Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 24

perceptions Related Abstracts

24 Students’ Perceptions on Educational Game for Learning Programming Subject: A Case Study

Authors: Roslina Ibrahim, Azizah Jaafar, Khalili Khalil

Abstract:

Educational games (EG) are regarded as a promising teaching and learning tool for the new generation. Growing number of studies and literatures can be found in EG studies. Both academic researchers and commercial developers come out with various educational games prototypes and titles. Despite that, acceptance of educational games still lacks among the students. It is important to understanding students’ perceptions of EG, since they are the main stakeholder of the technology. Thus, this study seeks to understand perceptions of undergraduates’ students using a framework originated from user acceptance theory. The framework consists of six constructs with twenty-eight items. Data collection was done on 180 undergraduate students of Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur using self-developed online EG called ROBO-C. Data analysis was done using descriptive, factor analysis and correlations. Performance expectancy, effort expectancy, attitude, and enjoyment factors were found significantly correlated with the intention to use EG. This study provides more understanding towards the use of educational games among students.

Keywords: Educational Games, perceptions, acceptance, UTAUT

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23 Learning Activities in Teaching Nihon-Go in the Philippines: Basis for a Proposed Action Plan

Authors: Esperanza C. Santos

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Japanese Language was traditionally considered as a means of imparting culture and training aesthetic experience in students and therefore as something beyond the practical aims of language teaching and learning. Due to the complexity of foreign languages, lots of language learners and teachers shared deep reservations about the potentials of foreign language in enhancing the communication skills of the students. In spite of the arguments against the use of Foreign Language (Nihon-go) in the classroom, the researcher strongly support the use of Nihon-go in teaching communication skills as the researcher believes that Nihon-go is a valuable resource to be exploited in the classroom in order to help the students explore the language in an interesting and challenging way. The focus of this research is to find out the relationship between the preferences, opinions, and perceptions with the communication skills. This study also identifies the significance of the relationship between preferences, opinions and perceptions and communications skills in the activities employed in Foreign language (Nihon-go) among the junior and senior students in Foreign Language 2 at the Imus Institute, Imus Cavite during the academic year 2013-2014. The results of the study are expected to encourage further studies that particularly focused on the communication skills as brought about by the identified factors namely: preferences, opinions, and perceptions on the benefits factor namely the language acquisition; access to Japanese culture and students' interpretative ability. Therefore, this research is in its quest for the issues and concerns on how to effectively teach different learning activities in a Nihon-go class.

Keywords: Language Acquisition, Preferences, perceptions, opinions

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22 Food Security of Migrants in a Regional Area of Australia: A Qualitative Study

Authors: Joanne Sin Wei Yeoh, Quynh Lê, Rosa McManamey

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Food security indicates the ability of individuals, households and communities to acquire food that is healthy, sustainable, affordable, appropriate and accessible. Despite Australia’s current ability to produce enough food to feed a population larger than its current population, there has been substantial evidence over the last decades to demonstrate many Australians struggle to feed themselves, including those from a cultural and linguistically diverse (CALD) background. The study aimed to investigate migrants’ perceptions and experiences on food security in Tasmania. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 33 migrants residing in North, South and North West Tasmania, who were recruited through purposive sampling. Thematic analysis was employed to analyse the interview data. Four main themes were identified from the interview data: (1) Understanding of food security; (2) Experiences with the food security in Tasmania; (3) Factors that influence migrants’ food security in Tasmania; and (4) Acculturation strategies. Various sub-themes have emerged under each of these four major themes. Though the findings indicate participants are satisfied with their current food security in Tasmania, they still encounter some challenges in food availability, accessibility, and affordability in Tasmania. Factors that influence migrants’ food security were educational background, language barrier, socioeconomic status, geographical isolation, and cultural background. By using different acculturation strategies, migrants managed to adapt to the new food culture. In addition, social and cultural capitals were also treated as vital roles in improving migrants’ food security. The findings indicate migrants residing in Tasmania face different challenges on food security. They use different strategies for food security while acculturating into a new environment. The findings may provide useful information for migrants in Australia and various private organisations or relevant government departments that address food security for migrants.

Keywords: Food Security, migrants, Experiences, perceptions

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21 Culture of Manager of a Medium or Small Enterprises

Authors: Omar Bendjimaa, Karzabi Abdelatif

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Small and medium enterprises have witnessed several developments in recent years thanks to the policies and programs of support given by the state, and that is due to their importance in local and national development. Nevertheless, the success and development of these firms depends on a number of factors, especially the human element, for instance, the culture of the manager has its origin in the culture of the community and is of crucial influence in these firms. In fact, this culture is nothing more than a set of values, perceptions, beliefs, symbols and practices repeated, in addition to the knowledge it has received from the readings and the modern means of education. All these factors have an impact on the effectiveness of governance, its resolutions, instructions and performance of its function as a manager of a medium or small enterprise is inevitably affected by these cultural values, it is the driving force, the leader, and the observer at the same time.

Keywords: Performance, Values, beliefs, Small and medium enterprises, perceptions, the culture of the manager, the culture of the community, symbols

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20 Classroom Management Whereas Teaching ESL to Saudi Students

Authors: Mohammad Akram

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to improve classroom management while teaching especially ESL/EFL. At the same time, it has been discussed about the standard of the students through some surveys held in Jazan University in the month of February and March, 2013. The present research is a classroom action-oriented study. The subject of the study is mainly the students whose first language is not English at all. The study is prepared in one cycle that has planning, action, and reaction as well. Teachers of English as a second language/foreign language generally face numerous of unexpected problems while dealing with their students. To make the classes practical, meaningful, and easy like fun for the students is really a cumbersome task. It's a very practical move towards classroom ESL/EFL teaching if we want to apply anything new, I mean new policies, tactics, recent/smart teaching methodologies, we must peep into the hole of past because it will give us the best solution for the present strategies. We need to academically study the past of our students to make their present fruitful. Here, author wants to present a few important problematic issues like classroom management in the area of ESL/EFL while teaching ESL students. Impact these are suggestions to combat drawbacks of 'Classroom Teaching'. “Classroom management is to put into practice and a process through teaching and learning process”.

Keywords: Management, Global, Integrated, Teachers, Productive, classroom, Comprehension, perceptions, segregated

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19 Project Stakeholders' Perceptions of Sustainability: A Case Example From the Turkish Construction Industry

Authors: F. Heyecan Giritli, Gizem Akgül

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Because of the raising population of world; the need for houses, buildings and infrastructures are increasing rapidly. Energy and water consumption, waste production continues to increase. If this situation of resources continues, there will be a significant loss for next generations. Therefore, there are a lot of researches and solutions developed in the world. Also sustainability criteria are collected together by some countries to serve construction industry with certification systems. Sustainable building production process’s scope requires different path from traditional building production process. Moreover, the key objective of sustainable buildings is that the process includes whole life cycle duration. The process approaches from the decision of the project to the end of it; so the project team is needed from the beginning of the integrated project delivery model. Further more, by defining project team at the beginning of the project provides communication among the team members and defined problem solving and decision making methods. In this research includes the certification systems among the world to comprehend the head lines and assessment criteria. Therefore, it is understand that usually all green building criteria have the same contents. The aim of this research is to assess the sustainable project stakeholder’ perceptions in Turkish construction industry from the point of occupation, job title and years of experience. Therefore, a survey is made to assess the perceptions of each attendant. In Turkey, sustainability criteria are not clearly defined; on the other hand some regulations like waste management, energy efficiency are made by legal agencies. LEED certification system is the most popular system in Turkey that has attended and certificated. From the LEED official data, it’s understood that 308 project registered in Turkey. Therefore, LEED sustainability criteria are used in the survey. Head lines of LEED certification criteria; sustainable sites, water efficiency, energy and atmosphere, material and resources, indoor environmental quality, innovation and regional priority are indicated to assess the perceptions of survey participants. Moreover, only surveying of criteria are not enough; so the equipment, methods, risks and benefits also considered.

Keywords: Turkey, Construction, Sustainability, Risk, Stakeholders, perceptions, benefit, LEED

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18 The Role of Coaching in Fostering Entrepreneurial Intention among Graduate Students in Tunisia

Authors: Abdellatif Amouri, Sami Boudabbous

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The current study provides insights on the importance of entrepreneurial coaching as a source of developing entrepreneurial intentions among entrepreneurs and a determinant factor of business creation process and growth. Coaching, which implies exchange of adequate information and a mutual understanding between entrepreneurs and their partners, requires a better mutual knowledge of the representations and the perceptions of ideas which are widely present in their dealings and transactions. Therefore, to analyze entrepreneurs’ perceptions of business creation, we addressed a survey questionnaire to a group of Tunisian entrepreneurs and experts in business creation to indicate their level of approval concerning the prominence of coaching. The factor analysis indicates that more than 60% of the respondents believe that each statement reflects an aspect of coaching, with no bias to its position in the entrepreneurial process. Therefore, the image drawn from our respondents’ perceptions is that an entrepreneur is rather "constructed" and "shaped" by multiple apprenticeships both before and during the entrepreneurial act, through an accompaniment process and within interactions with trainers, consultants or professionals in starting a business. Similarly, the results indicate that the poor support structures and lack of accompaniment procedures stand as an obstacle impeding the development of entrepreneurial intention among business creators.

Keywords: Entrepreneurial Behavior, Venture Creation, perceptions, entrepreneurial intention, Entrepreneurial Coaching

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17 Walking the Talk? Thinking and Acting – Teachers' and Practitioners' Perceptions about Physical Activity, Health and Well-Being, Do They 'Walk the Talk' ?

Authors: Kristy Howells, Catherine Meehan

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This position paper presents current research findings into the proposed gap between teachers’ and practitioners’ thinking and acting about physical activity health and well-being in childhood. Within the new Primary curriculum, there is a focus on sustained physical activity within a Physical Education and healthy lifestyles in Personal, Health, Social and Emotional lessons, but there is no curriculum guidance about what sustained physical activity is and how it is defined. The current health guidance on birth to five suggests that children should not be inactive for long periods and specify light and energetic activities, however there is the a suggested period of time per day for young children to achieve, but the guidance does not specify how this should be measured. The challenge therefore for teachers and practitioners is their own confidence and understanding of what “good / moderate intensity” physical activity and healthy living looks like for children and the children understanding what they are doing. There is limited research about children from birth to eight years and also the perceptions and attitudes of those who work with this age group of children, however it was found that children at times can identify different levels of activity and it has been found that children can identify healthy foods and good choices for healthy living at a basic level. Authors have also explored teachers’ beliefs about teaching and learning and found that teachers could act in accordance to their beliefs about their subject area only when their subject knowledge, understanding and confidence of that area is high. It has been proposed that confidence and competence of practitioners and teachers to integrate ‘well-being’ within the learning settings has been reported as being low. This may be due to them not having high subject knowledge. It has been suggested that children’s life chances are improved by focusing on well-being in their earliest years. This includes working with parents and families, and being aware of the environmental contexts that may impact on children’s wellbeing. The key is for practitioners and teachers to know how to implement these ideas effectively as these key workers have a profound effect on young children as role models and due to the time of waking hours spent with them. The position paper is part of a longitudinal study at Canterbury Christ Church University and currently we will share the research findings from the initial questionnaire (online, postal, and in person) that explored and evaluated the knowledge, competence and confidence levels of practitioners and teachers as to the structure and planning of sustained physical activity and healthy lifestyles and how this progresses with the children’s age.

Keywords: Physical Activity, Health, Well-being, perceptions

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16 Concerns, Attitudes and Perceptions of Mothers about Child Vulnerability for Sexual Abuse

Authors: Rukhsana Kausar, Khadija Rasheed

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This research explored general concerns, attitudes and perceptions of Pakistani mothers about their children’s vulnerability for sexual abuse and it also examined the effect of education and work status of mothers on their concerns and attitudes about the safety of their children. The sample consisted of 166 mothers comprising of 4 groups i.e. educated-working mothers, uneducated working mothers, educated non-working mothers and uneducated non-working mothers. This research comprised of two studies. Study 1 was carried out to construct two separate scales namely Maternal Concerns and Attitudes Scale for safety of Daughters (MCA-SD) and Maternal Concerns and Attitudes Scale for safety of Sons (MCA-SS) for assessing maternal concerns and attitudes about safety and protection of daughters and sons. These scales were used in study 2 with the objective to explore mothers’ general concerns, attitudes and perceptions of about child vulnerability for sexual abuse. Data were analyzed using two-way analysis of variance and independent-samples t-test. Educated mothers had more sense of responsibility, ensured more safety and provide more information about self-protection to their children as compared to uneducated mothers. Similarly non-working mothers showed more sense of responsibility and provided more information on self-protection to their children as compared to working mothers. Moreover, mothers living in nuclear family system trusted more on their relatives and other people for the protection of their children and ensured more safety of children than those living in joint family system. Findings have very important implications for protecting children from likely sexual abuse.

Keywords: attitudes, perceptions, child sexual abuse, mothers’ concerns, child vulnerability

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15 Perceptions of Farmers against Liquid Fertilizer Benefits of Beef Cattle Urine

Authors: Sitti Nurani Sirajuddin, Kasmiyati Kasim, Ikrar Moh. Saleh

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The aim of this study was to know the perception of livestock farmers on the use of liquid organic fertilizer from urine of cattle at Sinjai Regency, South Sulawesi Province. The choice of location for a farmer group manufactures and markets liquid organic fertilizer from cattle urine. This research was conducted in May to July 2013.The population were all livestock farmers who use organic liquid fertilizer from cattle urine samples while livestock farmers who are directly involved in the manufacture of liquid organic fertilizer totaled 42 people. Data were collected through observation and interview. Data were analyzed descriptively. The results showed that the perception of livestock farmers of using liquid organic fertilizer from cattle urine provide additional revenue benefits, cost minimization farming, reducing environmental pollution which not contrary to the customs.

Keywords: perceptions, farmers, beef cattle, liquid organic fertilizer

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14 Love Is Color-Blind: Perceptions among Sunway University Students toward Interracial Relationship

Authors: Azman Ramlie, Vivian Foo Jing Wen

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As the advancement of technology has tremendously changed the way people communicate with each other, it has opened up opportunities for interracial relationships. Interracial relationship is also known as intercultural or interethnic relationships. This research topic aims to study on students’ perceptions toward interracial relationship in terms of their level of acceptance and approval. In addition, the study also focuses on determining and ranking the factors that affects students’ perceptions towards interracial relationship. This study also targets to determine the differences in students’ perceptions from business and communication major. This study uses a sample of university students from Sunway University, particularly on students in business and communication major. The study was conducted through online survey questionnaires. Results revealed that students’ level of acceptance towards interracial relationship was high. In addition, results also further indicated that family members’ support was one of the most important factors in influencing students’ perception towards interracial relationship. No diverse differences of perceptions among students in business and communication major towards interracial relationship were shown in the findings. Most of the result showed that both majors turned out to have similar perceptions towards interracial relationship. It can be said that the students’ perception towards interracial relationship did not differ from which major the students was in but their family background that would shape their perceptions.

Keywords: Relationship, perceptions, interracial relationship, racial

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13 Exploring Factors That Affect the Utilisation of Antenatal Care Services: Perceptions of Women in Mangwe Rural District, Zimbabwe

Authors: Leoba Nyathi, Augustine K. Tugli, Takalani G. Tshitangano

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Use of health care services is an effective way of improving maternal and child health outcomes, especially in the rural areas. The study aimed to find out the perceptions of women on factors that affect the utilisation of antenatal care services (ANC) in Mangwe Rural District, Zimbabwe. The study was conducted in Mabunga village which is situated in Mangwe Rural District, Matabeleland South Province, Zimbabwe. A qualitative approach using explorative and descriptive design was adopted for the study. A sample of ten women were chosen from the target population by means of convenience sampling and data was collected through semi-structured interviews. Interviews and discussions were audio-taped, transcribed and coded into themes and subthemes. The study results showed that access factors, socio-cultural factors, demographic factors, quality of care and knowledge about antenatal care services were the major factors affecting utilisation of ANC services in Mangwe Rural District. It was discovered that the geographical location of the village to the health care centres has a great impact on utilisation of services. All the women did not initiate ANC services as recommended and they also did not adhere to the number of times they were supposed to visit the health care centres. The findings concluded that women have the knowledge about ANC and they all attended at least once during their last pregnancy. However, inconsistencies in attendance were shown due to access, socio-cultural and demographic factors.

Keywords: Women, Utilisation, Affect, factors, perceptions, antenatal care services

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12 Insights and Inferences Associated with Subscription of Health Insurance in the Informal Sector of India

Authors: Harinder Singh

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The paper sheds light on the perceptions of the uninsured workers employed in the urban informal sector of India, towards the health insurance. In addition to this, it also explores the association of the identified perceptions with household decisions to enroll for health insurance schemes in India. Firstly the data taken from the primary survey of the uninsured workers employed in the urban informal sector was analyzed using exploratory factor analysis to evaluate the perceptions. Thereafter, logistic regression was employed to determine the association of the identified perceptions regarding the enrollment. Our study identifies twelve perceptions related to the health insurance enrollment of the uninsured workers employed in the urban informal sector of India. The study demonstrates that perceptions have the strongest association with the voluntary enrollment. These specifically relate to the lack of awareness about the need to buy health insurance; comprehensive coverage; income constraint; future contingencies and social obligations; lack of information; availability of subsidized government health care; linkage with government hospitals and preference for government schemes. Conclusions: Along with the food security, health security has become a crying need of the workers employed in the informal sector and the time has come to scale up the health insurance schemes for them in the country. Policy makers or marketers of health insurance policies should recognize the household perceptions as a potential barrier and try to develop a health insurance package as per the actual needs of the informal sector (low income) in India.

Keywords: Health Insurance, perceptions, association, enrollment, informal sector, uninsured

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11 Recommendations as a Key Aspect for Online Learning Personalization: Perceptions of Teachers and Students

Authors: N. Ipiña, R. Basagoiti, O. Jimenez, I. Arriaran

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Higher education students are increasingly enrolling in online courses, they are, at the same time, generating data about their learning process in the courses. Data collected in those technology enhanced learning spaces can be used to identify patterns and therefore, offer recommendations/personalized courses to future online students. Moreover, recommendations are considered key aspects for personalization in online learning. Taking into account the above mentioned context, the aim of this paper is to explore the perception of higher education students and teachers towards receiving recommendations in online courses. The study was carried out with 322 students and 10 teachers from two different faculties (Engineering and Education) from Mondragon University. Online questionnaires and face to face interviews were used to gather data from the participants. Results from the questionnaires show that most of the students would like to receive recommendations in their online courses as a guide in their learning process. Findings from the interviews also show that teachers see recommendations useful for their students’ learning process. However, teachers believe that specific pedagogical training is required. Conclusions can also be drawn as regards the importance of personalization in technology enhanced learning. These findings have significant implications for those who train online teachers due to the fact that pedagogy should be the driven force and further training on the topic could be required. Therefore, further research is needed to better understand the impact of recommendations on online students’ learning process and draw some conclusion on pedagogical concerns.

Keywords: Higher Education, perceptions, online courses, recommendations

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10 Examining the Links between Established Principles, Iranian Teachers' Perceptions of Reading Comprehension, and Their Actual Practice in English for Specific Purposes Courses

Authors: Zahra Alimorad

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There is a strong belief that language teachers' actual practices in the classroom context are largely determined by the underlying perceptions they hold about the nature of language and language learning. That being so, it can be envisaged that teaching procedures of ESP (English for Specific Purposes) teachers teaching reading comprehension will mainly be driven by their perceptions about the nature of reading. To examine this issue, four Iranian university professors holding Ph.D. in either TEFL (Teaching English as a Foreign Language) or English Literature who were teaching English to Engineering and Sciences students were recruited to participate in this study. To collect the necessary data, classroom observations and follow-up semi-structured interviews were used. Furthermore, the materials utilized by the teachers such as textbooks, syllabuses, and tests were also examined. Although it can be argued that their perceptions were partially compatible with the established principles, results of the study pointed to a lack of congruence between these teachers' perceptions and their practices, on the one hand, and between the established principles and the practices, on the other. While the literature mostly supports a metacognitive-strategy approach to reading comprehension, the teachers were mainly adopting a skills-based approach to the teaching of reading. That is, they primarily focused on translation as the core activity in the classroom followed by reading aloud, defining words, and explaining grammatical structures. This divergence was partly attributed to the contextual constraints and partly to students' lack of motivation by the teachers.

Keywords: Principles, Practice, perceptions, reading comprehension, English teachers

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9 Being Second Parents: A Qualitative Research on Perceptions, Emotions, and Experiences of Adolescents towards Their Siblings with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Authors: Christi Conde, Claudia Macias, Bianca Sornillo

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The effects of having a child with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) extends to the family specifically, to the typically developing siblings. Provided that Filipino values involve close family-ties and family-centeredness, this study is interested in exploring the experiences of Filipino adolescents as a sibling of those diagnosed with ASD. A total of eleven (11) Filipino individuals, 3 males and 8 females, ages 11-24 years old, participated in the study – 6 of them were interviewed while the rest partook in a ginabayang talakayan (a variation of a focus group discussion). The data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Results showed 5 major themes: (1) the individual has mixed emotions and perceptions towards sibling, (2) the individual experiences differential treatment from parents, (3) the individual has responsibilities towards sibling, (4) the individual experiences personal growth, and (5) the individual is adjusting to the unfavorable effects of having sibling with ASD. Another emerging theme is an interplay between acceptance of one’s sibling, and one’s emotions and perceptions. It was also observed that there were more positive changes than negative within the individual. Having a lifetime responsibility towards sibling was also evident. Differences across ages involve the depth of awareness of the sibling’s condition and its implications. Acknowledgement of future responsibilities was evident regardless of age.

Keywords: Adolescents, Qualitative Research, Emotions, Experiences, perceptions, siblings with ASD

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8 E-Government Adoption in Zimbabwe's Local Government: Understanding the Influence of Attitudes and Perceptions of Residents in Selected Cases

Authors: Ricky Munyaradzi Mukonza

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E-government literature continues to grow as scholars and practitioners endeavour to understand this phenomenon. There are many facets of e-government that have been written about including its definition, adoption, and implementation and so on. However, more still needs to be known particularly in relation to how e-government is being adopted in different contexts. There could be many context specific factors that have a bearing on e-government adoption and in this paper focus is on attitudes and perceptions. Association between usage of e-government services and various perceptions such as ease of use, transparency, security, ease of understanding, communication, reliability, relevancy, perceived usefulness and perceived trust is examined. Within the Zimbabwean context and in particular the country’s local government sphere, such a study has not been done. The main aim of the paper is therefore to establish perceptions and attitudes towards e-government services among residents in Zimbabwe’s two local authorities. In terms of research methodology the paper is based on a Mixed Methods Approach (MMA) to collect and analyse data giving the researcher a holistic picture of the phenomenon being investigated. A sample of 785 residents from the two local authorities was used and these were selected using a combination of cluster and purposive sampling methods. A key finding in this paper is that a majority of respondents who have had the opportunity to use e-government services perceive the services to be easy to use, transparent, secure, easy to understand, reliable, relevant, useful and trustworthy. The paper, therefore, makes an important contribution on the relationship between residents’ perceptions and attitudes and e-government usage within the chosen cases.

Keywords: e-Government, attitudes, Adoption, perceptions

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7 Learners' Perceptions about Teacher Written Feedback in the School of Foreign Languages, Anadolu University

Authors: Gaye Senbag

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In English language teaching, feedback is considered as one of the main components of writing instruction. Teachers put a lot of time and effort in order to provide learners with written feedback for effective language learning. At Anadolu University School of Foreign Languages (AUSFL) students are given written feedback for their each piece of writing through online platforms such as Edmodo and Turnitin, and traditional methods. However, little is known regarding how learners value and respond to teacher-provided feedback. As the perceptions of the students remarkably affect their learning, this study examines how they perceive the effectiveness of feedback provided by the teacher. Aiming to analyse it, 30 intermediate level (B1+ CEFR level) students were given a questionnaire, which includes Likert scale questions. The results will be discussed in detail.

Keywords: Writing, Feedback, perceptions, English Language Teaching (ELT)

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6 Perception, Knowledge and Practices on Balanced Diet among Adolescents, Their Parents and Frontline Functionaries in Rural Sites of Banda, Varanasi and Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh,India

Authors: Gunjan Razdan, Priyanka Sreenath, Jagannath Behera, S. K. Mishra, Sunil Mehra

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Uttar Pradesh is one of the poor performing states with high Malnutrition and Anaemia among adolescent girls resulting in high MMR, IMR and low birth weight rate. The rate of anaemia among adolescent girls has doubled in the past decade. Adolescents gain around 15-20% of their optimum height, 25-50% of the ideal adult weight and 45% of the skeletal mass by the age of 19. Poor intake of energy, protein and other nutrients is one of the factors for malnutrition and anaemia. METHODS: The cross-sectional survey using a mixed method (quantitative and qualitative) was adopted in this study. The respondents (adolescents, parents and frontline health workers) were selected randomly from 30 villages and surveyed through a semi-structured questionnaire for qualitative information and FGDs and IDIs for qualitative information. A 24 hours dietary recall method was adopted to estimate their dietary practices. A total of 1069 adolescent girls, 1067 boys, 1774 parents and 69 frontline functionaries were covered under the study. Percentages and mean were calculated for quantitative variable, and content analysis was carried out for qualitative data. RESULTS: Over 80 % of parents provided assertions that they understood the term balanced diet and strongly felt that their children were having balanced diet. However, only negligible 1.5 % of parents could correctly recount essential eight food groups and 22% could tell about four groups which was the minimum response expected to say respondents had fair knowledge on a balanced diet. Only 10 percent of parents could tell that balanced diet helps in physical and mental growth and only 2% said it has a protective role. Besides, qualitative data shows that the perception regarding balanced diet is having costly food items like nuts and fruits. The dietary intake of adolescents is very low despite the increased iron needs associated with physical growth and puberty.The consumption of green leafy vegetables (less than 35 %) and citrus fruits (less than 50%) was found to be low. CONCLUSIONS: The assertions on an understanding of term balanced diet are contradictory to the actual knowledge and practices. Knowledge on essential food groups and nutrients is crucial to inculcate healthy eating practices among adolescents. This calls for comprehensive communication efforts to improve the knowledge and dietary practices among adolescents.

Keywords: Malnutrition, Knowledge, Anemia, perceptions

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5 Towards Better Integration: Qualitative Study on Perceptions of Russian-Speaking Immigrants in Australia

Authors: Oleg Shovkovyy

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This research conducted in response to one of the most pressing questions on the agenda of many public administration offices around the world: “What could be done for better integration and assimilation of immigrants into hosting communities?” In author’s view, the answer could be suggested by immigrants themselves. They, often ‘bogged down in the past,’ snared by own idols and demons, perceive things differently, which, in turn, may result in their inability to integrate smoothly into hosting communities. Brief literature review suggests that perceptions of immigrants are completely neglected or something unsought in the current research on migrants, which, often, based on opinion polls by members of hosting communities themselves or superficial research data by various research organizations. Even those specimens that include voices of immigrants, unlikely to shed any additional light onto the problem simply because certain things are not made to speak out loud, especially to those in whose hands immigrants’ fate is (authorities). In this regard, this qualitative study, conducted by an insider to a few Russian-speaking communities, represents a unique opportunity for all stakeholders to look at the question of integration through the eyes of immigrants, from a different perspective and thus, makes research findings especially valuable for better understanding of the problem. Case study research employed ethnographic methods of gathering data where, approximately 200 Russian-speaking immigrants of first and second generations were closely observed by the Russian-speaking researcher in their usual setting, for eight months, and at different venues. The number of informal interviews with 27 key informants, with whom the researcher managed to establish a good rapport and who were keen enough to share their experiences voluntarily, were conducted. The field notes were taken at 14 locations (study sites) within the Brisbane region of Queensland, Australia. Moreover, all this time, researcher lived in dwelling of one of the immigrants and was an active participant in the social life (worship, picnics, dinners, weekend schools, concerts, cultural events, social gathering, etc.) of observed communities, whose members, to a large extent, belong to various religious lines of the Russian and Protestant Church. It was found that the majority of immigrants had experienced some discrimination in matters of hiring, employment, recognition of educational qualifications from home countries, and simply felt a sort of dislike from society in various everyday situations. Many noted complete absences or very limited state assistance in terms of employment, training, education, and housing. For instance, the Australian Government Department of Human Services not only does not stimulate job search but, on the contrary, encourages to refuse short-term works and employment. On the other hand, offered free courses on adaptation, and the English language proved to be ineffective and unpopular amongst immigrants. Many interviewees have reported overstated requirements for English proficiency and local work experience, whereas it was not critical for the given task or job. Based on the result of long-term monitoring, the researcher also had the courage to assert the negative and decelerating roles of immigrants’ communities, particularly religious communities, on processes of integration and assimilation. The findings suggest that governments should either change current immigration policies in the direction of their toughening or to take more proactive and responsible role in dealing with immigrant-related issues; for instance, increasing assistance and support to all immigrants and probably, paying more attention to and taking stake in managing and organizing lives of immigrants’ communities rather, simply leaving it all to chance.

Keywords: Integration, Immigration, Australia, perceptions

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4 The Perceptions, Experiences, and Views of E-Tutors on Active Learning in the ODeL Context

Authors: Bunki Enid Pitsoane

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This study was influenced by the radical change in the tutorial system of UNISA, immigrating from face to face to E-tutoring. The study was undertaken to investigate the perceptions, experiences, and views of E-tutors in relation to active learning. The study is aimed at capturing the views and experiences of E-tutors as they are deemed to implement active learning within their E-tutoring. The problem was traced from Developmental and behaviorist’s theorists perspective and factors related to perception, experience, and views of E-tutors on active learning. The research is aligned with the views of constructivism which put more emphasis on situated learning, chaos, and digital factors. The basis of the theory is that learning is developmental, situational and context-sensitive and also digital. The theorists further purports that the tutor’s conception of teaching and learning influence their tutoring style. In order to support or reject the findings of the literature study, qualitative research in the form of interviews and document analysis were conducted. The sample of the study constituted of 10 E-tutors who are involved in tutoring modules from the College of Education. The identified E-tutors were randomly selected based on their availability. The data concerning E-tutors perception and experience was analysed and interpreted. The results of the empirical study indicated that some tutors are struggling to implement active learning because they are digital immigrants or they lack in digital knowledge which affect productivity in their teaching.

Keywords: Active Learning, e-tutoring, perceptions, views

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3 Elimination of Mother to Child Transmission of HIV/AIDS: A Study of the Knowledge, Attitudes and Perceptions of Healthcare Workers in Abuja Nigeria

Authors: Ezinne K. Okoro, Takahiko Katoh, Yoko Kawamura, Stanley C. Meribe

Abstract:

HIV infection in children is largely as a result of vertical transmission (mother to child transmission [MTCT]). Thus, elimination of mother to child transmission of HIV/AIDS is critical in eliminating HIV infection in children. In Nigeria, drawbacks such as; limited pediatric screening, limited human capital, insufficient advocacy and poor understanding of ART guidelines, have impacted efforts at combating the disease, even as treatment services are free. Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission (PMTCT) program relies on health workers who not only counsel pregnant women on first contact but can competently provide HIV-positive pregnant women with accurate information about the PMTCT program such as feeding techniques and drug adherence. In developing regions like Nigeria where health care delivery faces a lot of drawbacks, it becomes paramount to address these issues of poor PMTCT coverage by conducting a baseline assessment of the knowledge, practices and perceptions related to HIV prevention amongst healthcare workers in Nigeria. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted amongst 250 health workers currently employed in health facilities in Abuja, Nigeria where PMTCT services were offered with the capacity to carry out early infant diagnosis testing (EID). Data was collected using a self-administered, pretested, structured questionnaire. This study showed that the knowledge of PMTCT of HIV was poor (30%) among healthcare workers who offer this service day-to-day to pregnant women. When PMTCT practices were analyzed in keeping with National PMTCT guidelines, over 61% of the respondents reported observing standard practices and the majority (58%) had good attitudes towards caring for patients with HIV/AIDS. Although 61% of the respondents reported being satisfied with the quality of service being rendered, 63% reported not being satisfied with their level of knowledge. Predictors of good knowledge were job designation and level of educational attainment. Health workers who were more satisfied with their working conditions and those who had worked for a longer time in the PMTCT service were more likely to observe standard PMTCT practices. With over 62% of the healthcare workers suggesting that more training would improve the quality of service being rendered, this is a strong pointer to stakeholders to consider a ‘healthcare worker-oriented approach’ when planning and conducting PMTCT training for healthcare workers. This in turn will increase pediatric ARV coverage, the knowledge and effectiveness of the healthcare workers in carrying out appropriate PMTCT interventions and culminating in the reduction/elimination of HIV transmission to newborns.

Keywords: Knowledge, HIV/AIDS, attitudes, Nigeria, perceptions, healthcare workers, mother to child transmission

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2 Humans as Enrichment: Human-Animal Interactions and the Perceived Benefit to the Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus), Human and Zoological Establishment

Authors: S. J. Higgs, E. Van Eck, K. Heynis, S. H. Broadberry

Abstract:

Engagement with non-human animals is a rapidly-growing field of study within the animal science and social science sectors, with human-interactions occurring in many forms; interactions, encounters and animal-assisted therapy. To our knowledge, there has been a wide array of research published on domestic and livestock human-animal interactions, however, there appear to be fewer publications relating to zoo animals and the effect these interactions have on the animal, human and establishment. The aim of this study was to identify if there were any perceivable benefits from the human-animal interaction for the cheetah, the human and the establishment. Behaviour data were collected before, during and after the interaction on the behaviour of the cheetah and the human participants to highlight any trends with nine interactions conducted. All 35 participants were asked to fill in a questionnaire prior to the interaction and immediately after to ascertain if their perceptions changed following an interaction with the cheetah. An online questionnaire was also distributed for three months to gain an understanding of the perceptions of human-animal interactions from members of the public, gaining 229 responses. Both questionnaires contained qualitative and quantitative questions to allow for specific definitive answers to be analysed, but also expansion on the participants perceived perception of human-animal interactions. In conclusion, it was found that participants’ perceptions of human-animal interactions saw a positive change, with 64% of participants altering their opinion and viewing the interaction as beneficial for the cheetah (reduction in stress assumed behaviours) following participation in a 15-minute interaction. However, it was noted that many participants felt the interaction lacked educational values and therefore this is an area in which zoological establishments can work to further improve upon. The results highlighted many positive benefits for the human, animal and establishment, however, the study does indicate further areas for research in order to promote positive perceptions of human-animal interactions and to further increase the welfare of the animal during these interactions, with recommendations to create and regulate legislation.

Keywords: perceptions, Acinonyx jubatus, encounters, human-animal interactions, zoological establishments

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1 An Investigation into the Views of Distant Science Education Students Regarding Teaching Laboratory Work Online

Authors: Abraham Motlhabane

Abstract:

This research analysed the written views of science education students regarding the teaching of laboratory work using the online mode. The research adopted the qualitative methodology. The qualitative research was aimed at investigating small and distinct groups normally regarded as a single-site study. Qualitative research was used to describe and analyze the phenomena from the student’s perspective. This means the research began with assumptions of the world view that use theoretical lenses of research problems inquiring into the meaning of individual students. The research was conducted with three groups of students studying for Postgraduate Certificate in Education, Bachelor of Education and honors Bachelor of Education respectively. In each of the study programmes, the science education module is compulsory. Five science education students from each study programme were purposively selected to participate in this research. Therefore, 15 students participated in the research. In order to analysis the data, the data were first printed and hard copies were used in the analysis. The data was read several times and key concepts and ideas were highlighted. Themes and patterns were identified to describe the data. Coding as a process of organising and sorting data was used. The findings of the study are very diverse; some students are in favour of online laboratory whereas other students argue that science can only be learnt through hands-on experimentation.

Keywords: Online Learning, perceptions, views, laboratory work

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