Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11

pectin Related Abstracts

11 New Coating Materials Based on Mixtures of Shellac and Pectin for Pharmaceutical Products

Authors: M. Kumpugdee-Vollrath, M. Tabatabaeifar, M. Helmis


Shellac is a natural polyester resin secreted by insects. Pectins are natural, non-toxic and water-soluble polysaccharides extracted from the peels of citrus fruits or the leftovers of apples. Both polymers are allowed for the use in the pharmaceutical industry and as a food additive. SSB Aquagold® is the aqueous solution of shellac and can be used for a coating process as an enteric or controlled drug release polymer. In this study, tablets containing 10 mg methylene blue as a model drug were prepared with a rotary press. Those tablets were coated with mixtures of shellac and one of the pectin different types (i.e. CU 201, CU 501, CU 701 and CU 020) mostly in a 2:1 ratio or with pure shellac in a small scale fluidized bed apparatus. A stable, simple and reproducible three-stage coating process was successfully developed. The drug contents of the coated tablets were determined using UV-VIS spectrophotometer. The characterization of the surface and the film thickness were performed with the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the light microscopy. Release studies were performed in a dissolution apparatus with a basket. Most of the formulations were enteric coated. The dissolution profiles showed a delayed or sustained release with a lagtime of at least 4 h. Dissolution profiles of coated tablets with pure shellac had a very long lagtime ranging from 13 to 17.5 h and the slopes were quite high. The duration of the lagtime and the slope of the dissolution profiles could be adjusted by adding the proper type of pectin to the shellac formulation and by variation of the coating amount. In order to apply a coating formulation as a colon delivery system, the prepared film should be resistant against gastric fluid for at least 2 h and against intestinal fluid for 4-6 h. The required delay time was gained with most of the shellac-pectin polymer mixtures. The release profiles were fitted with the modified model of the Korsmeyer-Peppas equation and the Hixson-Crowell model. A correlation coefficient (R²) > 0.99 was obtained by Korsmeyer-Peppas equation.

Keywords: Coating, SEM, shellac, pectin, fluidized bed, release, colon delivery system, kinetic, methylene blue

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10 Decreasing of Oil Absorption in Vacuum Fried Mango Chips by Using Hydrocolloids

Authors: Nuntaporn Aukkanit


Objective of this study was to investigate hydrocolloids (pectin, carboxyl methylcellulose, and alginate) for their influences on the oil absorption in vacuum fried mango chips. Usage of hydrocolloids significantly (p≤0.05) affected fried mango oil uptake. Control samples (without hydrocolloids) had high fat content at 24.57g/100g whereas other samples, treated with 0.5g pectin/100ml water exhibited the highest decrease of oil absorption. Fat content of chips, treated with 0.5 g pectin /100ml was 14.01g/100g. With this concentration of pectin at 0.5 g /100ml, fat content could be reduced by 43%. Moreover, chips treated with 0.5 g pectin/100ml water had the highest sensory scores (color, appearance, crispiness and overall acceptability). These results showed that pectin was the most effective hydrocolloid for low fat vacuum fried mango chips production.

Keywords: Hydrocolloids, alginate, pectin, carboxyl methylcellulose, oil absorption, vacuum fried mango chips

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9 Biosorption of Heavy Metals from Aqueous Solutions by Plant Biomass

Authors: Yamina Zouambia, Khadidja Youcef Ettoumi, Mohamed Krea, Nadji Moulai Mostefa


Environment pollution through various wastes (particularly by heavy metals) is a major environmental problem due to industrialization and the development of various human activities. Considerable attention has been focused, in recent years, upon the field of biosorption which represents a biotechnological innovation as well as an excellent tool for removal of metal ions from aqueous effluents. So the purpose of this study is to valorize by-product which are orange peels and an extract of these peels (pectin; a heteropolysaccharide) in treatment of water containing heavy metals. All biosorption experiments were carried out at room temperature, an indicated pH, a precise amount of biosorbent and under continuous stirring. Biosorption kinetic was determined by evaluating the residual concentration of the metal ion at different time intervals using UV spectroscopy. The results obtained show that the orange peels and pectin are interesting biosorbents with maximum biosorption capacity of up to 140 mg/g.

Keywords: Heavy Metals, pectin, biosorption, orange peels

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8 Laying Hens' Feed Fortified with Pectin, Xanthan Gum and Guar Gum Aims to Reduce the Cholesterol in Muscle and Egg Yolk

Authors: Novia Dwi Prabandari, Diah Ayu Asmarani


Soluble fiber can accelerate the metabolism of cholesterol. Pectin and gum has been used in the form of substance additive for material stabilizer and emulsifier. Pectin supplementation in laying hens can decimate the cholesterol content in egg yolk and muscle. Therefore, this laying hens’ feed is regular feed chickens enriched with soluble fiber (Pectin, Xanthan gum, and Guar gum) to produce eggs and muscle with lower cholesterol than usual.The ingredients are mixed in the ratio of concentrate 45%, corn flour 25%, soybean meal 20%, and extract of soluble fiber 10%. Once all the ingredients are mixed and then evaporated with temperature < 80 °C. Then put in the grinding machine resulting in a circular shape with holes 2-3 mm in diameter, after it dried up the water content in the feed is less than 14%. Eggs from laying hen with soluble fiber fortification feed intake will have lower cholesterol levels in eggs than regular feed. So even with the cholesterol content in the muscle, it is because chicken feed fortified with soluble fiber will accelerate the metabolism of cholesterol and cause cholesterol deposits in the chicken less. The use of this kind of laying hens feed is produce eggs with high protein content can be consumed more for people who have hypercholesterolemia.

Keywords: cholesterol, pectin, guar gum, xanthan gum, laying hen

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7 Physicochemical Attributes of Pectin Hydrogel and Its Wound Healing Activity

Authors: Tin Wui Wong, Nor Khaizan Anuar, Nur Karimah Aziz, Ahmad Sazali Hamzah, Wan Rozita Wan Engah


The physicochemical attributes and wound healing activity of pectin hydrogel in rat models, following partial thickness thermal injury were investigated. The pectin hydrogel was prepared by solvent evaporation method with the aid of glutaraldehyde as crosslinking agent and glycerol as plasticizer. The physicochemical properties were mainly evaluated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, while the wound healing activity was examined by the macroscopic images, wound size reduction and histological evaluation using haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stain for 14 days. The DSC and FTIR analysis suggested that pectin hydrogel exhibited higher extent of polymer-polymer interaction at O-H functional group in comparison to the unprocessed pectin. This was indicated by the increase of endothermic enthalpy values from 139.35 ± 13.06 J/g of unprocessed pectin to 156.23 ± 2.86 J/g of pectin hydrogel, as well as the decrease of FTIR wavenumber corresponding to O-H at 3432.07 ± 0.49 cm-1 of unprocessed pectin to 3412.62 ± 13.06 cm-1 of pectin hydrogel. Rats treated with pectin hydrogel had significantly smaller wound size (Student’s t-test, p<0.05) when compared to the untreated group starting from day 7 until day 14. H&E staining indicated that wounds received pectin hydrogel had more fibroblasts, blood vessels and collagen bundles on day 14 in comparison to the untreated rats.

Keywords: rats, Wound, physicochemical, pectin

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6 Kinetic and Thermodynamic Modified Pectin with Chitosan by Forming Polyelectrolyte Complex Adsorbent to Remediate of Pb(II)

Authors: Budi Hastuti, Mudasir, Dwi Siswanta, Triyono


Biosorbent, such as pectin and chitosan, are usually produced with low physical stability, thus the materials need to be modified. In this research, the physical characteristic of adsorbent was increased by grafting chitosan using acetate carboxymetyl chitosan (CC). Further, CC and Pectin (Pec) were crosslinked using cross-linking agent BADGE (bis phenol A diglycidyl ether) to get CC-Pec-BADGE (CPB) adsorbent. The cross-linking processes aim to form stable structure and resistance on acidic media. Furthermore, in order to increase the adsorption capacity in removing Pb(II), the adsorbent was added with NaCl to form macroporous adsorbent named CCPec-BADGE-Na (CPB-Na). The physical and chemical characteristics of the porogenic adsorbent structure were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The adsorption parameter of CPB-Na to adsorb Pb(II) ion was determined. The kinetics and thermodynamics of the bath sorption of Pb(II) on CPB-Na adsorbent and using chitosan and pectin as a comparison were also studied. The results showed that the CPB-Na biosorbent was stable on acidic media. It had a rough and porous surface area, increased and gave higher sorption capacity for removal of Pb(II) ion. The CPB-Na 1/1 and 1/3 adsorbent adsorbed Pb(II) with adsorption capacity of 45.48 mg/g and 45.97 mg/g respectively, whereas pectin and chitosan were of 39.20 mg /g and 24.67 mg /g respectively.

Keywords: porogen, pectin, Carboxymethyl Chitosan (CC), CC- Pec-BADGE-Na

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5 Adsorption of Methylene Blue by Pectin from Durian (Durio zibethinus) Seeds

Authors: Siti Nurkhalimah, Devita Wijiyanti, Kuntari


Methylene blue is a popular water-soluble dye that is used for dyeing a variety of substrates such as bacteria, wool, and silk. Methylene blue discharged into the aquatic environment will cause health problems for living things. Treatment method for industrial wastewater may be divided into three main categories: physical, chemical, and biological. Among them, adsorption technology is generally considered to be an effective method for quickly lowering the concentration of dissolved dyes in a wastewater. This has attracted considerable research into low-cost alternative adsorbents for adsorbing or removing coloring matter. In this research, pectin from durian seeds was utilized here to assess their ability for the removal of methylene blue. Adsorption parameters are contact time and dye concentration were examined in the batch adsorption processes. Pectin characterization was performed by FTIR spectrometry. Methylene blue concentration was determined by using UV-Vis spectrophotometer. FTIR results show that the samples showed the typical fingerprint in IR spectrogram. The adsorption result on 10 mL of 5 mg/L methylene blue solution achieved 95.12% when contact time 10 minutes and pectin 0.2 g.

Keywords: Adsorption, pectin, methylene blue, durian seed

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4 The Effect of Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid on Mechanical Properties, Water Vapor Permeability and Solubility of Pectin Films

Authors: Rungsinee Sothornvit, Jitrawadee Meerasri


Pectin is a structural polysaccharide from plant cell walls and can be used as a stabilizer, gelling and film-forming agents to improve many food products. Moreover, pectin film as a natural biopolymer can be a carrier of several active ingredients such as antioxidant and antimicrobial to provide an active or functional film. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a well-known agent to reduce neuronal excitability throughout the nervous system and it is interesting to investigate the GABA effect as a substitute of normal plasticizer (glycerol) on edible film properties. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the effect of GABA concentrations (5-15% of pectin) on film mechanical properties, moisture content, water vapor permeability, and solubility compared with those from glycerol (10% of pectin) plasticized pectin film including a control film (pectin film without any plasticizer). It was found that an increase in GABA concentrations decreased film tensile strength, modulus, solubility and water vapor permeability, but elongation was increased without a change in the moisture content. The smaller amount of GABA showed the equivalent film properties as using a higher amount of glycerol. Consequently, GABA can act as an alternative plasticizer substitute of glycerol at the lower amount used. Moreover, GABA provides the nutritional high value in the food products when the edible packaging material is consumed with products.

Keywords: pectin, edible film, plasticizer, gamma-aminobutyric acid

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3 Extraction of Essential Oil and Pectin from Lime and Waste Technology Development

Authors: Wilaisri Limphapayom


Lime is one of the economically important produced in Thailand. The objective of this research is to increase utilization in food and cosmetic. Extraction of essential oil and pectin from lime (Citrus aurantifolia (Christm & Panz ) Swing) have been studied. Extraction of essential oil has been made by using hydro-distillation .The essential oil ranged from 1.72-2.20%. The chemical composition of essential oil composed of alpha-pinene , beta-pinene , D-limonene , comphene , a-phellandrene , g-terpinene , a-ocimene , O-cymene , 2-carene , Linalool , trans-ocimenol , Geraniol , Citral , Isogeraniol , Verbinol , and others when analyzed by using GC-MS method. Pectin extraction from lime waste , boiled water after essential oil extraction. Pectin extraction were found 40.11-65.81 g /100g of lime peel. The best extraction condition was found to be higher in yield by using ethanol extraction. The potential of this study had satisfactory results to improve lime processing system for value-added . The present study was also focused on Lime powder production as source of vitamin C or ascorbic acid and the potential of lime waste as a source of essential oil and pectin. Lime powder produced from Spray Dryer . Lime juice with 2 different level of maltodextrins DE 10 , 30 and 50% w/w was sprayed at 150 degrees celsius inlet air temperature and at 90-degree celsius outlet temperature. Lime powder with 50% maltodextrin gave the most desirable quality product. This product has vitamin C contents of 25 mg/100g (w/w).

Keywords: lime, Extraction, Essential Oil, pectin

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2 Microwave and Ultrasound Assisted Extraction of Pectin from Mandarin and Lemon Peel: Comparisons between Sources and Methods

Authors: Nurcan Tugrul, Emek Derun, Pınar Karbuz, A. Seyhun Kıpcak, Mehmet B. Piskin


Pectin is a complex colloidal polysaccharide, found on the cell walls of all young plants such as fruit and vegetables. It acts as a thickening, stabilizing and gelling agent in foods. Pectin was extracted from mandarin and lemon peels using ultrasound and microwave assisted extraction methods to compare with these two different sources and methods of pectin production. In this work, the effect of microwave power (360, 600 W) and irradiation time (1, 2, 3 min) on the yield of extracted pectin from mandarin and lemon peels for microwave assisted extraction (MAE) were investigated. For ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE), parameters were determined as temperature (60, 75 °C) and sonication time (15, 30, 45 min) and hydrochloric acid (HCl) was used as an extracting agent for both extraction methods. The highest yields of extracted pectin from lemon peels were found to be 8.16 % (w/w) for 75 °C, 45 min by UAE and 8.58 % (w/w) for 360 W, 1 min by MAE. Additionally, the highest yields of extracted pectin from mandarin peels were found to be 11.29 % (w/w) for 75 °C, 45 min by UAE and 16.44 % (w/w) for 600 W, 1 min by MAE. The results showed that the use of microwave assisted extraction promoted a better yield when compared to the two extraction methods. On the other hand, according to the results of experiments, mandarin peels contain more pectin than lemon peels when the compared to the pectin product values of two sources. Therefore, these results suggested that MAE could be used as an efficient and rapid method for extraction of pectin and mandarin peels should be preferred as sources of pectin production compared to lemon peels.

Keywords: Ultrasound, Microwave, Extraction, pectin, Lemon peel, mandarin peel

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1 Effects of Certain Natural Food Additives (Pectin, Gelatin and Whey Proteins) on the Qualities of Fermented Milk

Authors: Abderrahim Cheriguene, Fatiha Arioui


The experimental study focuses on the extraction of pectin, whey protein and gelatin, and the study of their functional properties. Microbiological, physicochemical and sensory approach integrated has been implanted to study the effect of the incorporation of these natural food additives in the matrix of a fermented milk type set yogurt, to study the stability of the product during the periods of fermentation and post-acidification over a period of 21 days at 4°C. Pectin was extracted in hot HCl solution. Thermo-precipitation was carried out to obtain the whey proteins while the gelatin was extracted by hydrolysis of the collagen from bovine ossein. The fermented milk was prepared by varying the concentration of the incorporated additives. The measures and controls carried performed periodically on fermented milk experimental tests were carried out: pH, acidity, viscosity, the enumeration of Streptococcus thermophilus, cohesiveness, adhesiveness, taste, aftertaste, whey exudation, and odor. It appears that the acidity, viscosity, and number of Streptococcus thermophilus increased with increasing concentration of additive added in the experimental tests. Indeed, it seems clear that the quality of fermented milk and storability is more improved than the incorporation rate is high. The products showed a better test and a firmer texture limiting the whey exudation.

Keywords: Conservation, Quality, Valorization, Whey Proteins, Gelatin, functional properties, pectin, fermented milk

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