Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

performance improvement Related Abstracts

8 Performance Improvement of The Nano-Composite Based Proton Exchange Membranes (PEMs)

Authors: Yusuf Yılmaz, Kevser Dincer, Derya Saygılı

Abstract:

In this study, performance of PEMs was experimentally investigated. Coating on the cathode side of the PEMs fuel cells was accomplished with the spray method by using NaCaNiBO. A solution having 0,1 gr NaCaNiBO +10 mL methanol was prepared. This solution was taken out and filled into a spray. Then the cathode side of PEMs fuel cells was cladded with NaCaNiBO by using spray method. After coating, the membrane was left out to dry for 24 hours. The PEM fuel cells were mounted to the system in single, double, triple and fourfold manner in order to spot the best performance. The performance parameter considered was the power to current ratio. The best performance was found to occur at the 300th second with the power/current ratio of 3.55 Watt/Ampere and on the fourfold parallel mounting after the coating; whereas the poorest performance took place at the 210th second, power to current ratio of 0.12 Watt/Ampere and on the twofold parallel connection after the coating.

Keywords: Fuel Cell, Nano-composites, proton exchange membranes, performance improvement

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7 Parametric Screening and Design Refinement of Ceiling Fan Blades

Authors: Shamraiz Ahmad, Riaz Ahmad, Adnan Maqsood

Abstract:

This paper describes the application of 2k-design of experiment in order to screen the geometric parameters and experimental refinement of ceiling fan blades. The ratio of the air delivery to the power consumed is commonly known as service value (SV) in ceiling fan designer’s community. Service value was considered as the response for 56 inch ceiling fan and four geometric parameters (bend position at root, bend position at tip, bent angle at root and bent angle at tip) of blade were analyzed. With two levels, the 4-design parameters along with their eleven interactions were studied and design of experiment was employed for experimental arrangement. Blade manufacturing and testing were done in a medium scale enterprise. The objective was achieved and service value of ceiling fan was increased by 10.4 % without increasing the cost of production and manufacturing system. Experiments were designed and results were analyzed using Minitab® 16 software package.

Keywords: performance improvement, parametric screening, ceiling fan, service value

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6 Project Knowledge Harvesting: The Case of Improving Project Performance through Project Knowledge Sharing Framework

Authors: Eng Rima Al-Awadhi, Abdul Jaleel Tharayil

Abstract:

In a project-centric organization like KOC, managing the knowledge of the project is of critical importance to the success of the project and the organization. However, due to the very nature and complexity involved, each project engagement generates a lot of 'learnings' that need to be factored into while new projects are initiated and thus avoid repeating the same mistake. But, many a time these learnings are localized and remains as ‘tacit knowledge’ leading to scope re-work, schedule overrun, adjustment orders, concession requests and claims. While KOC follows an asset based organization structure, with a multi-cultural and multi-ethnic workforce and larger chunk of the work is carried out through complex, long term project engagement, diffusion of ‘learnings’ across assets while dealing with the natural entropy of the organization is of great significance. Considering the relatively higher number of mega projects, it's important that the issues raised during the project life cycle are centrally harvested, analyzed and the ‘learnings’ from these issues are shared, absorbed and are in-turn utilized to enhance and refine the existing process and practices, leading to improve the project performance. One of the many factors contributing to the successful completion of a project on time is the reduction in the number of variations or concessions triggered during the project life cycle. The project process integrated knowledge sharing framework discusses the knowledge harvesting methodology adopted, the challenges faced, learnings acquired and its impact on project performance. The framework facilitates the proactive identification of issues that may have an impact on the overall quality of the project and improve performance.

Keywords: Knowledge Management, performance improvement, knowledge harvesting, project integrated knowledge sharing, lessons learn

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5 The Lean Manufacturing Practices in an Automotive Company Using Value Stream Mapping Technique

Authors: Seher Arslankaya, Merve Si̇mge Usuk

Abstract:

Lean manufacturing, which is based on the Toyota Production System, has focused on increasing the performance in various fields by eliminating the waste. By waste elimination, the lead time is reduced significantly and lean manufacturing provides companies with an important privilege under today's competitive conditions. The initial point of lean thinking is the value. This notion create of a specific product with specific properties for which the customer is ready to pay and which satisfies his needs within a specific time frame and at a specific price. Considering this, the final customer determines the value but the manufacturer creates this value of the product. The value stream is the whole set of activities required for each product. These activities may or may not be essential for the value. Through value stream mapping, all employees can see the sources of waste and develop future cases to eliminate it. This study focused on manufacturing to eliminate the waste which created a cost but did not create any value. The study was carried out at the Department of Assembly/Logistics at Toyota Motor Manufacturing Turkey from the automotive industry with a high product mix and variable demands. As a result of the value stream analysis, improvements are planned for the future cases. The process was improved by applying these suggestions.

Keywords: Lean manufacturing, performance improvement, lead time, value stream papping

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4 Neural Network Based Control Algorithm for Inhabitable Spaces Applying Emotional Domotics

Authors: Sergio A. Navarro Tuch, Martin Rogelio Bustamante Bello, Leopoldo Julian Lechuga Lopez

Abstract:

In recent years, Mexico’s population has seen a rise of different physiological and mental negative states. Two main consequences of this problematic are deficient work performance and high levels of stress generating and important impact on a person’s physical, mental and emotional health. Several approaches, such as the use of audiovisual stimulus to induce emotions and modify a person’s emotional state, can be applied in an effort to decreases these negative effects. With the use of different non-invasive physiological sensors such as EEG, luminosity and face recognition we gather information of the subject’s current emotional state. In a controlled environment, a subject is shown a series of selected images from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) in order to induce a specific set of emotions and obtain information from the sensors. The raw data obtained is statistically analyzed in order to filter only the specific groups of information that relate to a subject’s emotions and current values of the physical variables in the controlled environment such as, luminosity, RGB light color, temperature, oxygen level and noise. Finally, a neural network based control algorithm is given the data obtained in order to feedback the system and automate the modification of the environment variables and audiovisual content shown in an effort that these changes can positively alter the subject’s emotional state. During the research, it was found that the light color was directly related to the type of impact generated by the audiovisual content on the subject’s emotional state. Red illumination increased the impact of violent images and green illumination along with relaxing images decreased the subject’s levels of anxiety. Specific differences between men and women were found as to which type of images generated a greater impact in either gender. The population sample was mainly constituted by college students whose data analysis showed a decreased sensibility to violence towards humans. Despite the early stage of the control algorithm, the results obtained from the population sample give us a better insight into the possibilities of emotional domotics and the applications that can be created towards the improvement of performance in people’s lives. The objective of this research is to create a positive impact with the application of technology to everyday activities; nonetheless, an ethical problem arises since this can also be applied to control a person’s emotions and shift their decision making.

Keywords: Data Analysis, Neural Network, performance improvement, emotional domotics

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3 Modeling of a Concentrating Photovoltaic Module with and without Cooling System

Authors: Intissar Benrhouma, Marta Victoria, Ignacio Anton, Bechir Chaouachi

Abstract:

Concentrating photovoltaic systems CPV use optical elements, such as Fresnel lenses, to concentrate solar intensity. The concentrated solar energy is delivered to the solar cell from 20 to 100 W/cm². Some of this energy is converted to electricity, while the rest must be disposed of as a residual heat. Solar cells cooling should be a necessary part of CPV modeling because these systems allowed increasing the power received by the cell. This high power can rise the electrons’ potential causing the heating of the cell, which reduces the global module’s efficiency. This work consists of modeling a concentrating photovoltaic module with and without a cooling system. We have established a theoretical model based on energy balances carried out on a photovoltaic module using solar radiation concentration cells. Subsequently, we developed a calculation program on Matlab which allowed us to simulate the functioning of this module. The obtained results show that the addition of a cooling system to the module improves greatly the performance of our CPV system.

Keywords: Solar energy, Photovoltaic, Concentration, Cooling, performance improvement

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2 Performance Improvement of Piston Engine in Aeronautics by Means of Additive Manufacturing Technologies

Authors: G. Andreutti, G. Saccone, D. Lucariello, C. Pirozzi, S. Franchitti, R. Borrelli, C. Toscano, P. Caso, G. Ferraro, C. Pascarella

Abstract:

The reduction of greenhouse gases and pollution emissions is a worldwide environmental issue. The amount of CO₂ released by an aircraft is associated with the amount of fuel burned, so the improvement of engine thermo-mechanical efficiency and specific fuel consumption is a significant technological driver for aviation. Moreover, with the prospect that avgas will be phased out, an engine able to use more available and cheaper fuels is an evident advantage. An advanced aeronautical Diesel engine, because of its high efficiency and ability to use widely available and low-cost jet and diesel fuels, is a promising solution to achieve a more fuel-efficient aircraft. On the other hand, a Diesel engine has generally a higher overall weight, if compared with a gasoline one of same power performances. Fixing the MTOW, Max Take-Off Weight, and the operational payload, this extra-weight reduces the aircraft fuel fraction, partially vinifying the associated benefits. Therefore, an effort in weight saving manufacturing technologies is likely desirable. In this work, in order to achieve the mentioned goals, innovative Electron Beam Melting – EBM, Additive Manufacturing – AM technologies were applied to a two-stroke, common rail, GF56 Diesel engine, developed by the CMD Company for aeronautic applications. For this purpose, a consortium of academic, research and industrial partners, including CMD Company, Italian Aerospace Research Centre – CIRA, University of Naples Federico II and the University of Salerno carried out a technological project, funded by the Italian Minister of Education and Research – MIUR. The project aimed to optimize the baseline engine in order to improve its performance and increase its airworthiness features. This project was focused on the definition, design, development, and application of enabling technologies for performance improvement of GF56. Weight saving of this engine was pursued through the application of EBM-AM technologies and in particular using Arcam AB A2X machine, available at CIRA. The 3D printer processes titanium alloy micro-powders and it was employed to realize new connecting rods of the GF56 engine with an additive-oriented design approach. After a preliminary investigation of EBM process parameters and a thermo-mechanical characterization of titanium alloy samples, additive manufactured, innovative connecting rods were fabricated. These engine elements were structurally verified, topologically optimized, 3D printed and suitably post-processed. Finally, the overall performance improvement, on a typical General Aviation aircraft, was estimated, substituting the conventional engine with the optimized GF56 propulsion system.

Keywords: Additive manufacturing, performance improvement, piston engine, aeronautic propulsion, weight saving

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1 Landing Performance Improvement Using Genetic Algorithm for Electric Vertical Take Off and Landing Aircrafts

Authors: Willian C. De Brito, Hernan D. C. Munoz, Erlan V. C. Carvalho, Helder L. C. De Oliveira

Abstract:

In order to improve commute time for small distance trips and relieve large cities traffic, a new transport category has been the subject of research and new designs worldwide. The air taxi travel market promises to change the way people live and commute by using the concept of vehicles with the ability to take-off and land vertically and to provide passenger’s transport equivalent to a car, with mobility within large cities and between cities. Today’s civil air transport remains costly and accounts for 2% of the man-made CO₂ emissions. Taking advantage of this scenario, many companies have developed their own Vertical Take Off and Landing (VTOL) design, seeking to meet comfort, safety, low cost and flight time requirements in a sustainable way. Thus, the use of green power supplies, especially batteries, and fully electric power plants is the most common choice for these arising aircrafts. However, it is still a challenge finding a feasible way to handle with the use of batteries rather than conventional petroleum-based fuels. The batteries are heavy and have an energy density still below from those of gasoline, diesel or kerosene. Therefore, despite all the clear advantages, all electric aircrafts (AEA) still have low flight autonomy and high operational cost, since the batteries must be recharged or replaced. In this sense, this paper addresses a way to optimize the energy consumption in a typical mission of an aerial taxi aircraft. The approach and landing procedure was chosen to be the subject of an optimization genetic algorithm, while final programming can be adapted for take-off and flight level changes as well. A real tilt rotor aircraft with fully electric power plant data was used to fit the derived dynamic equations of motion. Although a tilt rotor design is used as a proof of concept, it is possible to change the optimization to be applied for other design concepts, even those with independent motors for hover and cruise flight phases. For a given trajectory, the best set of control variables are calculated to provide the time history response for aircraft´s attitude, rotors RPM and thrust direction (or vertical and horizontal thrust, for independent motors designs) that, if followed, results in the minimum electric power consumption through that landing path. Safety, comfort and design constraints are assumed to give representativeness to the solution. Results are highly dependent on these constraints. For the tested cases, performance improvement ranged from 5 to 10% changing initial airspeed, altitude, flight path angle, and attitude.

Keywords: Optimization, Batteries, Energy Consumption, Genetic Algorithm, performance improvement, air taxi travel, all electric aircraft, landing performance, tilt rotor, VTOL design

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