

7 Quantification of Enzymatic Activities of Proteins, Peroxidase and Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase, in Growing Phaseolus vulgaris L, with Application Bacterial Consortium to Control Fusarium and Rhizoctonia

Authors: Laredo Alcalá Elan Iñaky, Arredondo Valdes Roberto, Gonzalez Gallegos Esmeralda, Hernández Castillo Francisco Daniel, Castro Del Angel Epifanio


The common bean or Phaseolus vulgaris L. is the most important food legume for direct consumption in the world. Fusarium dry rot in the major fungus disease affects Phaseolus vulgaris L, after planting. In another hand, Rhizoctonia can be found on all underground parts of the plant and various times during the growing season. In recent years, the world has conducted studies about the use of natural products as substitutes for herbicides and pesticides, because of possible ecological and economic benefits. Plants respond to fungal invasion by activating defense responses associated with accumulation of several enzymes and inhibitors, which prevent pathogen infection. This study focused on the role of proteins, peroxidase (POD), phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), in imparting resistance to soft rot pathogens by applied different bacterial consortium, formulated and provided by Biofertilizantes de Méxicanos industries, analyzing the enzyme activity at different times of application (6 h, 12 h and 24 h). The resistance of these treatments was correlated with high POD and PAL enzyme activity as well as increased concentrations of proteins. These findings show that PAL, POD and synthesis of proteins play a role in imparting resistance to Phaseolus vulgaris L. soft rot infection by Fusarium and Rhizoctonia.

Keywords: Fusarium, peroxidase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase, rhizoctonia

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6 Effect of Cadmium on Oxidative Enzymes Activity in Persian Clover (Trifolium resupinatum L.)

Authors: Homayun Ghasemi, Mojtaba Yousefirad, Mozhgan Farzamisepehr


Heavy metals are among soil pollutant resources that in case of accumulation in the soil and absorption by the plant, enter into the food chain and poison the plants or the people who consume those plants. This research was performed in order to examine the role of cadmium as a heavy metal in the activity of catalase and peroxidase as well as protein concentration in Trifolium resupinatum L. based on a randomized block design with three repetitions. The used treatments included consumption of Cd (NO3)2 at four levels, namely, 0, 100, 200, and 300 ppm. The plants under study were treated for 10 days. The results of the study showed that catalase activity decreased by the increase of cadmium. Moreover, peroxidase activity increased by an increase inthe consumption of cadmium. The analysis of protein level showed that plantlet protein decreased in high cadmium concentrations. The findings also demonstrated that cadmium concentration in roots was higher than in shoots.

Keywords: Protein, heavy metal, catalase, peroxidase

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5 The Effect of Metabolites of Fusarium solani on the Activity of the PR-Proteins (Chitinase, β-1,3-Glucanase and Peroxidases) of Potato Tubers

Authors: A. K. Tursunova, O. V. Chebonenko, A. Zh. Amirkulova, A. O. Abaildayev, O. A. Sapko, Y. M. Dyo, A. Sh. Utarbaeva


Fusarium solani and its variants cause root and stem rot of plants. Dry rot is the most common disease of potato tubers during storage. The causative agents of fusariosis in contact with plants behave as antagonists, growth stimulants or parasites. The diversity of host-parasite relationships is explained by the parasite’s ability to produce a wide spectrum of biologically active compounds including toxins, enzymes, oligosaccharides, antibiotic substances, enniatins and gibberellins. Many of these metabolites contribute to the creation of compatible relations; others behave as elicitors, inducing various protective responses in plants. An important part of the strategy for developing plant resistance against pathogens is the activation of protein synthesis to produce protective ‘pathogenesis-related’ proteins. The family of PR-proteins known to confer the most protective response is chitinases (EC, Cht) and β-1,3-glucanases (EC, Glu). PR-proteins also include a large multigene family of peroxidases (EC, Pod), and increased activity of Pod and expression of the Pod genes leads to the development of resistance to a broad class of pathogens. Despite intensive research on the role of PR-proteins, the question of their participation in the mechanisms of formation of the F.solani–S.tuberosum pathosуstem is not sufficiently studied. Our aim was to investigate the effect of different classes of F. solani metabolites on the activity of chitinase, β-1,3-glucanases and peroxidases in tubers of Solanum tuberosum. Metabolite culture filtrate (CF) and cytoplasmic components were fractionated by extraction of the mycelium with organic solvents, salting out techniques, dialysis, column chromatography and ultrafiltration. Protein, lipid, carbohydrate and polyphenolic fractions of fungal metabolites were derived. Using enzymatic hydrolysis we obtained oligo glycans from fungal cell walls with different molecular weights. The activity of the metabolites was tested using potato tuber discs (d = 16mm, h = 5mm). The activity of PR-proteins of tubers was analyzed in a time course of 2–24 hours. The involvement of the analysed metabolites in the modulation of both early non-specific and late related to pathogenesis reactions was demonstrated. The most effective inducer was isolated from the CF (fraction of total phenolic compounds including naphtazarins). Induction of PR-activity by this fraction was: chitinase - 340-360%, glucanase - 435-450%, soluble forms of peroxidase - 400-560%, related forms of peroxidase - 215-237%. High-inducing activity was observed by the chloroform and acetonitrile extracts of the mycelium (induction of chitinase and glucanase activity was 176-240%, of soluble and bound forms of peroxidase - 190-400%). The fraction of oligo glycans mycelium cell walls of 1.2 kDa induced chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase to 239-320%; soluble forms and related peroxidase to 198-426%. Oligo glycans cell walls of 5-10 kDa had a weak suppressor effect - chitinase (21-25%) and glucanase (25-28%) activity; had no effect on soluble forms of peroxidase, but induced to 250-270% activity related forms. The CF polysaccharides of 8.5 kDa and 3.1 kDa inhibited synchronously the glucanase and chitinase specific response in step (after 24 hours at 42-50%) and the step response induced nonspecific peroxidase activity: soluble forms 4.8 -5.2 times, associated forms 1.4-1.6 times.

Keywords: Solanum tuberosum, peroxidase, fusarium solani, PR-proteins

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4 Green Synthesized Iron Oxide Nanoparticles: A Nano-Nutrient for the Growth and Enhancement of Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) Plant

Authors: G. Karunakaran, M. Jagathambal, N. Van Minh, E. Kolesnikov, A. Gusev, O. V. Zakharova, E. V. Scripnikova, E. D. Vishnyakova, D. Kuznetsov


Iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe2O3NPs) are widely used in different applications due to its ecofriendly nature and biocompatibility. Hence, in this investigation, biosynthesized Fe2O3NPs influence on flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) plant was examined. The biosynthesized nanoparticles were found to be cubic phase which is confirmed by XRD analysis. FTIR analysis confirmed the presence of functional groups corresponding to the iron oxide nanoparticle. The elemental analysis also confirmed that the obtained nanoparticle is iron oxide nanoparticle. The scanning electron microscopy and the transmission electron microscopy confirm that the average particle size was around 56 nm. The effect of Fe2O3NPs on seed germination followed by biochemical analysis was carried out using standard methods. The results obtained after four days and 11 days of seed vigor studies showed that the seedling length (cm), average number of seedling with leaves, increase in root length (cm) was found to be enhanced on treatment with iron oxide nanoparticles when compared to control. A positive correlation was noticed with the dose of the nanoparticle and plant growth, which may be due to changes in metabolic activity. Hence, to evaluate the change in metabolic activity, peroxidase and catalase activities were estimated. It was clear from the observation that higher concentration of iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe2O3NPs 1000 mg/L) has enhanced peroxidase and catalase activities and in turn plant growth. Thus, this study clearly showed that biosynthesized iron oxide nanoparticles will be an effective nano-nutrient for agriculture applications.

Keywords: fertilizer, iron oxide nanoparticles, catalase, Linum usitatissimum L, peroxidase, nano-nutrient

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3 Enhanced Peroxidase Production by Raoultella Species

Authors: Uchechukwu U. Nwodo, Anthony I. Okoh, Ayodeji O. Falade, Leonard V. Mabinya


Given the high-utility of peroxidase, its production in large amount is of utmost importance. Over the years, actinomycetes have been the major peroxidase-producing bacteria. Consequently, other classes of bacteria with peroxidase production potentials are underexplored. This study, therefore, sought to enhance peroxidase production by a Raoultella species, a new ligninolytic proteobacteria strain, by determining the optimum culture conditions (initial pH, incubation temperature and agitation speed) for peroxidase production under submerged fermentation using the classical process of one variable at a time and supplementing the fermentation medium with some lignin model and inorganic nitrogen compounds. Subsequently, the time-course assay was carried out under optimized conditions. Then, some agricultural residues were valorized for peroxidase production under solid state fermentation. Peroxidase production was optimal at initial pH 5, incubation temperature of 35 °C and agitation speed of 150 rpm with guaiacol and ammonium chloride as the best inducer and nitrogen supplement respectively. Peroxidase production by the Raoultella species was optimal at 72 h with specific productivity of 16.48 ± 0.89 U mg⁻¹. A simultaneous production of a non-peroxide dependent extracellular enzyme which suggests probable laccase production was observed with specific productivity of 13.63 ± 0.45 U mg⁻¹ while sawdust gave the best peroxidase yield under solid state fermentation. In conclusion, peroxidase production by the Raoultella species was increased by 3.40-fold.

Keywords: Enzyme Production, peroxidase, ligninolytic bacteria, proteobacteria

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2 Optimization of Process Parameters for Peroxidase Production by Ensifer Species

Authors: Uchechukwu U. Nwodo, Anthony I. Okoh, Ayodeji O. Falade, Leonard V. Mabinya


Given the high utility of peroxidase in several industrial processes, the search for novel microorganisms with enhanced peroxidase production capacity is of keen interest. This study investigated the process conditions for optimum peroxidase production by Ensifer sp, new ligninolytic proteobacteria with peroxidase production potential. Also, some agricultural residues were valorized for peroxidase production under solid state fermentation. Peroxidase production was optimum at an initial medium pH 7, incubation temperature of 30 °C and agitation speed of 100 rpm using alkali lignin fermentation medium supplemented with guaiacol as the most effective inducer and ammonium sulphate as the best inorganic nitrogen. Optimum peroxidase production by Ensifer sp. was attained at 48 h with specific productivity of 12.76 ± 1.09 U mg⁻¹. Interestingly, probable laccase production was observed with optimum specific productivity of 12.76 ± 0.45 U mg⁻¹ at 72 h. The highest peroxidase yield was observed with sawdust as solid substrate under solid state fermentation. In conclusion, Ensifer sp. possesses the capacity for enhanced peroxidase production that can be exploited for various biotechnological applications.

Keywords: Polymerase chain reaction, Enzyme Production, peroxidase, proteobacteria, catalase-peroxidase

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1 High Pressure Processing of Jackfruit Bulbs: Effect on Color, Nutrient Profile and Enzyme Inactivation

Authors: Pavuluri Srinivasa Rao, Jyoti Kumari


Jackfruit (ArtocarpusheterophyllusL.) is an underutilized yet highly nutritious fruit with unique flavour, known for its therapeutic and culinary properties. Fresh jackfruit bulb has a very short shelf life due to high moisture and sugar content leading to microbial and enzymatic browning, hindering its consumer acceptability and marketability. An attempt has been made for the preservation of the ripe jackfruit bulbs, by the application of high pressure (HP) over a range of 200-500 MPa at ambient temperature for dwell times ranging from 5 to 20 min. The physicochemical properties of jackfruit bulbs such as the pH, TSS, and titrable acidity were not affected by the pressurization process. The ripening index of the fruit bulb also decreased following HP treatment. While the ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity of jackfruit bulb were well retained by high pressure processing (HPP), the total phenols and carotenoids showed a slight increase. The HPP significantly affected the colour and textural properties of jackfruit bulb. High pressure processing was highly effective in reducing the browning index of jackfruit bulbs in comparison to untreated bulbs. The firmness of the bulbs improved upon the pressure treatment with longer dwelling time. The polyphenol oxidase has been identified as the most prominent oxidative enzyme in the jackfruit bulb. The enzymatic activity of polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase were significantly reduced by up to 40% following treatment at 400 MPa/15 min. HPP of jackfruit bulbs at ambient temperatures is shown to be highly beneficial in improving the shelf stability, retaining its nutrient profile, color, and appearance while ensuring the maximum inactivation of the spoilage enzymes.

Keywords: Carotenoids, Color, Antioxidant Capacity, ascorbic acid, total phenolic content, polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase, HPP-high pressure processing, jackfruit bulbs

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