Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2

performance index Related Abstracts

2 Optimal Control of DC Motor Using Linear Quadratic Regulator

Authors: Meetty Tomy, Arxhana G Thosar


This paper provides the implementation of optimal control for an armature-controlled DC motor. The selection of error weighted Matrix and control weighted matrix in order to implement optimal control theory for improving the dynamic behavior of DC motor is presented. The closed loop performance of Armature controlled DC motor with derived linear optimal controller is then evaluated for the transient operating condition (starting). The result obtained from MATLAB is compared with that of PID controller and simple closed loop response of the motor.

Keywords: Optimal Control, MATLAB, DC motor, performance index

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1 Analysis of Short Counter-Flow Heat Exchanger (SCFHE) Using Non-Circular Micro-Tubes Operated on Water-CuO Nanofluid

Authors: Avdhesh K. Sharma


Key, in the development of energy-efficient micro-scale heat exchanger devices, is to select large heat transfer surface to volume ratio without much expanse on re-circulated pumps. The increased interest in short heat exchanger (SHE) is due to accessibility of advanced technologies for manufacturing of micro-tubes in range of 1 micron m - 1 mm. Such SHE using micro-tubes are highly effective for high flux heat transfer technologies. Nanofluids, are used to enhance the thermal conductivity of re-circulated coolant and thus enhances heat transfer rate further. Higher viscosity associated with nanofluid expands more pumping power. Thus, there is a trade-off between heat transfer rate and pressure drop with geometry of micro-tubes. Herein, a novel design of short counter flow heat exchanger (SCFHE) using non-circular micro-tubes flooded with CuO-water nanofluid is conceptualized by varying the ratio of surface area to cross-sectional area of micro-tubes. A framework for comparative analysis of SCFHE using micro-tubes non-circular shape flooded by CuO-water nanofluid is presented. In SCFHE concept, micro-tubes having various geometrical shapes (viz., triangular, rectangular and trapezoidal) has been arranged row-wise to facilitate two aspects: (1) allowing easy flow distribution for cold and hot stream, and (2) maximizing the thermal interactions with neighboring channels. Adequate distribution of rows for cold and hot flow streams enables above two aspects. For comparative analysis, a specific volume or cross-section area is assigned to each elemental cell (which includes flow area and area corresponds to half wall thickness). A specific volume or cross-section area is assumed to be constant for each elemental cell (which includes flow area and half wall thickness area) and variation in surface area is allowed by selecting different geometry of micro-tubes in SCFHE. Effective thermal conductivity model for CuO-water nanofluid has been adopted, while the viscosity values for water based nanofluids are obtained empirically. Correlations for Nusselt number (Nu) and Poiseuille number (Po) for micro-tubes have been derived or adopted. Entrance effect is accounted for. Thermal and hydrodynamic performances of SCFHE are defined in terms of effectiveness and pressure drop or pumping power, respectively. For defining the overall performance index of SCFHE, two links are employed. First one relates heat transfer between the fluid streams q and pumping power PP as (=qj/PPj); while another link relates effectiveness eff and pressure drop dP as (=effj/dPj). For analysis, the inlet temperatures of hot and cold streams are varied in usual range of 20dC-65dC. Fully turbulent regime is seldom encountered in micro-tubes and transition of flow regime occurs much early (i.e., ~Re=1000). Thus, Re is fixed at 900, however, the uncertainty in Re due to addition of nanoparticles in base fluid is quantified by averaging of Re. Moreover, for minimizing error, volumetric concentration is limited to range 0% to ≤4% only. Such framework may be helpful in utilizing maximum peripheral surface area of SCFHE without any serious severity on pumping power and towards developing advanced short heat exchangers.

Keywords: performance index, CuO-water nanofluid, non-circular micro-tubes, short counter flow heat exchanger

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