Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 44

Permeability Related Abstracts

44 The Use of Seashell by-Products in Pervious Concrete Pavers

Authors: Dang Hanh Nguyen, Nassim Sebaibi, Mohamed Boutouil, Lydia Leleyter, Fabienne Baraud

Abstract:

Pervious concrete is a green alternative to conventional pavements with minimal fine aggregate and a high void content. Pervious concrete allows water to infiltrate through the pavement, thereby reducing the runoff and the requirement for stormwater management systems. Seashell By-Products (SBP) are produced in an important quantity in France and are considered as waste. This work investigated to use SBP in pervious concrete and produce an even more environmentally friendly product, Pervious Concrete Pavers. The research methodology involved substituting the coarse aggregate in the previous concrete mix design with 20%, 40% and 60% SBP. The testing showed that pervious concrete containing less than 40% SBP had strengths, permeability and void content which are comparable to the pervious concrete containing with only natural aggregate. The samples that contained 40% SBP or higher had a significant loss in strength and an increase in permeability and a void content from the control mix pervious concrete. On the basis of the results in this research, it was found that the natural aggregate can be substituted by SBP without affecting the delicate balance of a pervious concrete mix. Additional, it is recommended that the optimum replacement percentage for SBP in pervious concrete is 40 % direct replacement of natural coarse aggregate while maintaining the structural performance and drainage capabilities of the pervious concrete.

Keywords: Permeability, Mechanical Strength, seashell by-products, pervious concrete pavers

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43 Experimental Investigation on Utility and Suitability of Lateritic Soil as a Pavement Material

Authors: J. Hemanth, B. G. Shivaprakash, S. V. Dinesh

Abstract:

The locally available Lateritic soil in Dakshina Kanadda and Udupi districts are traditionally being used as building blocks for construction purpose but they do not meet the conventional requirements (L L ≤ 25% & P I ≤6%) and desired four days soaked CBR value to be used as a sub-base course material in pavements. In order to improve its properties to satisfy the Atterberg’s Limits, the soil is blended with sand, cement and quarry dust at various percentages and also to meet the CBR strength requirements, individual and combined gradation of various sized aggregates along with Laterite soil and other filler materials has been done for coarse graded granular sub-base materials (Grading II and Grading III). The effect of additives blended with lateritic soil and aggregates are studied in terms of Atterberg’s limits, compaction, California Bearing Ratio (CBR), and permeability. It has been observed that the addition of sand, cement and quarry dust are found to be effective in improving Atterberg’s limits, CBR values, and permeability values. The obtained CBR and permeability values of Grading III, and Grading II materials found to be sufficient to be used as sub-base course for low volume roads and high volume roads respectively.

Keywords: Sand, Permeability, lateritic soil, quarry dust, gradation, sub-base course

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42 Grain Size Effect of Durability of Bio-Clogging Treatment

Authors: Hanène Souli, Tahani Farah, Jean-Marie Fleureau, Guillaume Kermouche, Jean-Jacques Fry, Benjamin Girard, Denis Aelbrecht

Abstract:

In this work, the bio-clogging of two soils with different granulometries is presented. The durability of the clogging is also studied under cycles of hydraulic head and under cycles of desaturation- restauration. The studied materials present continuous grain size distributions. The first one corresponding to the "material 1", presents grain sizes between 0.4 and 4 mm. The second material called "material 2" is composed of grains with size varying between 1 and 10 mm. The results show that clogging occurs very quickly after the injection of nutrition and an outlet flow near to 0 is observed. The critical hydraulic head is equal to 0.76 for "material 1", and 0.076 for "material 2". The durability tests show a good resistance to unclogging under cycles of hydraulic head and desaturation-restauration for the "material 1". Indeed, the flow after the cycles is very low. In contrast, "material 2", shows a very bad resistance, especially under the hydraulic head cycles. The resistance under the cycles of desaturation-resaturation is better but an important increase of the flow is observed. The difference of behavior is due to the granulometry of the materials. Indeed, the large grain size contributes to the reduction of the efficiency of the bio-clogging treatment in this material.

Keywords: Nutrition, Permeability, bio-clogging, granulometry

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41 Modeling of Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Concrete for Filling Trenches in Radioactive Waste Management

Authors: Ilija Plecas, Dalibor Arbutina

Abstract:

The leaching rate of 60Co from spent mix bead (anion and cation) exchange resins in a cement-bentonite matrix has been studied. Transport phenomena involved in the leaching of a radioactive material from a cement-bentonite matrix are investigated using three methods based on theoretical equations. These are: the diffusion equation for a plane source, an equation for diffusion coupled to a first order equation and an empirical method employing a polynomial equation. The results presented in this paper are from a 25-year mortar and concrete testing project that will influence the design choices for radioactive waste packaging for a future Serbian radioactive waste disposal center.

Keywords: Waste, Concrete, Radioactivity, Leaching, cement, Permeability, immobilization

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40 Development, Characterization and Properties of Novel Quaternary Rubber Nanocomposites

Authors: Kumar Sankaran, Santanu Chattopadhyay, Golok Behari Nando, Sujith Nair, Sreejesh Arayambath, Unnikrishnan Govindan

Abstract:

Rubber nanocomposites based on Bromobutyl rubber (BIIR), Polyepichlorohydrin rubber (CO), Carbon black (CB) and organically modified montmorillonite clay (NC) were prepared via melt compounding technique. The developed quaternary nanocomposites were characterized analytically and their properties were compared against the standard BIIR compound. BIIR-CO nanocomposites showed improved physico-mechanical properties as compared to that of the standard BIIR compound. Hybrid microstructure (NC-CB) development, clay exfoliation and better filler dispersion in the quaternary nanocomposite significantly contributed to the overall enhancement of properties. Introduction of CO in the system increased the specific gravity and hardness of the compound as compared to that of the standard compound. XRD analysis, AFM imaging and HR-TEM measurements confirmed exfoliation and a good level of dispersion of the NC in the composites. Permeability of developed BIIR-CO nanocomposites decreases significantly as compared to that of the standard BIIR compound.

Keywords: Morphology, Permeability, rubber nanocomposites, BIIR

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39 Modeling of the Pores Form Influence on the Hydraulic Resistance of Membranes and Their Permeability

Authors: Zhanat Umarova

Abstract:

Until the present time, modeling of the pores form influence on the hydraulic resistance of membranes and their permeability has not been analyzed. The aim of the given work is the theoretical consideration of the issue on the productivity of polymer membranes with the profile pores and determination of the optimum form of pores.

Keywords: Modeling, Permeability, Polymer membranes, pore’s density

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38 Nafion Nanofiber Mat in a Single Fuel Cell Test

Authors: Chijioke Okafor, Malik Maaza, Touhami Mokrani

Abstract:

Proton exchange membrane, PEM was developed and tested for potential application in fuel cell. Nafion was electrospun to nanofiber network with the aid of poly(ethylene oxide), PEO, as a carrier polymer. The matrix polymer was crosslinked with Norland Optical Adhesive 63 under UV after compacting and annealing. The welded nanofiber mat was characterized for morphology, proton conductivity, and methanol permeability, then tested in a single cell test station. The results of the fabricated nanofiber membrane showed a proton conductivity of 0.1 S/cm at 25 oC and higher fiber volume fraction; methanol permeability of 3.6x10^-6 cm2/s and power density of 96.1 and 81.2 mW/cm2 for 5M and 1M methanol concentration respectively.

Keywords: Nanofiber, Fuel Cell, Permeability, nafion

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37 Unconventional Composite Inorganic Membrane Fabrication for Carbon Emissions Mitigation

Authors: Ngozi Nwogu, Godson Osueke, Mamdud Hossain, Edward Gobina

Abstract:

An unconventional composite inorganic ceramic membrane capable in carbon dioxide emission decline was fabricated and tested at laboratory scale to develop in conformism to various environmental guidelines to mitigate the effect of global warming. A review of the existing membrane technologies for carbon capture including the relevant gas transport mechanisms are presented and discussed. Single gas separation experiments using silica modified ceramic membrane with internal diameter 20mm, outside diameter 25mm and length of 368mm deposited on a macro porous supported reactor.was carried out to investigate individual gas permeation behaviours at different pressures and membrane efficiency after a dip coating method. Nitrogen, Carbon dioxide, Argon, Oxygen and Methane pure gases were used to investigate their individual permeation rates at various pressures. Results show that the gas flow rate increases with pressure drop. However at above a pressure of 3bar, CO2 permeability ratio to than the other gases indicated control of a more selective surface adsorptive transport mechanism.

Keywords: Carbon Dioxide, Permeability, Composite Membranes, transport mechanisms

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36 Cover Layer Evaluation in Soil Organic Matter of Mixing and Compressed Unsaturated

Authors: Nayara Torres B. Acioli, José Fernando T. Jucá

Abstract:

The uncontrolled emission of gases in urban residues' embankment located near urban areas is a social and environmental problem, common in Brazilian cities. Several environmental impacts in the local and global scope may be generated by atmospheric air contamination by the biogas resulted from the decomposition of solid urban materials. In Brazil, the cities of small size figure mostly with 90% of all cities, with the population smaller than 50,000 inhabitants, according to the 2011 IBGE' census, most of the landfill covering layer is composed of clayey, pure soil. The embankments undertaken with pure soil may reach up to 60% of retention of methane, for the other 40% it may be dispersed into the atmosphere. In face of this figures the oxidative covering layer is granted some space of study, envisaging to reduce this perceptual available in the atmosphere, releasing, in spite of methane, carbonic gas which is almost 20 times as less polluting than Methane. This paper exposes the results of studies on the characteristics of the soil used for the oxidative coverage layer of the experimental embankment of Solid Urban Residues (SUR), built in Muribeca-PE, Brazil, supported of the Group of Solid Residues (GSR), located at Federal University of Pernambuco, through laboratory vacuum experiments (determining the characteristics curve), granularity, and permeability, that in soil with saturation over 85% offers dramatic drops in the test of permeability to the air, by little increments of water, based in the existing Brazilian norm for this procedure. The suction was studied, as in the other tests, from the division of prospection of an oxidative coverage layer of 60cm, in the upper half (0.1 m to 0.3 m) and lower half (0.4 m to 0.6 m). Therefore, the consequences to be presented from the lixiviation of the fine materials after 5 years of finalization of the embankment, what made its permeability increase. Concerning its humidity, it is most retained in the upper part, that comprises the compound, with a difference in the order of 8 percent the superior half to inferior half, retaining the least suction from the surface. These results reveal the efficiency of the oxidative coverage layer in retaining the rain water, it has a lower cost when compared to the other types of layer, offering larger availability of this layer as an alternative for a solution for the appropriate disposal of residues.

Keywords: Permeability, suction, oxidative coverage layer, saturation

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35 An Investigation into Why Liquefaction Charts Work: A Necessary Step toward Integrating the States of Art and Practice

Authors: Tarek Abdoun, Ricardo Dobry

Abstract:

This paper is a systematic effort to clarify why field liquefaction charts based on Seed and Idriss’ Simplified Procedure work so well. This is a necessary step toward integrating the states of the art (SOA) and practice (SOP) for evaluating liquefaction and its effects. The SOA relies mostly on laboratory measurements and correlations with void ratio and relative density of the sand. The SOP is based on field measurements of penetration resistance and shear wave velocity coupled with empirical or semi-empirical correlations. This gap slows down further progress in both SOP and SOA. The paper accomplishes its objective through: a literature review of relevant aspects of the SOA including factors influencing threshold shear strain and pore pressure buildup during cyclic strain-controlled tests; a discussion of factors influencing field penetration resistance and shear wave velocity; and a discussion of the meaning of the curves in the liquefaction charts separating liquefaction from no liquefaction, helped by recent full-scale and centrifuge results. It is concluded that the charts are curves of constant cyclic strain at the lower end (Vs1 < 160 m/s), with this strain being about 0.03 to 0.05% for earthquake magnitude, Mw ≈ 7. It is also concluded, in a more speculative way, that the curves at the upper end probably correspond to a variable increasing cyclic strain and Ko, with this upper end controlled by over consolidated and preshaken sands, and with cyclic strains needed to cause liquefaction being as high as 0.1 to 0.3%. These conclusions are validated by application to case histories corresponding to Mw ≈ 7, mostly in the San Francisco Bay Area of California during the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake.

Keywords: Liquefaction, Permeability, Centrifuge Modeling, lateral spreading, shear wave velocity charts

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
34 A Neural Network Modelling Approach for Predicting Permeability from Well Logs Data

Authors: Chico Horacio Jose Sambo

Abstract:

Recently neural network has gained popularity when come to solve complex nonlinear problems. Permeability is one of fundamental reservoir characteristics system that are anisotropic distributed and non-linear manner. For this reason, permeability prediction from well log data is well suited by using neural networks and other computer-based techniques. The main goal of this paper is to predict reservoir permeability from well logs data by using neural network approach. A multi-layered perceptron trained by back propagation algorithm was used to build the predictive model. The performance of the model on net results was measured by correlation coefficient. The correlation coefficient from testing, training, validation and all data sets was evaluated. The results show that neural network was capable of reproducing permeability with accuracy in all cases, so that the calculated correlation coefficients for training, testing and validation permeability were 0.96273, 0.89991 and 0.87858, respectively. The generalization of the results to other field can be made after examining new data, and a regional study might be possible to study reservoir properties with cheap and very fast constructed models.

Keywords: Neural Network, Permeability, multilayer perceptron, well log

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
33 Investigations of Thermo Fluid Characteristics of Copper Alloy Porous Heat Sinks by Forced Air Cooling

Authors: Ashish Mahalle, Kishore Borakhade

Abstract:

High porosity metal foams are excellent for heat dissipation. There use has been widened to include heat removal from high density microelectronics circuits. Other important applications have been found in compact heat exchangers for airborne equipment, regenerative and dissipative air cooled condenser towers, and compact heat sinks for power electronic. The low relative density, open porosity and high thermal conductivity of the cell edges, large accessible surface area per unit volume, and the ability to mix the cooling fluid make metal foam heat exchangers efficient, compact and light weight. This paper reports the thermal performance of metal foam for high heat dissipation. In experimentation metal foam samples of different pore diameters i.e. 35 µ, 20 µ, 12 µ, are analyzed for varying velocities and heat inputs. The study investigate the effect of various dimensionless no. like Re,Nu, Pr and heat transfer characteristics of basic flow configuration.

Keywords: Permeability, effective thermal conductivity, foam, pores

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32 Effect of Powder Shape on Physical Properties of Porous Coatings

Authors: M. Moayeri, A. Kaflou

Abstract:

Decreasing the size of heat exchangers in industries is favorable due to a reduction in the initial costs and maintenance. This can be achieved generally by increasing the heat transfer coefficient, which can be done by increasing tube surface by passive methods named “porous coat”. Since these coatings are often in contact with the fluid, mechanical strength of coatings should be considered as main concept beside permeability and porosity in design, especially in high velocity services. Powder shape affected mechanical property more than other factors. So in this study, the Copper powder with three different shapes (spherical, dendritic and irregular) was coated on Cu-Ni base metal with thickness of ~300µm in a reduction atmosphere (5% H2-N2) and programmable furnace. The morphology and physical properties of coatings, such as porosity, permeability and mechanical strength were investigated. Results show although irregular particle have maximum porosity and permeability but strength level close to spherical powder, in addition, mentioned particle has low production cost, so for creating porous coats in high velocity services these powder recommended.

Keywords: Permeability, Mechanical Strength, porosity, porous coat

Procedia PDF Downloads 220
31 Development of Impervious Concrete Using Micro Silica and GGBS as Cement Replacement Materials

Authors: Muhammad Rizwan Akram, Saim Raza, Hamza Hanif Chauhan

Abstract:

This paper describes the aim of research to evaluate the performance of ordinary Portland concretes containing cement replacement materials in both binary and ternary system. Blocks of concrete were prepared to have a constant water-binder ratio of 0.30. The test variables included the type and the amount of the supplementary cementious materials (SCMs) such as class of Silica Fume (SF) and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS). Portland cement was replaced with Silica Fume (SF) upto 7.5% and GGBS up to a level of 50%. Then physical properties are assessed from the compressive strength and permeability tests.

Keywords: Permeability, silica fume, compressive strength, GGBS

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
30 Development of Winter Wears Having Improved Thermal Comfort and Mechanical Properties

Authors: Samen Boota, Arslan Ishaq

Abstract:

More than 4 billion tons of chicken feathers are wasted yearly worldwide which is not environmental friendly. In order to make use of these 4 billion tons of feathers it is necessary to incorporate them to the textile materials. The main objective of this study is to develop the winter wears with improved thermal comfort and mechanical properties. Chick feathers were blended with cotton fibers to spin them into yarn, weave them dye them using reactive dyes. The developed fabric was tested for thermal comfort, tensile and tears strength. The results were also compared with pure cotton fabric of similar GSM. It is observed from the results that chicken feathers and cotton blended fabric was improved thermal comfort and mechanical properties.

Keywords: Permeability, Alambeta, compatibilizing, sliver

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29 Numerical Study for Examination of Flow Characteristics in Fractured Gas Reservoirs

Authors: M. K. Kim, C. H. Shin, W. G. Park

Abstract:

Recently, natural gas resources are issued due to alternative and eco-friendly energy policies, and development of even unconventional gas resources including tight gas, coal bed methane and shale gas is being rapidly expanded from North America all over the world. For developing these gas reservoirs, it is necessary to investigate reservoir characteristics by using reservoir simulation. In reservoir simulation, calculation of permeability of fractured zone is very important to predict the gas production. However, it is difficult to accurately calculate the permeability by using conventional methods which use analytic solution for laminar flow. The flow in gas reservoirs exhibits complex flow behavior such as slip around the wall roughness effect and turbulence because the size of the apertures of fractures is ranged over various scales from nano-scale to centi-scale. Therefore, it is required to apply new reservoir flow analysis methods which can accurately consider complex gas flow owing to the geometric characteristics and distributions of various pores and flow paths within gas reservoirs. Hence, in this study, the flow characteristics and the relation between each characteristic variable was investigated and multi-effect was quantified when the fractures are compounded for devising a new calculation model of permeability of fractured zone in gas reservoirs by using CFD.

Keywords: CFD, Permeability, fractured zone, gas reservoir

Procedia PDF Downloads 123
28 Minimization of Seepage in Sandy Soil Using Different Grouting Types

Authors: A. Ibrahim, Eng. M. Ahmed, M. Ashour

Abstract:

One of the major concerns facing dam is the repair of their structures to prevent the seepage under them. In previous years, many existing dams have been treated by grouting, but with varying degrees of success. One of the major reasons for this erratic performance is the unsuitable selection of the grouting materials to reduce the seepage. Grouting is an effective way to improve the engineering properties of the soil and strengthen of the permeability of the soil to reduce the seepage. The purpose of this paper is to focus on the efficiency of current available grouting materials and techniques from construction, environmental and economical point of view. The seepage reduction usually accomplished by either chemical grouting or cementious grouting using ultrafine cement. In addition, the study shows a comparison between grouting materials according to their degree of permeability reduction and cost. The application of seepage reduction is based on the permeation grouting using grout curtain installation. The computer program (SEEP/W) is employed to model a dam rested on sandy soil, using grout curtain to reduce seepage quantity and hydraulic gradient by different grouting materials. This study presents a relationship that takes into account the permeability of the soil, grout curtain spacing and a new performance parameter that can be used to predict the best selection of grouting materials for seepage reduction.

Keywords: Permeability, sandy soil, seepage, grouting

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27 Bond Strength of Nano Silica Concrete Subjected to Corrosive Environments

Authors: Muhammad S. El-Feky, Mohamed I. Serag, Ahmed M. Yasien, Hala Elkady

Abstract:

Reinforced concrete requires steel bars in order to provide the tensile strength that is needed in structural concrete. However, when steel bars corrode, a loss in bond between the concrete and the steel bars occurs due to the formation of rust on the bars surface. Permeability of concrete is a fundamental property in perspective of the durability of concrete as it represents the ease with which water or other fluids can move through concrete, subsequently transporting corrosive agents. Nanotechnology is a standout amongst active research zones that envelops varies disciplines including construction materials. The application of nanotechnology in the corrosion protection of metal has lately gained momentum as nano scale particles have ultimate physical, chemical and physicochemical properties, which may enhance the corrosion protection in comparison to large size materials. The presented research aims to study the bond performance of concrete containing relatively high volume nano silica (up to 4.5%) exposed to corrosive conditions. This was extensively studied through tensile, bond strengths as well as the permeability of nano silica concrete. In addition micro-structural analysis was performed in order to evaluate the effect of nano silica on the properties of concrete at both; the micro and nano levels. The results revealed that by the addition of nano silica, the permeability of concrete mixes decreased significantly to reach about 50% of the control mix by the addition of 4.5% nano silica. As for the corrosion resistance, the nano silica concrete is comparatively higher resistance than ordinary concrete. Increasing Nano Silica percentage increased significantly the critical time corresponding to a metal loss (equal to 50 ϻm) which usually corresponding to the first concrete cracking due to the corrosion of reinforcement to reach about 49 years instead of 40 years as for the normal concrete. Finally, increasing nano Silica percentage increased significantly the residual bond strength of concrete after being subjected to corrosive environment. After being subjected to corrosive environment, the pullout behavior was observed for the bars embedded in all of the mixes instead of the splitting behavior that was observed before being corroded. Adding 4.5% nano silica in concrete increased the residual bond strength to reach 79% instead of 27% only as compared to control mix (0%W) before the subjection of the corrosive environment. From the conducted study we can conclude that the Nano silica proved to be a significant pore blocker material.

Keywords: Concrete, Permeability, Corrosion Resistance, bond strength, nano silica

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26 Rooibos Extract Antioxidants: In vitro Models to Assess Their Bioavailability

Authors: Ntokozo Dambuza, Maryna Van De Venter, Trevor Koekemoer

Abstract:

Oxidative stress contributes to the pathogenesis of many diseases and consequently antioxidant therapy has attracted much attention as a potential therapeutic strategy. Regardless of the quantities ingested, antioxidants need to reach the diseased tissues at concentrations sufficient to combat oxidative stress. Bioavailability is thus a defining criterion for the therapeutic efficacy of antioxidants. In addition, therapeutic antioxidants must possess biologically relevant characteristics which can target the specific molecular mechanisms responsible for disease related oxidative stress. While many chemical antioxidant assays are available to quantify antioxidant capacity, they relate poorly to the biological environment and provide no information as to the bioavailability. The present comparative study thus aims to characterise green and fermented rooibos extracts, well recognized for their exceptional antioxidant capacity, in terms of antioxidant bioavailability and efficacy in a disease relevant cellular setting. Chinese green tea antioxidant activity was also evaluated. Chemical antioxidant assays (FRAP, DPPH and ORAC) confirmed the potent antioxidant capacity of both green and fermented rooibos, with green rooibos possessing antioxidant activity superior to that of fermented rooibos and Chinese green tea. Bioavailability was assessed using the PAMPA assay and the results indicate that green and fermented rooibos have a permeation coefficient of 5.7 x 10-6 and 6.9 x 10-6 cm/s, respectively. Chinese green tea permeability coefficient was 8.5 x 10-6 cm/s. These values were comparable to those of rifampicin, which is known to have a high permeability across intestinal epithelium with a permeability coefficient of 5 x 10 -6 cm/s. To assess the antioxidant efficacy in a cellular context, U937 and red blood cells were pre-treated with rooibos and Chinese green tea extracts in the presence of a dye DCFH-DA and then exposed to oxidative stress. Green rooibos exhibited highest activity with an IC50 value of 29 μg/ml and 70 μg/ml, when U937 and red blood cells were exposed oxidative stress, respectively. Fermented rooibos and Chinese green tea had IC50 values of 61 μg/ml and 57 μg/ml for U937, respectively, and 221 μg/ml and 405 μg/ml for red blood cells, respectively. These results indicate that fermented and green rooibos extracts were able to permeate the U937 cells and red blood cell membrane and inhibited oxidation of DCFH-DA to a fluorescent DCF within the cells.

Keywords: Bioavailability, Antioxidants, Permeability, rooibos

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25 Prediction of Unsaturated Permeability Functions for Clayey Soil

Authors: H. Trabelsi, F. Louati, M. Jamei

Abstract:

Desiccation cracks following drainage-humidification cycles. With water loss, mainly due to evaporation, suction in the soil increases, producing volumetric shrinkage and tensile stress. When the tensile stress reaches tensile strength, the soil cracks. Desiccation cracks networks can directly control soil hydraulic properties. The aim of this study was for quantifying the hydraulic properties for examples the water retention curve, the saturated hydraulic conductivity, the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity function, the shrinkage dynamics in Tibar soil- clay soil in the Northern of Tunisia. Then a numerical simulation of unsaturated hydraulic properties for a crack network has been attempted. The finite elements code ‘CODE_BRIGHT’ can be used to follow the hydraulic distribution in cracked porous media.

Keywords: Simulation, Permeability, Cracks, desiccation, unsaturated hydraulic flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 152
24 Chemical Stability and Characterization of Ion Exchange Membranes for Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries

Authors: Min-Hwa Lim, Mi-Jeong Park, Ho-Young Jung

Abstract:

Imidazolium-brominated polyphenylene oxide (Im-bPPO) is based on the functionalization of bromomethylated poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) (BPPO) using 1-Methylimdazole. For the purpose of long cycle life of vanadium redox battery (VRB), the chemical stability of Im-bPPO, sPPO (sulfonated 2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) and Fumatech membranes were evaluated firstly in the 0.1M vanadium (V) solution dissolved in 3M sulfuric acid (H2SO4) for 72h, and UV analyses of the degradation products proved that ether bond in PPO backbone was vulnerable to be attacked by vanadium (V) ion. It was found that the membranes had slightly weight loss after soaking in 2 ml distilled water included in STS pressure vessel for 1 day at 200◦C. ATR-FT-IR data indicated before and after the degradation of the membranes. Further evaluation on the degradation mechanism of the menbranes were carried out in Fenton’s reagent solution for 72 h at 50 ◦C and analyses of the membranes before and after degradation confirmed the weight loss of the membranes. The Fumatech membranes exhibited better performance than AEM and CEM, but Nafion 212 still suffers chemical degradation.

Keywords: Permeability, degradation, vanadium redox flow battery, ion exchange membrane, chemical stability

Procedia PDF Downloads 153
23 Study on Brick Aggregate Made Pervious Concrete at Zero Fine Level

Authors: Abdus Salam, Monjurul Hasan, Golam Kibria

Abstract:

Pervious concrete is a form of lightweight porous concrete, obtained by eliminating the fine aggregate from the normal concrete mix. The advantages of this type of concrete are lower density, lower cost due to lower cement content, lower thermal conductivity, relatively low drying shrinkage, no segregation and capillary movement of water. In this paper an investigation is made on the mechanical response of the pervious concrete at zero fine level (zero fine concrete) made with local brick aggregate. Effect of aggregate size variation on the strength, void ratio and permeability of the zero fine concrete is studied. Finally, a comparison is also presented between the stone aggregate made pervious concrete and brick aggregate made pervious concrete. In total 75 concrete cylinder were tested for compressive strength, 15 cylinder were tested for void ratio and 15 cylinder were tested for permeability test. Mix proportion (cement: Coarse aggregate) was kept fixed at 1:6 (by weights), where water cement ratio was valued 0.35 for preparing the sample specimens. The brick aggregate size varied among 25mm, 19mm, 12mm. It has been found that the compressive strength decreased with the increment of aggregate size but permeability increases and concrete made with 19mm maximum aggregate size yields the optimum value. No significant differences on the strength and permeability test are observed between the brick aggregate made zero fine concrete and stone aggregate made zero fine concrete.

Keywords: Permeability, porosity, pervious concrete, brick aggregate concrete, zero fine concrete

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22 Using Biopolymer Materials to Enhance Sandy Soil Behavior

Authors: Abdelazim Negm, Mohamed Ayeldeen

Abstract:

Nowadays, strength characteristics of soils have more importance due to increasing building loads. In some projects, geotechnical properties of the soils are be improved using man-made materials varying from cement-based to chemical-based. These materials have proven successful in improving the engineering properties of the soil such as shear strength, compressibility, permeability, bearing capacity etc.. However, the use of these artificial injection formulas often modifies the pH level of soil, contaminates soil and groundwater. This is attributed to their toxic and hazardous characteristics. Recently, an environmentally friendly soil treatment method or Biological Treatment Method (BTM) was to bond particles of loose sandy soils. This research paper presents the preliminary results of using biopolymers for strengthening cohesionless soil. Xanthan gum was identified for further study over a range of concentrations varying from 0.25% to 2.00%. Xanthan gum is a polysaccharide secreted by the bacterium Xanthomonas campestris, used as a food additive and it is a nontoxic material. A series of direct shear, unconfined compressive strength, and permeability tests were carried out to investigate the behavior of sandy soil treated with Xanthan gum with different concentration ratios and at different curing times. Laser microscopy imaging was also conducted to study the microstructure of the treated sand. Experimental results demonstrated the compatibility of Xanthan gum to improve the geotechnical properties of sandy soil. Depending on the biopolymer concentration, it was observed that the biopolymers effectively increased the cohesion intercept and stiffness of the treated sand and reduced the permeability of sand. The microscopy imaging indicates that the cross-links of the biopolymers through and over the soil particles increase with the increase of the biopolymer concentration.

Keywords: Sand, Permeability, Shear Strength, biopolymer, direct shear, xanthan gum

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21 Marble Powder’s Effect on Permeability and Mechanical Properties of Concrete

Authors: Shams Ul Khaliq, Khan Shahzada, Bashir Alam, Fawad Bilal, Mushtaq Zeb, Faizan Akbar

Abstract:

Marble industry contributes its fair share in environmental deterioration, producing voluminous amounts of mud and other excess residues obtained from marble and granite processing, polluting soil, water and air. Reusing these products in other products will not just prevent our environment from polluting but also help with economy. In this research, an attempt has been made to study the expediency of waste Marble Powder (MP) in concrete production. Various laboratory tests were performed to investigate permeability, physical and mechanical properties, such as slump, compressive strength, split tensile test, etc. Concrete test samples were fabricated with varying MP content (replacing 5-30% cement), furnished from two different sources. 5% replacement of marble dust caused 6% and 12% decrease in compressive and tensile strength respectively. These parameters gradually decreased with increasing MP content up to 30%. Most optimum results were obtained with 10% replacement. Improvement in consistency and permeability were noticed. The permeability was improved with increasing MP proportion up to 10% without substantial decrease in compressive strength. Obtained results revealed that MP as an alternative to cement in concrete production is a viable option considering its economic and environment friendly implications.

Keywords: Environment, Permeability, Strength, Consistency, marble powder

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20 Effect of Bamboo Chips in Cemented Sand Soil on Permeability and Mechanical Properties in Triaxial Compression

Authors: Sito Ismanti, Noriyuki Yasufuku

Abstract:

Cement utilization to improve the properties of soil is a well-known method applied in field. However, its addition in large quantity must be controlled. This study presents utilization of natural and environmental-friendly material mixed with small amount of cement content in soil improvement, i.e. bamboo chips. Absorbability, elongation, and flatness ratio of bamboo chips were examined to investigate and understand the influence of its characteristics in the mixture. Improvement of dilation behavior as a problem of loose and poorly graded sand soil is discussed. Bamboo chips are able to improve the permeability value that affects the dilation behavior of cemented sand soil. It is proved by the stress path as the result of triaxial compression test in the undrained condition. The effect of size and content variation of bamboo chips, as well as the curing time variation are presented and discussed.  

Keywords: Permeability, Mechanical Properties, bamboo chips, triaxial compression

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19 Adverse Curing Conditions and Performance of Concrete: Bangladesh Perspective

Authors: T. Manzur

Abstract:

Concrete is the predominant construction material in Bangladesh. In large projects, stringent quality control procedures are usually followed under the supervision of experienced engineers and skilled labors. However, in the case of small projects and particularly at distant locations from major cities, proper quality control is often an issue. It has been found from experience that such quality related issues mainly arise from inappropriate proportioning of concrete mixes and improper curing conditions. In most cases external curing method is followed which requires supply of adequate quantity of water along with proper protection against evaporation. Often these conditions are found missing in the general construction sites and eventually lead to production of weaker concrete both in terms of strength and durability. In this study, an attempt has been made to investigate the performance of general concreting works of the country when subjected to several adverse curing conditions that are quite common in various small to medium construction sites. A total of six different types of adverse curing conditions were simulated in the laboratory and samples were kept under those conditions for several days. A set of samples was also submerged in normal curing condition having proper supply of curing water. Performance of concrete was evaluated in terms of compressive strength, tensile strength, chloride permeability and drying shrinkage. About 37% and 25% reduction in 28-day compressive and tensile strength were observed respectively, for samples subjected to most adverse curing condition as compared to the samples under normal curing conditions. Normal curing concrete exhibited moderate permeability (close to low permeability) whereas concrete under adverse curing conditions showed very high permeability values. Similar results were also obtained for shrinkage tests. This study, thus, will assist concerned engineers and supervisors to understand the importance of quality assurance during the curing period of concrete.

Keywords: Concrete, Permeability, Tensile Strength, compressive strength, curing, adverse, drying shrinkage

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18 Activated Carbon Content Influence in Mineral Barrier Performance

Authors: Raul Guerrero, Sandro Machado, Miriam Carvalho

Abstract:

Soil and aquifer pollution, caused by hydrocarbon liquid spilling, is induced by misguided operational practices and inefficient safety guidelines. According to the Environmental Brazilian Institute (IBAMA), during 2013 alone, over 472.13 m3 of diesel oil leaked into the environment nationwide for those reported cases only. Regarding the aforementioned information, there’s an indisputable need to adopt appropriate environmental safeguards specially in those areas intended for the production, treatment, transportation and storage of hydrocarbon fluids. According to Brazilian norm, ABNT-NBR 7505-1:2000, compacted soil or mineral barriers used in structural contingency levees, such as storage tanks, are required to present a maximum water permeability coefficient, k, of 1x10-6 cm/s. However, as discussed by several authors, water can not be adopted as the reference fluid to determine the site’s containment performance against organic fluids. Mainly, due to the great discrepancy observed in polarity values (dielectric constant) between water and most organic fluids. Previous studies, within this same research group, proposed an optimal range of values for the soil’s index properties for mineral barrier composition focused on organic fluid containment. Unfortunately, in some circumstances, it is not possible to encounter a type of soil with the required geotechnical characteristics near the containment site, increasing prevention and construction costs, as well as environmental risks. For these specific cases, the use of an organic product or material as an additive to enhance mineral-barrier containment performance may be an attractive geotechnical solution. This paper evaluates the effect of activated carbon (AC) content additions into a clayey soil towards hydrocarbon fluid permeability. Variables such as compaction energy, carbon texture and addition content (0%, 10% and 20%) were analyzed through laboratory falling-head permeability tests using distilled water and commercial diesel as percolating fluids. The obtained results showed that the AC with smaller particle-size reduced k values significantly against diesel, indicating a direct relationship between particle-size reduction (surface area increase) of the organic product and organic fluid containment.

Keywords: Permeability, activated carbon, clayey soils, surface area

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17 The Effect of Air Filter Performance on Gas Turbine Operation

Authors: Iyad Al-Attar

Abstract:

Air filters are widely used in gas turbines applications to ensure that the large mass (500kg/s) of clean air reach the compressor. The continuous demand of high availability and reliability has highlighted the critical role of air filter performance in providing enhanced air quality. In addition to being challenged with different environments [tropical, coastal, hot], gas turbines confront wide array of atmospheric contaminants with various concentrations and particle size distributions that would lead to performance degradation and components deterioration. Therefore, the role of air filters is of a paramount importance since fouled compressor can reduce power output and availability of the gas turbine to over 70 % throughout operation. Consequently, accurate filter performance prediction is critical tool in their selection considering their role in minimizing the economic impact of outages. In fact, actual performance of Efficient Particulate Air [EPA] filters used in gas turbine tend to deviate from the performance predicted by laboratory results. This experimental work investigates the initial pressure drop and fractional efficiency curves of full-scale pleated V-shaped EPA filters used globally in gas turbine. The investigation involved examining the effect of different operational conditions such as flow rates [500 to 5000 m3/h] and design parameters such as pleat count [28, 30, 32 and 34 pleats per 100mm]. This experimental work has highlighted the underlying reasons behind the reduction in filter permeability due to the increase of flow rates and pleat density. The reasons, which led to surface area losses of filtration media, are due to one or combination of the following effects: pleat-crowding, deflection of the entire pleated panel, pleat distortion at the corner of the pleat and/or filtration medium compression. This paper also demonstrates that the effect of increasing the flow rate has more pronounced effect on filter performance compared to pleating density. This experimental work suggests that a valid comparison of the pleat densities should be based on the effective surface area, namely, the area that participates in the filtration process, and not the total surface area the pleat density provides. Throughout this study, optimal pleat count that satisfies both initial pressure drop and efficiency requirements may not have necessarily existed.

Keywords: Permeability, pressure drop, filter efficiency, EPA Filters

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16 Prediction of in situ Permeability for Limestone Rock Using Rock Quality Designation Index

Authors: Ahmed T. Farid, Muhammed Rizwan

Abstract:

Geotechnical study for evaluating soil or rock permeability is a highly important parameter. Permeability values for rock formations are more difficult for determination than soil formation as it is an effect of the rock quality and its fracture values. In this research, the prediction of in situ permeability of limestone rock formations was predicted. The limestone rock permeability was evaluated using Lugeon tests (in-situ packer permeability). Different sites which spread all over the Riyadh region of Saudi Arabia were chosen to conduct our study of predicting the in-situ permeability of limestone rock. Correlations were deducted between the values of in-situ permeability of the limestone rock with the value of the rock quality designation (RQD) calculated during the execution of the boreholes of the study areas. The study was performed for different ranges of RQD values measured during drilling of the sites boreholes. The developed correlations are recommended for the onsite determination of the in-situ permeability of limestone rock only. For the other sedimentary formations of rock, more studies are needed for predicting the actual correlations related to each type.

Keywords: Quality, rock, Permeability, In Situ, packer

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15 Streamlines: Paths of Fluid Flow through Sandstone Samples Based on Computed Microtomography

Authors: T. Wejrzanowski, Ł. Kaczmarek, M. Maksimczuk

Abstract:

The study presents the use of the numerical calculations based on high-resolution computed microtomography in analysis of fluid flow through Miocene sandstones. Therefore, the permeability studies of rocks were performed. Miocene samples were taken from well S-3, located in the eastern part of the Carpathian Foredeep. For aforementioned analysis, two series of X-ray irradiation were performed. The first set of samples was selected to obtain the spatial distribution of grains and pores. At this stage of the study length of voxel side amounted 27 microns. The next set of X-ray irradation enabled recognition of microstructural components as well as petrophysical features. The length of voxel side in this stage was up to 2 µm. Based on this study, the samples were broken down into two distinct groups. The first one represents conventional reservoir deposits, in opposite to second one - unconventional type. Appropriate identification of petrophysical parameters such as porosity and permeability of the formation is a key element for optimization of the reservoir development.

Keywords: Grains, Permeability, pressure distribution, pores

Procedia PDF Downloads 122