Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

Pediatrics Related Abstracts

13 Lessons from Patients Expired due to Severe Head Injuries Treated in Intensive Care Unit of Lady Reading Hospital Peshawar

Authors: Mumtaz Ali, Hamzullah Khan, Khalid Khanzada, Shahid Ayub, Aurangzeb Wazir

Abstract:

Objective: To analyse the death of patients treated in neuro-surgical ICU for severe head injuries from different perspectives. The evaluation of the data so obtained to help improve the health care delivery to this group of patients in ICU. Study Design: It is a descriptive study based on retrospective analysis of patients presenting to neuro-surgical ICU in Lady Reading Hospital, Peshawar. Study Duration: It covered the period between 1st January 2009 to 31st December 2009. Material and Methods: The Clinical record of all the patients presenting with the clinical radiological and surgical features of severe head injuries, who expired in neuro-surgical ICU was collected. A separate proforma which mentioned age, sex, time of arrival and death, causes of head injuries, the radiological features, the clinical parameters, the surgical and non surgical treatment given was used. The average duration of stay and the demographic and domiciliary representation of these patients was noted. The record was analyzed accordingly for discussion and recommendations. Results: Out of the total 112 (n-112) patients who expired in one year in the neuro-surgical ICU the young adults made up the majority 64 (57.14%) followed by children, 34 (30.35%) and then the elderly age group: 10 (8.92%). Road traffic accidents were the major cause of presentation, 75 (66.96%) followed by history of fall; 23 (20.53%) and then the fire arm injuries; 13 (11.60%). The predominant CT scan features of these patients on presentation was cerebral edema, and midline shift (diffuse neuronal injuries). 46 (41.07%) followed by cerebral contusions. 28 (25%). The correctable surgical causes were present only in 18 patients (16.07%) and the majority 94 (83.92%) were given conservative management. Of the 69 (n=69) patients in which CT scan was repeated; 62 (89.85%) showed worsening of the initial CT scan abnormalities while in 7 cases (10.14%) the features were static. Among the non surgical cases both ventilatory therapy in 7 (6.25%) and tracheostomy in 39 (34.82%) failed to change the outcome. The maximum stay in the neuro ICU leading upto the death was 48 hours in 35 (31.25%) cases followed by 31 (27.67%) cases in 24 hours; 24 (21.42%) in one week and 16 (14.28%) in 72 hours. Only 6 (5.35%) patients survived more than a week. Patients were received from almost all the districts of NWFP except. The Hazara division. There were some Afghan refugees as well. Conclusion: Mortality following the head injuries is alarmingly high despite repeated claims about the professional and administrative improvement. Even places like ICU could not change the out come according to the desired aims and objectives in the present set up. A rethinking is needed both at the individual and institutional level among the concerned quarters with a clear aim at the more scientific grounds. Only then one can achieve the desired results.

Keywords: Pediatrics, Geriatrics, Glasgow Coma Scale, Peshawar

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12 A Cross-Cultural Validation of the Simple Measure of Impact of Lupus Erythematosus in Youngsters (Smiley) among Filipino Pediatric Lupus Patients

Authors: Jemely M. Punzalan, Christine B. Bernal, Beatrice B. Canonigo, Maria Rosario F. Cabansag, Dennis S. Flores, Paul Joseph T. Galutira, Remedios D. Chan

Abstract:

Background: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is one of the most common autoimmune disorders predominates in women of childbearing age. Simple Measure of Impact of Lupus Erythematosus in Youngsters (SMILEY) is the only health specific quality of life tool for pediatric SLE, which has been translated to different languages except in Filipino. Objective: The primary objective of this study was to develop a Filipino translation of the SMILEY and to examine the validity and reliability of this translation. Methodology: The SMILEY was translated into Filipino by a bilingual individual and back-translated by another bilingual individual blinded from the original English version. The translation was evaluated for content validity by a panel of experts and subjected to pilot testing. The pilot-tested translation was used in the validity and reliability testing proper. The SMILEY, together with the previously validated PEDSQL 4.0 Generic Core Scale was administered to lupus pediatric patients and their parent at two separate occasions: a baseline and a re-test seven to fourteen days apart. Tests for convergent validity, internal consistency, and test-retest reliability were performed. Results: A total of fifty children and their parent were recruited. The mean age was 15.38±2.62 years (range 8-18 years), mean education at high school level. The mean duration of SLE was 28 months (range 1-81 months). Subjects found the questionnaires to be relevant, easy to understand and answer. The validity of the SMILEY was demonstrated in terms of content validity, convergent validity, internal consistency, and test-retest reliability. Age, socioeconomic status and educational attainment did not show a significant effect on the scores. The difference between scores of child and parent report was showed to be significant with SMILEY total (p=0.0214), effect on social life (p=0.0000), and PEDSQL physical function (p=0.0460). Child reports showed higher scores for the following domains compared to their parent. Conclusion: SMILEY is a brief, easy to understand, valid and reliable tool for assessing pediatric SLE specific HRQOL. It will be useful in providing better care, understanding and may offer critical information regarding the effect of SLE in the quality of life of our pediatric lupus patients. It will help physician understands the needs of their patient not only on treatment of the specific disease but as well as the impact of the treatment on their daily lives.

Keywords: Pediatrics, Quality of Life, systemic lupus erythematosus, Simple Measure of Impact of Lupus Erythematosus in Youngsters (SMILEY)

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11 Correlation of Nutritional Status and Anemia Among School-Aged Children in Indonesian Urban Area

Authors: William Cheng, Rini Sekartini, Yuni Astria

Abstract:

Background: Prevalence of anemia among school-aged children is relatively high (25.4%). This condition can affect children’s life, including cognitive function. One of the most common factors that is associated with anemia in children is nutritional status. This simple indicator will be very helpful in identifying more population at risk. The aim of this study is to correlate the clinical implication of nutritional status to the prevalence of anemia in children, with intention to determine a more effective nutritional status indicator in detecting anemia. Method: Anthropometric and haemoglobin status were gathered from children between 5 to 7-years-old in one of the urban areas in Jakarta in 2012. We identified children with haemoglobin level under 11.5 as anemia and correlated them to their WHO z-score from each of these indicators: Body Weight for Age (normal weight and underweight), Height for Age (not stunted and stunted), and Body Mass Index for Age (not wasted and wasted). Results: A total of 195 children were included in this research and 57 of them (29,2%) were diagnosed as anemia. The majority of the children had good nutritional status, however, 30 (15,4%) of them were found to be underweight, 33 (16,9%) were stunted, and 1 children (0,5%) was wasted. There were no overweight result found in this population. From the three nutritional status indicators, none proved to be statistically significant in relation to the incidence of anemia (p>0.05). Out of 33 children who were diagnosed as stunted, 36.36 % were found to have anemia, in comparison to 27,7% of children who were not stunted. Meanwhile, among 30 children who were diagnosed as underweight, 33,3 % of them were anemic whereas only 28,4% of the normal weight group were anemic. Conclusion: In this study, there is no significant correlation between anemia with any nutritional status indicator. However, more than a third of the stunted children are proven to have low haemoglobin status. The finding of stunting in children should be given more attention to further investigate for anemia.

Keywords: Pediatrics, Nutritional status, Anemia, school-aged children

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10 Extra Skeletal Manifestations of Histocytosis in Pediatrics

Authors: Ayda Youssef, Tarek Rafaat, Mohammed Ali Khalaf

Abstract:

Background: Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare multi-systemic disease that shows an abnormal proliferation of these kinds of cells associated with a granular infiltration that affects different structures of the human body, including the lung, liver, spleen, lymph nodes, brain, mucocutaneous, soft tissue (head and neck), and salivary glands. Evaluation of the extent of disease is one of the major predictors of patient outcome. Objectives: To recognize the pathogenesis of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), describe the radiologic criteria that are suggestive of LCH in different organs rather than the bones and to illustrate the appropriate differential diagnoses for LCH in each of the common extra-osseous sites. Material and methods: A retrospective study was done on 150 biopsy-proven LCH patients from 2007 to 2012. All patients underwent imaging studies, mostly US, CT, and MRI. These patients were reviewed to assess the extra-skeletal manifestations of LCH. Results: In 150 patients with biopsy-proven LCH, There were 33 patients with liver affection, 5 patients with splenic lesions, 55 patients with enlarged lymph nodes, 9 patient with CNS disease and 11 patients with lung involvement. Conclusions: Because of the frequent LCH children and evaluation of the extent of disease is one of the major predictors of patient outcome. Radiologist need to be familiar with its presentation in different organs and regions of body outside the commonest site of affection (bones). A high-index suspicion should be raised a biopsy is recommended in the presence of radiological suspicion. Chemotherapy is the preferred therapeutic modality.

Keywords: Radiology, Pediatrics, langerhans cell histiocytosis, extra-skeletal

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9 Pulmonary Hydatid Cyst in a 13-Year-Old Child: A Case Report

Authors: Ghada Esheba, Bayan Hafiz, Ashwaq Al-Qarni, Abdulelah AlMalki, Esraa Kaheel

Abstract:

Hydatid disease is caused by genus Echinococcus, it is transmitted to human through sheep and cattle. People who lived in an endemic area should be suspected to have the disease. Pulmonary hydatid disease can be presented by respiratory manifestations as in our case. We report a case of child, 13 years old, who was presented by shortness of breath and non-productive cough 2 months ago. The patient had an attack of hemoptysis 3 months ago but there is no history of fever, other constitutional symptoms or any medical illness. The patient has had a close contact with a horse. On examination, the patient was oriented and vitally stable. Both side of chest were moving equally with decrease air entry on the left side of the chest. Cervical lymph node enlargement was also detected. The case was provisionally diagnosed as tuberculosis. The x-ray was normal, while CT scan showed two cysts in the left side. The patient was treated surgically with resection of both cysts without lobectomy. Broncho-alveolar lavage was done and together with plural effusion and both cysts were sent for histopathology. The patient received the following medication: albendazole 200MG/BID/Orally for 30 days and Cefuroxime 250MG/Q12H/Orally for 10 days.

Keywords: Pediatrics, Echinococcus granulosus, hydatid disease, pulmonary hydatid cyst

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8 The Effect of Remifentanil on Emergence Agitation after Sevoflurane Anesthesia in Children: A Meta-Analysis

Authors: Jong Yeop Kim, Jong Bum Choi, Sook Young Lee, Sung Young Park, Dae Hee Kim, Han Bum Joe, Ji Young Yoo

Abstract:

Emergence agitation (EA) is commonly reported adverse events after sevoflurane anesthesia in pediatric patients. The efficacy of prophylactic remifentanil, one of mu opioid agonist, in preventing EA is controversial. This meta-analysis assessed the effectiveness of remifentanil to decrease the incidence of EA from sevoflurane anesthesia in children. We searched for randomized controlled trials comparing sevoflurane alone anesthesia with sevoflurane and remifentanil anesthesia to prevent EA in the Cochrane Library, Embase, Pubmed, and KoreaMed, and included 6 studies with 361 patients. The number of patients of reporting EA was summarized using risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI), with point estimates and 95CIs derived from a random effects Mantel-Haenszel method. Overall incidence of EA was about 41%. Compared with sevoflurane alone anesthesia, intravenous infusion of remifentanil with sevoflurane significantly reduced the incidence of EA (RR 0.53, 95% CI 0.39-0.73, P < 0.0001), (heterogeneity, I2 = 0, P = 0.42). This meta-analysis suggested that continuous infusion of remifentanil could be effective in decreasing the EA of about 47% after sevoflurane anesthesia. However, considering limitations of the included studies, more randomized controlled studies are required to verify our results.

Keywords: Pediatrics, Meta-analysis, remifentanil, emergence agitation

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7 Modifying Cardiometabolic Disease Risk Factors in Urban Primary School Children: Three Different Exercise Interventions

Authors: Anneke Van Biljon

Abstract:

Background: Exercise is a primary form of preventing and improving cardiometabolic disease risk factors; however specific exercise variables and their associated health benefits in children are inconclusive. A preliminary study revealed that different exercise variables may improve particular cardiometabolic health benefits. Objectives: This study further investigated the specific cardiometabolic health benefits associated with three isocaloric exercise interventions set at different intensities. Methods: Hundred-and-twenty (n = 120) participants between the ages of 10 – 14 years old were assigned to four different study groups 1. High intensity interval training (HIIT) at > 80% MHR 2. Moderate intensity continuous training (MICT) at 65% – 70% MHR 3. Alternative intensities (ALT) of HIIT and MICT 4. Control group. Exercise interventions were designed to generate isocaloric workloads of ~154.77 kcal per session, three times per week for five weeks. The one-way ANOVA test established comparisons between group means. Post hoc tests were calculated to determine specific group differences. Results: Although, all exercise groups improved cardiometabolic health, the MICT group showed greater improvements in fasting glucose (-9.30%), whereas cardiorespiratory fitness increased most by 31.33% (p = 0.000) within the HIIT group. Finally, ALT group recorded overall superior and additional cardiometabolic health benefits compared with both MICT and HIIT groups. Conclusion: The findings of this study indicate that superior benefits may be elicited when combining and alternating MICT and HIIT. These results provide specific exercise recommendations for achieving optimal and substantial cardiometabolic health benefits in children which will contribute towards achieving the health-related Sustainable Development Goals for 2030.

Keywords: Exercise, Pediatrics, Interventions, cardiometabolic disease risk factors

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6 Memory-Guided Oculomotor Task in High School Football Players with ADHD, Post-Concussive Injuries, and Controls

Authors: B. McGovern, J. F. Luck, A. Gade, I. V. Lake, D. O’Connell, H. C. Cutcliffe, K. P. Shah, E. E. Ginalis, C. M. Lambert, N. Christian, J. R. Kait, A. W. Yu, C. P. Eckersley, C. R. Bass

Abstract:

Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in the form of post-concussive injuries and attention deficit / hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) share similar cognitive impairments, including impaired working memory and executive function. The memory-guided oculomotor task separates working memory and inhibitory components to provide further information on the nature of these deficits in each pathology. Eleven subjects with ADHD, fifteen control subjects, and ten subjects with recent concussive injury were matched on age, gender, and education (all high school-age males). Eye movements were recorded during memory-guided oculomotor tasks with varying delays using EyeLink 1000 (SR Research). The percentage of premature saccades and the latency of correct response are the analyzed measures for response inhibition and working memory, respectively. No significant differences were found in latencies between controls subjects and subjects with ADHD or post-concussive injuries, in accordance with previous studies. Subjects with ADHD and post-concussive injuries both demonstrated a trend of increased percentages of premature saccades compared to control subjects in the same oculomotor task. This trend reached statistical significance between the post-concussive and control groups (p < 0.05). These findings support the primary nature of the executive function deficits in response inhibition in ADHD and mTBI. The interpretation of results is limited by the small sample size and the exploratory nature of the study. Further investigation into oculomotor performance differences in mTBI and ADHD may help in differentiating these pathologies in consequent diagnoses and provide insight into the interaction of these deficits in mTBI.

Keywords: Pediatrics, Diagnosis, Concussion, attention deficit / hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oculomotor

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5 A Comparison between the McGrath Video Laryngoscope and the Macintosh Laryngoscopy in Children with Expected Normal Airway

Authors: Jong Yeop Kim, Hyun Jeong Kwak, Sook Young Lee, Ji Eun Kim

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Background: This prospective, randomized, controlled study was performed to evaluate the usefulness of the McGrath VL compared to Macintosh laryngoscopy in children with expected normal airway during endotracheal intubation, by comparing the time to intubation and ease of intubation. Methods: Eighty-four patients, aged 1-10 years undergoing endotracheal intubation for elective surgery were randomly assigned to McGrath group (n = 42) or Macintosh group (n = 42). Anesthesia was induced with propofol 2.5-3.0 mg/kg and sevoflurane 5-8 vol%. Orotracheal intubation was performed 2 minutes after injection of rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg with McGrath VL or Macintosh laryngoscope. The primary outcome was time to intubation. The Cormack and Lehane glottic grade, intubation difficulty score (IDS), and success rate of intubation were assessed. Hemodynamic changes also were recorded. Results: Median time to intubation [interquartile range] was not different between the McGrath group and the Macintosh group (25.0 [22.8-28.3] s vs. 26.0 [24.0-29.0] s, p = 0.301). The incidence of grade I glottic view was significantly higher in theMcGrath group than in the Macintosh group (95% vs. 74%, p = 0.013). Median IDS was lower in the McGrath group than in the Macintosh group (0 [0-0] vs. 0 [0-1], p = 0.018). There were no significant differences in success rate on intubation or hemodynamics between the two groups. Conclusions: McGrath VL provides better laryngeal views and lower IDS, but similar intubation times and success rates compared to the Macintosh laryngoscope in children with the normal airway.

Keywords: Pediatrics, intubation, Macintosh laryngoscopy, Mcgrath videolaryngoscopy

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4 The Impact of Streptococcus pneumoniae Colonization on Viral Bronchiolitis

Authors: K. Genise, S. Murthy

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Introductory Statement: The results of this retrospective chart review suggest the effects of bacterial colonization in critically ill children with viral bronchiolitis, currently unproven, are clinically insignificant. Background: Viral bronchiolitis is one of the most prevalent causes of illness requiring hospitalization among children worldwide and one of the most common reasons for admission to pediatric intensive care. It has been hypothesized that co-infection with bacteria results in more severe clinical outcomes. Conversely, the effects of bacterial colonization in critically ill patients with bronchiolitis are poorly defined. Current clinical management of colonized patients consists primarily of supportive therapies with the role of antibiotics remaining controversial. Methods: A retrospective review of all critically ill children admitted to the BC Children’s Hospital Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) from 2014-2017 with a diagnosis of bronchiolitis was performed. Routine testing in this time frame consisted of complete pathogen testing, including PCR for Streptococcus pneumoniae. Analyses were performed to determine the impact of bacterial colonization and antibiotic use on a primary outcome of PICU length-of-stay, with secondary outcomes of hospital length-of-stay and duration of ventilation. Results: There were 92 patients with complete pathogen testing performed during the assessed timeframe. A comparison between children with detected Streptococcus pneumoniae (n=22) and those without (n=70) revealed no significant (p=0.20) differences in severity of illness on presentation as per Pediatric Risk of Mortality III scores (mean=3.0). Patients colonized with S. pneumoniae had significantly shorter PICU stays (p=0.002), hospital stays (p=0.0001) and duration of non-invasive ventilation (p=0.002). Multivariate analyses revealed that these effects on length of PICU stay and duration of ventilation do not persist after controlling for antibiotic use, presence of radiographic consolidation, age, and severity of illness (p=0.15, p=0.32). The relationship between colonization and duration of hospital stay persists after controlling for these variables (p=0.008). Conclusions: Children with viral bronchiolitis colonized with S. pneumoniae do not appear to have significantly different PICU length-of-stays or duration of ventilation compared to children who are not colonized. Colonized children appear to have shorter hospital stays. The results of this study suggest bacterial colonization is not associated with increased severity of presenting illness or negative clinical outcomes.

Keywords: Pediatrics, Infection, Critical Care, colonization, bronchiolitis, pneumococcal

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3 Effectiveness of Parent Coaching Intervention for Parents of Children with Developmental Disabilities in the Home and Community

Authors: Elnaz Alimi, Keriakoula Andriopoulos, Sam Boyer, Weronika Zuczek

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Occupational therapists can use coaching strategies to guide parents in providing therapy for their children with developmental disabilities. Evidence from various fields has shown increased parental self-efficacy and positive child outcomes as benefits of home and community-based parent coaching models. A literature review was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of parent coaching interventions delivered in home and community settings for children with developmental disabilities ages 0-12, on a variety of parent and child outcomes. CINAHL Plus, PsycINFO, PubMed, OTseeker were used as databases. The inclusion criteria consisted of: children with developmental disabilities ages 0-12 and their parents, parent coaching models conducted in the home and community, and parent and child outcomes. Studies were excluded if they were in a language other than English and published before 2000. Results showed that parent coaching interventions led to more positive therapy outcomes in child behaviors and symptoms related to their diagnosis or disorder. Additionally, coaching strategies had positive effects on parental satisfaction with therapy, parental self-efficacy, and family dynamics. Findings revealed decreased parental stress and improved parent-child relationships. Further research on parent coaching could involve studying the feasibility of coaching within occupational therapy specifically, incorporating cultural elements into coaching, qualitative studies on parental satisfaction with coaching, and measuring the quality of life outcomes for the whole family.

Keywords: Pediatrics, Occupational therapy, Developmental Disabilities, coaching model

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2 Getting It Right Before Implementation: Using Simulation to Optimize Recommendations and Interventions After Adverse Event Review

Authors: Melissa Langevin, Natalie Ward, Colleen Fitzgibbons, Christa Ramsey, Melanie Hogue, Anna Theresa Lobos

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Description: Root Cause Analysis (RCA) is used by health care teams to examine adverse events (AEs) to identify causes which then leads to recommendations for prevention Despite widespread use, RCA has limitations. Best practices have not been established for implementing recommendations or tracking the impact of interventions after AEs. During phase 1 of this study, we used simulation to analyze two fictionalized AEs that occurred in hospitalized paediatric patients to identify and understand how the errors occurred and generated recommendations to mitigate and prevent recurrences. Scenario A involved an error of commission (inpatient drug error), and Scenario B involved detecting an error that already occurred (critical care drug infusion error). Recommendations generated were: improved drug labeling, specialized drug kids, alert signs and clinical checklists. Aim: Use simulation to optimize interventions recommended post critical event analysis prior to implementation in the clinical environment. Methods: Suggested interventions from Phase 1 were designed and tested through scenario simulation in the clinical environment (medicine ward or pediatric intensive care unit). Each scenario was simulated 8 times. Recommendations were tested using different, voluntary teams and each scenario was debriefed to understand why the error was repeated despite interventions and how interventions could be improved. Interventions were modified with subsequent simulations until recommendations were felt to have an optimal effect and data saturation was achieved. Along with concrete suggestions for design and process change, qualitative data pertaining to employee communication and hospital standard work was collected and analyzed. Results: Each scenario had a total of three interventions to test. In, scenario 1, the error was reproduced in the initial two iterations and mitigated following key intervention changes. In scenario 2, the error was identified immediately in all cases where the intervention checklist was utilized properly. Independently of intervention changes and improvements, the simulation was beneficial to identify which of these should be prioritized for implementation and highlighted that even the potential solutions most frequently suggested by participants did not always translate into error prevention in the clinical environment. Conclusion: We conclude that interventions that help to change process (epinephrine kit or mandatory checklist) were more successful at preventing errors than passive interventions (signage, change in memory aids). Given that even the most successful interventions needed modifications and subsequent re-testing, simulation is key to optimizing suggested changes. Simulation is a safe, practice changing modality for institutions to use prior to implementing recommendations from RCA following AE reviews.

Keywords: Simulation, Pediatrics, Patient Safety, Root Cause Analysis, adverse events

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1 Improving Pediatric Patient Experience

Authors: Matthew Pleshaw, Caroline Lynch, Caleb Eaton, Ali Kiapour

Abstract:

The problem addressed in this proposal is that of the lacking comfort and safety of inpatient rooms, specifically at Boston Children’s Hospital, with the implementation of a system that will allow inpatient children to feel more comfortable in the unfamiliar environment of a hospital. The focus is that of advancing and enhancing the healing process for children in a long-term inpatient stay at the hospital, though a combination of announcing a clinician or hospital staff’s arrival utilizing RFID (Fig. 1), and improving communication between clinicians, parents/guardians, patients, etc. by integrating a mobile application.

Keywords: Pediatrics, hospital, Technology, RFID

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