Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

percolation Related Abstracts

4 Percolation of Financial Services into the Villages in India: Mirroring of Beneficiaries Responses

Authors: Radhakumari Challa


In India the commercial banks have taken the initiative of visiting the villages and helping the villagers open the no-frill accounts as part of the mission towards achieving the total financial inclusion. As an extension to the first phase of the study conducted a year back which revealed that the required awareness that the no-frill accounts creation is the initiative of the government to transfer either the financial assistance or other benefits of economic development directly was lacking among the villagers, the present study is undertaken to review the change in perceptions of beneficiaries in villages over a year period. The study reveals that that there is increase in the awareness among villagers regarding the purpose for which no-frills accounts are opened, about the method of operating these accounts. Awareness about their right for accessing all the financial services is also found to be on the rise.

Keywords: business correspondence, financial inclusion no-frill account, percolation

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3 Assessment the Infiltration of the Wastewater Ponds and Its Impact on the Water Quality of Pleistocene Aquifer at El Sadat City Using 2-D Electrical Resistivity Tomography and Water Chemistry

Authors: Usama Massoud, Abeer A. Kenawy, El-Said A. Ragab, Heba M. El-Kosery


2-D Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) and hydrochemical study have been conducted at El Sadat industrial city. The study aims to investigate the area around the wastewater ponds to determine the possibility of water percolation from the wastewater ponds to the Pleistocene aquifer and to inspect the effect of this seepage on the groundwater chemistry. Pleistocene aquifer is the main groundwater reservoir in this area, where El Sadat city and its vicinities depend totally on this aquifer for water supplies needed for drinking, agricultural, and industrial activities. In this concern, seven ERT profiles were measured around the wastewater ponds. Besides, 10 water samples were collected from the ponds and the nearby groundwater wells. The water samples have been chemically analyzed for major cations, anions, nutrients, and heavy elements. Also, the physical parameters (pH, Alkalinity, EC, TDS) of the water samples were measured. Inspection of the ERT sections shows that they exhibit lower resistivity values towards the water ponds and higher values in opposite sides. In addition, the water table was detected at shallower depths at the same sides of lower resistivity. This could indicate a wastewater infiltration to the groundwater aquifer near the oxidation ponds. Correlation of the physical parameters and ionic concentrations of the wastewater samples with those of the groundwater samples indicates that; the ionic levels are randomly varying and no specific trend could be obtained. In addition, the wastewater samples shows some ionic levels lower than those detected in other groundwater samples. Besides, the nitrate level is higher in samples taken from the cultivated land than the wastewater samples due to the over using of nitrogen fertilizers. Then, we can say that the infiltrated water from wastewater ponds are not the main controller of the groundwater chemistry in this area, but rather the variable ionic concentrations could be attributed to local, natural, and anthropogenic processes.

Keywords: Hydrochemistry, percolation, ERT, El Sadat city, wastewater ponds

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2 Aggregation of Fractal Aggregates Inside Fractal Cages in Irreversible Diffusion Limited Cluster Aggregation Binary Systems

Authors: Zakiya Shireen, Sujin B. Babu


Irreversible diffusion-limited cluster aggregation (DLCA) of binary sticky spheres was simulated by modifying the Brownian Cluster Dynamics (BCD). We randomly distribute N spheres in a 3D box of size L, the volume fraction is given by Φtot = (π/6)N/L³. We identify NA and NB number of spheres as species A and B in our system both having identical size. In these systems, both A and B particles undergo Brownian motion. Irreversible bond formation happens only between intra-species particles and inter-species interact only through hard-core repulsions. As we perform simulation using BCD we start to observe binary gels. In our study, we have observed that species B always percolate (cluster size equal to L) as expected for the monomeric case and species A does not percolate below a critical ratio which is different for different volume fractions. We will also show that the accessible volume of the system increases when compared to the monomeric case, which means that species A is aggregating inside the cage created by B. We have also observed that for moderate Φtot the system undergoes a transition from flocculation region to percolation region indicated by the change in fractal dimension from 1.8 to 2.5. For smaller ratio of A, it stays in the flocculation regime even though B have already crossed over to the percolation regime. Thus, we observe two fractal dimension in the same system.

Keywords: Fractals, percolation, BCD, sticky spheres

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1 Natural Emergence of a Core Structure in Networks via Clique Percolation

Authors: A. Melka, N. Slater, A. Mualem, Y. Louzoun


Networks are often presented as containing a “core” and a “periphery.” The existence of a core suggests that some vertices are central and form the skeleton of the network, to which all other vertices are connected. An alternative view of graphs is through communities. Multiple measures have been proposed for dense communities in graphs, the most classical being k-cliques, k-cores, and k-plexes, all presenting groups of tightly connected vertices. We here show that the edge number thresholds for such communities to emerge and for their percolation into a single dense connectivity component are very close, in all networks studied. These percolating cliques produce a natural core and periphery structure. This result is generic and is tested in configuration models and in real-world networks. This is also true for k-cores and k-plexes. Thus, the emergence of this connectedness among communities leading to a core is not dependent on some specific mechanism but a direct result of the natural percolation of dense communities.

Keywords: Phase Transition, Cliques, percolation, core structure

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