Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15

perovskite Related Abstracts

15 Theoretical Prediction of the Structural, Elastic, Electronic, Optical, and Thermal Properties of Cubic Perovskites CsXF3 (X = Ca, Sr, and Hg) under Pressure Effect

Authors: M. A. Ghebouli, A. Bouhemadou, H. Choutri, L. Louaila


Some physical properties of the cubic perovskites CsXF3 (X = Sr, Ca, and Hg) have been investigated using pseudopotential plane–wave (PP-PW) method based on the density functional theory (DFT). The calculated lattice constants within GGA (PBE) and LDA (CA-PZ) agree reasonably with the available experiment data. The elastic constants and their pressure derivatives are predicted using the static finite strain technique. We derived the bulk and shear moduli, Young’s modulus, Poisson’s ratio and Lamé’s constants for ideal polycrystalline aggregates. The analysis of B/G ratio indicates that CsXF3 (X = Ca, Sr, and Hg) are ductile materials. The thermal effect on the volume, bulk modulus, heat capacities CV, CP, and Debye temperature was predicted.

Keywords: perovskite, PP-PW method, elastic constants, electronic band structure

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14 Robust Half-Metallicity and Magnetic Properties of Cubic PrMnO3 Perovskite

Authors: B. Bouadjemi, S. Bentata, W. Benstaali, A. Abbad, T. Lantri, A. Zitouni


The purpose of this study was to investigate the structural,electronic and magnetic properties of the cubic praseodymium oxides perovskites PrMnO3. It includes our calculations based on the use of the density functional theory (DFT) with both generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and GGA+U approaches, The spin polarized electronic band structures and densities of states aswellas the integer value of the magnetic moment of the unit cell (6 μB) illustrate that PrMnO3 is half-metallic ferromagnetic. The study shows that the robust half-metallicity makes the cubic PrMnO3 a promising candidate for application in spintronics.

Keywords: dft, Electronic Properties, perovskite, Magnetic moment, half-metallic

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13 Effect of High-Energy Ball Milling on the Electrical and Piezoelectric Properties of (K0.5Na0.5)(Nb0.9Ta0.1)O3 Lead-Free Piezoceramics

Authors: Chongtham Jiten, K. Chandramani Singh, Radhapiyari Laishram


Nanocrystalline powders of the lead-free piezoelectric material, tantalum-substituted potassium sodium niobate (K0.5Na0.5)(Nb0.9Ta0.1)O3 (KNNT), were produced using a Retsch PM100 planetary ball mill by setting the milling time to 15h, 20h, 25h, 30h, 35h and 40h, at a fixed speed of 250rpm. The average particle size of the milled powders was found to decrease from 12nm to 3nm as the milling time increases from 15h to 25h, which is in agreement with the existing theoretical model. An anomalous increase to 98nm and then a drop to 3nm in the particle size were observed as the milling time further increases to 30h and 40h respectively. Various sizes of these starting KNNT powders were used to investigate the effect of milling time on the microstructure, dielectric properties, phase transitions and piezoelectric properties of the resulting KNNT ceramics. The particle size of starting KNNT was somewhat proportional to the grain size. As the milling time increases from 15h to 25h, the resulting ceramics exhibit enhancement in the values of relative density from 94.8% to 95.8%, room temperature dielectric constant (εRT) from 878 to 1213, and piezoelectric charge coefficient (d33) from 108pC/N to 128pC/N. For this range of ceramic samples, grain size refinement suppresses the maximum dielectric constant (εmax), shifts the Curie temperature (Tc) to a lower temperature and the orthorhombic-tetragonal phase transition (Tot) to a higher temperature. Further increase of milling time from 25h to 40h produces a gradual degradation in the values of relative density, εRT, and d33 of the resulting ceramics.

Keywords: Ceramics, perovskite, dielectric, high-energy milling

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12 Preparation and Characterization of Lanthanum Aluminate Electrolyte Material for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

Authors: Onkar Nath Verma, Nitish Kumar Singh, Raghvendra, Pravin Kumar, Prabhakar Singh


The perovskite type electrolyte material LaAlO3 was prepared by solution based auto-combustion method using Al (NO3)3.6H2O, La2O3 with dilute nitrate acid (HNO3) as precursors and citric acid (C6H8O7.H2O) as a fuel. The synthesis protocol gave an easy processing of the LaAlO3 nano-particles. The XRD measurement revealed that the material has single phase with space group R-3c (rhombohedral). Thermal behavior was measured by simultaneous differential thermal analysis and thermo gravimetric analysis (DTA-TGA). The compact pellet density was determined. Also, the surface morphology was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The conductivity of LaAlO3 was measured employing LCR meter and found to increase with increasing temperature. This increase in conductivity may be attributed to increased mobility of oxide ion.

Keywords: SEM, perovskite, XRD, SOFC, LaAlO3, DTA-TGA

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11 Low Temperature Powders Synthesis of la1-xMgxAlO3 through Sol-Gel Method

Authors: R. Benakcha, M. Omari


Powders of La1-xMgxAlO3 (0 ≤ x ≤ 5) oxides, with large surface areas were synthesized by sol-gel process, utilizing citric acid. Heating of a mixed solution of CA, EtOH, and nitrates of lanthanum, aluminium and magnesium at 70°C gave transparent gel without any precipitation. The formation of pure perovskite La1-xMgxAlO3, occurred when the precursor was heat-treated at 800°C for 6 h. No X-ray diffraction evidence for the presence of crystalline impurities was obtained. The La1-xMgxAlO3 powders prepared by the sol-gel method have a considerably large surface area in the range of 12.9–20 m^2.g^-1 when compared with 0.3 m^2.g^-1 for the conventional solid-state reaction of LaAlO3. The structural characteristics were examined by means of conventional techniques namely X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetry and differential thermal (TG-DTA) and specific surface SBET. Pore diameters and crystallite sizes are in the 8.8-11.28 nm and 25.4-30.5 nm ranges, respectively. The sol-gel method is a simple technique that has several advantages. In addition to that of not requiring high temperatures, it has the potential to synthesize many kinds of mixed oxides and obtain other materials homogeneous and large purities. It also allows formatting a variety of materials: very fine powders, fibers and films.

Keywords: perovskite, sol-gel, aluminate, lanthan

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10 Processing and Characterization of (Pb0.55Ca0.45) (Fe0.5Nb0.5)O3 and (Pb0.45Ca0.55) (Fe0.5Nb0.5) O3 Dielectric Ceramics

Authors: Shalini Bahel, Maalti Puri, Sukhleen Bindra Narang


Ceramic samples of (Pb0.55Ca0.45) (Fe0.5Nb0.5)O3 and (Pb0.45Ca0.55)(Fe0.5Nb0.5)O3 were synthesized by columbite precursor method and characterized for structural and dielectric properties. Both the synthesized samples have perovskite structure with tetragonal symmetry. The variations in relative permittivity and loss tangent were measured as a function of frequency at room temperature. Both the relative permittivity and loss tangent decreased with increase in frequency. A reasonably high value of relative permittivity of 63.46, loss tangent of 0.0067 at 15 MHz and temperature coefficient of relative permittivity of -82 ppm/˚C was obtained for (Pb0.45Ca0.55) (Fe0.5Nb0.5) O3.

Keywords: X-Ray Diffraction, perovskite, loss tangent, relative permittivity

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9 Structural, Elastic, Vibrational and Thermal Properties of Perovskites AHfO3 (a=Ba,Sr,Eu)

Authors: H. Krarcha


The structural, elastic, vibrational and thermal properties of AHfO3 compounds with the cubic perovskites structure have been investigated, by employing a first principles method, using the plane wave pseudo potential calculations (PP-PW), based on the density functional theory (DFT), within the local density approximation (LDA). The optimized lattice parameters, independent elastic constants (C11, C12 and C44), bulk modulus (B), compressibility (b), shear modulus (G), Young’s modulus (Y ), Poisson’s ratio (n), Lame´’s coefficients (m, l), as well as band structure, density of states and electron density distributions are obtained and analyzed in comparison with the available theoretical and experimental data. For the first time the numerical estimates of elastic parameters of the polycrystalline AHfO3 ceramics (in framework of the VoigteReusseHill approximation) are performed. The quasi-harmonic Debye model, by means of total energy versus volume calculations obtained with the FP-LAPW method, is applied to study the thermal and vibrational effects. Predicted temperature and pressure effects on the structural parameters, thermal expansions, heat capacities, and Debye temperatures are determined from the non-equilibrium Gibbs functions.

Keywords: perovskite, hafnium, elastic propreties, first principles calculation

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8 Synthesis of La0.8Sr0.05Ca0.15Fe0.8Co0.2O3-δ -Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 Composite Cathode Material for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell with Lanthanum and Cerium Recycled from Wasted Glass Polishing Powder

Authors: Jun-Lun Jiang, Bing-Sheng Yu


Processing of flat-panel displays generates huge amount of wasted glass polishing powder, with high concentration of cerium and other elements such as lanthanum. According to the current statistics, consumption of polishing powder was approximately ten thousand tons per year in the world. Nevertheless, wasted polishing powder was usually buried or burned. If the lanthanum and cerium compounds in the wasted polishing powder could be recycled, that will greatly reduce enterprise cost and implement waste circulation. Cathodes of SOFCs are the principal consisting of rare earth elements such as lanthanum and cerium. In this study, we recycled the lanthanum and cerium from wasted glass polishing powder by acid-solution method, and synthesized La0.8Sr0.05Ca0.15Fe0.8Co0.8O3-δ and Gd0.1Ce0.9O2 (LSCCF-GDC) composite cathode material for SOFCs by glycinenitrate combustion (GNP) method. The results show that the recovery rates of lanthanum and cerium could accomplish up to 80% and 100% under 10N nitric acid solution within one hour. Comparing with the XRD data of the commercial LSCCF-GDC powder and the LSCCF-GDC product synthesized with chemicals, we find that the LSCCF-GDC was successfully synthesized with the recycled La & Ce solution by GNP method. The effect of adding ammonia to the product was also discussed, the grain size is finer and recovery rate of the product is higher without the addition of ammonia to the solution.

Keywords: Recycling, perovskite, acid solution, glass polishing powder, composite cathodes of solid oxide fuel, cell (SOFC), glycine-nitrate combustion(GNP) method

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7 Hydrogen Permeability of BSCY Proton-Conducting Perovskite Membrane

Authors: M. Heidari, A. Safekordi, A. Zamaniyan, E. Ganji Babakhani, M. Amanipour


Perovskite-type membrane Ba0.5Sr0.5Ce0.9Y0.1O3-δ (BSCY) was successfully synthesized by liquid citrate method. The hydrogen permeation and stability of BSCY perovskite-type membranes were studied at high temperatures. The phase structure of the powder was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to characterize microstructures of the membrane sintered under various conditions. SEM results showed that increasing in sintering temperature, formed dense membrane with clear grains. XRD results for BSCY membrane that sintered in 1150 °C indicated single phase perovskite structure with orthorhombic configuration, and SEM results showed dense structure with clear grain size which is suitable for permeation tests. Partial substitution of Sr with Ba in SCY structure improved the hydrogen permeation flux through the membrane due to the larger ionic radius of Ba2+. BSCY membrane shows high hydrogen permeation flux of 1.6 ml/min.cm2 at 900 °C and partial pressure of 0.6.

Keywords: perovskite, hydrogen separation, proton conducting membrane

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6 From Synthesis to Application of Photovoltaic Perovskite Nanowires

Authors: László Forró


The organolead halide perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 and its derivatives are known to be very efficient light harvesters revolutionizing the field of solid-state solar cells. The major research area in this field is photovoltaic device engineering although other applications are being explored, as well. Recently, we have shown that nanowires of this photovoltaic perovskite can be synthesized which in association with carbon nanostructures (carbon nanotubes and graphene) make outstanding composites with rapid and strong photo-response. They can serve as conducting electrodes, or as central components of detectors. The performance of several miniature devices based on these composite structures will be demonstrated. Our latest findings on the guided growth of perovskite nanowires by solvatomorph graphoepitaxy will be presented. This method turned out to be a fairly simple approach to overcome the spatially random surface nucleation. The process allows the synthesis of extremely long (centimeters) and thin (a few nanometers) nanowires with a morphology defined by the shape of nanostructured open fluidic channels. This low-temperature solution-growth method could open up an entirely new spectrum of architectural designs of organometallic-halide-perovskite-based heterojunctions and tandem solar cells, LEDs and other optoelectronic devices. Acknowledgment: This work is done in collaboration with Endre Horvath, Massimo Spina, Alla Arakcheeva, Balint Nafradi, Eric Bonvin1, Andrzej Sienkievicz, Zsolt Szekrenyes, Hajnalka Tohati, Katalin Kamaras, Eduard Tutis, Laszlo Mihaly and Karoly Holczer The research is supported by the ERC Advanced Grant (PICOPROP670918).

Keywords: Nanowire, photovoltaics, Photodetector, perovskite

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5 Advanced Exergetic Analysis: Decomposition Method Applied to a Membrane-Based Hard Coal Oxyfuel Power Plant

Authors: Renzo Castillo, George Tsatsaronis


High-temperature ceramic membranes for air separation represents an important option to reduce the significant efficiency drops incurred in state-of-the-art cryogenic air separation for high tonnage oxygen production required in oxyfuel power stations. This study is focused on the thermodynamic analysis of two power plant model designs: the state-of-the-art supercritical 600ᵒC hard coal plant (reference power plant Nordrhein-Westfalen) and the membrane-based oxyfuel concept implemented in this reference plant. In the latter case, the oxygen is separated through a mixed-conducting hollow fiber perovskite membrane unit in the three-end operation mode, which has been simulated under vacuum conditions on the permeate side and at high-pressure conditions on the feed side. The thermodynamic performance of each plant concept is assessed by conventional exergetic analysis, which determines location, magnitude and sources of efficiency losses, and advanced exergetic analysis, where endogenous/exogenous and avoidable/unavoidable parts of exergy destruction are calculated at the component and full process level. These calculations identify thermodynamic interdependencies among components and reveal the real potential for efficiency improvements. The endogenous and exogenous exergy destruction portions are calculated by the decomposition method, a recently developed straightforward methodology, which is suitable for complex power stations with a large number of process components. Lastly, an improvement priority ranking for relevant components, as well as suggested changes in process layouts are presented for both power stations.

Keywords: Exergy, Carbon capture and storage, Ceramic Membranes, perovskite, oxyfuel combustion

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4 A Selective and Fast Hydrogen Sensor Using Doped-LaCrO₃ as Sensing Electrode

Authors: He Zhang, Jianxin Yi


As a clean energy, hydrogen shows many advantages such as renewability, high heat value, and extensive sources and may play an important role in the future society. However, hydrogen is a combustible gas because of its low ignition energy (0.02mJ) and wide explosive limit (4% ~ 74% in air). It is very likely to cause fire hazard or explosion once leakage is happened and not detected in time. Mixed-potential type sensor has attracted much attention in monitoring and detecting hydrogen due to its high response, simple support electronics and long-term stability. Typically, this kind of sensor is consisted of a sensing electrode (SE), a reference electrode (RE) and a solid electrolyte. The SE and RE materials usually display different electrocatalytic abilities to hydrogen. So hydrogen could be detected by measuring the EMF change between the two electrodes. Previous reports indicate that a high-performance sensing electrode is important for improving the sensing characteristics of the sensor. In this report, a planar type mixed-potential hydrogen sensor using La₀.₈Sr₀.₂Cr₀.₅Mn₀.₅O₃₋δ (LSCM) as SE, Pt as RE and yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) as solid electrolyte was developed. The reason for selecting LSCM as sensing electrode is that it shows the high electrocatalytic ability to hydrogen in solid oxide fuel cells. The sensing performance of the fabricated LSCM/YSZ/Pt sensor was tested systemically. The experimental results show that the sensor displays high response to hydrogen. The response values for 100ppm and 1000ppm hydrogen at 450 ºC are -70 mV and -118 mV, respectively. The response time is an important parameter to evaluate a sensor. In this report, the sensor response time decreases with increasing hydrogen concentration and get saturated above 500ppm. The steady response time at 450 ºC is as short as 4s, indicating the sensor shows great potential in practical application to monitor hydrogen. An excellent response repeatability to 100ppm hydrogen at 450 ˚C and a good sensor reproducibility among three sensors were also observed. Meanwhile, the sensor exhibits excellent selectivity to hydrogen compared with several interfering gases such as NO₂, CH₄, CO, C₃H₈ and NH₃. Polarization curves were tested to investigate the sensing mechanism and the results indicated the sensor abide by the mixed-potential mechanism.

Keywords: perovskite, fire hazard, H₂ sensor, mixed-potential

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3 Effect of Substrate Temperature on Structure and Properties of Sputtered Transparent Conducting Film of La-Doped BaSnO₃

Authors: Alok Tiwari, Ming Show Wong


Lanthanum (La) doped Barium Tin Oxide (BaSnO₃) film is an excellent alternative for expensive Transparent Conducting Oxides (TCOs) film such as Indium Tin Oxide (ITO). However single crystal film of La-doped BaSnO₃ has been reported with a good amount of conductivity and transparency but in order to improve its reachability, it is important to grow doped BaSO₃ films on an inexpensive substrate. La-doped BaSnO₃ thin films have been grown on quartz substrate by Radio Frequency (RF) sputtering at a different substrate temperature (from 200⁰C to 750⁰C). The thickness of the film measured was varying from 360nm to 380nm with varying substrate temperature. Structure, optical and electrical properties have been studied. The carrier concentration is seen to be decreasing as we enhance the substrate temperature while mobility found to be increased up to 9.3 cm²/V-S. At low substrate temperature resistivity found was lower (< 3x10⁻³ ohm-cm) while sudden enhancement was seen as substrate temperature raises and the trend continues further with increasing substrate temperature. Optical transmittance is getting better with higher substrate temperature from 70% at 200⁰C to > 80% at 750⁰C. Overall, understanding of changes in microstructure, electrical and optical properties of a thin film by varying substrate temperature has been reported successfully.

Keywords: Mobility, Conductivity, perovskite, TCO film

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2 Hysteresis Effect in Organometallic Perovskite Solar Cells with Mesoscopic NiO as a Hole Transport Layer

Authors: D. C. Asebiah, D. Saranin, S. Karazhanov, A. R. Tameev, M. Kah


In this paper, the mesoscopic NiO was used as a hole transport layer in the inverted planar organometallic hybrid perovskite solar cell to study the effect of hysteresis. The devices we fabricated have the structures Fluorine Tin Oxide (FTO)/mesoscopic NiO/perovskite/[6,6]-phenyl C₆₁-butyric acid methyl ester (PC₆₁BM) photovoltaic device. The perovskite solar cell was done by toluene air (TLA) method and horn sonication for the dispersion of the NiO nanoparticles in deionized water. The power conversion efficiency was 12.07% under 1.5 AM illumination. We report hysteresis in the in current-voltage dependence of the solar cells with mesoscopic NiO as a hole transport layer.

Keywords: perovskite, hysteresis, mesoscopic, toluene air

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1 Development of Perovskite Quantum Dots Light Emitting Diode by Dual-Source Evaporation

Authors: Antoine Dumont, Weiji Hong, Zheng-Hong Lu


Light emitting diodes (LEDs) are steadily becoming the new standard for luminescent display devices because of their energy efficiency and relatively low cost, and the purity of the light they emit. Our research focuses on the optical properties of the lead halide perovskite CsPbBr₃ and its family that is showing steadily improving performances in LEDs and solar cells. The objective of this work is to investigate CsPbBr₃ as an emitting layer made by physical vapor deposition instead of the usual solution-processed perovskites, for use in LEDs. The deposition in vacuum eliminates any risk of contaminants as well as the necessity for the use of chemical ligands in the synthesis of quantum dots. Initial results show the versatility of the dual-source evaporation method, which allowed us to create different phases in bulk form by altering the mole ratio or deposition rate of CsBr and PbBr₂. The distinct phases Cs₄PbBr₆, CsPbBr₃ and CsPb₂Br₅ – confirmed through XPS (x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) and X-ray diffraction analysis – have different optical properties and morphologies that can be used for specific applications in optoelectronics. We are particularly focused on the blue shift expected from quantum dots (QDs) and the stability of the perovskite in this form. We already obtained proof of the formation of QDs through our dual source evaporation method with electron microscope imaging and photoluminescence testing, which we understand is a first in the community. We also incorporated the QDs in an LED structure to test the electroluminescence and the effect on performance and have already observed a significant wavelength shift. The goal is to reach 480nm after shifting from the original 528nm bulk emission. The hole transport layer (HTL) material onto which the CsPbBr₃ is evaporated is a critical part of this study as the surface energy interaction dictates the behaviour of the QD growth. A thorough study to determine the optimal HTL is in progress. A strong blue shift for a typically green emitting material like CsPbBr₃ would eliminate the necessity of using blue emitting Cl-based perovskite compounds and could prove to be more stable in a QD structure. The final aim is to make a perovskite QD LED with strong blue luminescence, fabricated through a dual-source evaporation technique that could be scalable to industry level, making this device a viable and cost-effective alternative to current commercial LEDs.

Keywords: Quantum Dots, Material Physics, perovskite, light emitting diode, high vacuum deposition, thin film processing

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