Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 29

PCA Related Abstracts

29 Sensor Validation Using Bottleneck Neural Network and Variable Reconstruction

Authors: Somia Bouzid, Messaoud Ramdani


The success of any diagnosis strategy critically depends on the sensors measuring process variables. This paper presents a detection and diagnosis sensor faults method based on a Bottleneck Neural Network (BNN). The BNN approach is used as a statistical process control tool for drinking water distribution (DWD) systems to detect and isolate the sensor faults. Variable reconstruction approach is very useful for sensor fault isolation, this method is validated in simulation on a nonlinear system: actual drinking water distribution system. Several results are presented.

Keywords: Localization, Fault Detection, PCA, NLPCA, auto-associative neural network

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28 Agro Morphological Characterization of Vicia faba L. Accessions in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Authors: Zia Amjad, Salem Safar Alghamdi


This experiment was carried out at student educational farm College of Food and Agriculture, KSU, kingdom of Saudi Arabia; in order to characterize 154 Vicia faba, characterization, PCA, ago-morphological diversity. Icia faba L. accessions were based on ipove and ibpgr descriptors. 24 agro-morphological characters including 11 quantitative and 13 qualitative were observed for genetic variation. All the results were analyzed using multivariate analysis i.e. principle component analysis. First 6 principle components with eigenvalue greater than one; accounted for 72% of available Vicia faba genetic diversity. However, first three components revealed more than 10% of genetic diversity each i.e. 22.36%, 15.86%, and 10.89% respectively. PCA distributed the V. faba accessions into different groups based on their performance for the characters under observation. PC-1 which represented 22.36% of the genetic diversity was positively associated with stipule spot pigmentation, intensity of streaks, pod degree of curvature and to some extent with 100 seed weight. PC-2 covered 15.86 of the genetic diversity and showed positive association for average seed weight per plant, pod length, number of seeds per plant, 100 seed weight, stipule spot pigmentation, intensity of streaks (same as in PC-1), and to some extent for pod degree of curvature and number of pods per plant. PC-3 revealed 10.89% of genetic diversity and expressed positive association for number of pods per plant and number of leaflets per plant.

Keywords: Characterization, PCA, Vicia faba, ago-morphological diversity

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27 Genetic Variation among the Wild and Hatchery Raised Populations of Labeo rohita Revealed by RAPD Markers

Authors: Fayyaz Rasool, Shakeela Parveen


The studies on genetic diversity of Labeo rohita by using molecular markers were carried out to investigate the genetic structure by RAPAD marker and the levels of polymorphism and similarity amongst the different groups of five populations of wild and farmed types. The samples were collected from different five locations as representatives of wild and hatchery raised populations. RAPAD data for Jaccard’s coefficient by following the un-weighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA) for Hierarchical Clustering of the similar groups on the basis of similarity amongst the genotypes and the dendrogram generated divided the randomly selected individuals of the five populations into three classes/clusters. The variance decomposition for the optimal classification values remained as 52.11% for within class variation, while 47.89% for the between class differences. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) for grouping of the different genotypes from the different environmental conditions was done by Spearman Varimax rotation method for bi-plot generation of the co-occurrence of the same genotypes with similar genetic properties and specificity of different primers indicated clearly that the increase in the number of factors or components was correlated with the decrease in eigenvalues. The Kaiser Criterion based upon the eigenvalues greater than one, first two main factors accounted for 58.177% of cumulative variability.

Keywords: Clustering, Variation, PCA, wild, hatchery, RAPAD, Labeo rohita

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26 A Survey of Feature Selection and Feature Extraction Techniques in Machine Learning

Authors: Samina Khalid, Shamila Nasreen


Dimensionality reduction as a preprocessing step to machine learning is effective in removing irrelevant and redundant data, increasing learning accuracy, and improving result comprehensibility. However, the recent increase of dimensionality of data poses a severe challenge to many existing feature selection and feature extraction methods with respect to efficiency and effectiveness. In the field of machine learning and pattern recognition, dimensionality reduction is important area, where many approaches have been proposed. In this paper, some widely used feature selection and feature extraction techniques have analyzed with the purpose of how effectively these techniques can be used to achieve high performance of learning algorithms that ultimately improves predictive accuracy of classifier. An endeavor to analyze dimensionality reduction techniques briefly with the purpose to investigate strengths and weaknesses of some widely used dimensionality reduction methods is presented.

Keywords: PCA, age related macular degeneration, feature selection feature subset selection feature extraction/transformation, FSA’s, relief, correlation based method, ICA

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25 The Relations of Volatile Compounds, Some Parameters and Consumer Preference of Commercial Fermented Milks in Thailand

Authors: Rawichar Chaipojjana, Suttipong Phosuksirikul, Arunsri Leejeerajumnean


The aim of research was to define the relations between volatile compounds, some parameters (pH, titratable acidity (TA), total soluble solid (TSS), lactic acid bacteria count) and consumer preference of commercial fermented milks. These relations tend to be used for controlling and developing new fermented milk product. Three leading commercial brands of fermented milks in Thailand were evaluated by consumers (n=71) using hedonic scale for four attributes (sweetness, sourness, flavour, and overall liking), volatile compounds using headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) GC-MS, pH, TA, TSS and LAB count. Then the relations were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA). The PCA data showed that all of four attributes liking scores were related to each other. They were also related to TA, TSS and volatile compounds. The related volatile compounds were mainly on fermented produced compounds including acetic acid, furanmethanol, furfural, octanoic acid and the volatiles known as artificial fruit flavour (beta pinene, limonene, vanillin, and ethyl vanillin). These compounds were provided the information about flavour addition in commercial fermented milk in Thailand.

Keywords: PCA, preference, fermented milk, volatile compounds

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24 Crater Detection Using PCA from Captured CMOS Camera Data

Authors: Hiroyuki Kamata, Yuji Kageyama, Shin Nagata, Tatsuya Takino, Izuru Nomura


We propose a method of detecting the craters from the image of the lunar surface. This proposal assumes that it is applied to SLIM (Smart Lander for Investigating Moon) working group aiming at the pinpoint landing on the lunar surface and investigating scientific research. It is difficult to equip and use high-performance computers for the small space probe. So, it is necessary to use a small computer with an exclusive hardware such as FPGA. We have studied the crater detection using principal component analysis (PCA), In this paper, We implement detection algorithm into the FPGA, and the detection is performed on the data that was captured from the CMOS camera.

Keywords: Image Processing, FPGA, PCA, crater detection

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23 Implementation of a Method of Crater Detection Using Principal Component Analysis in FPGA

Authors: Hiroyuki Kamata, Yuji Kageyama, Shin Nagata, Tatsuya Takino, Izuru Nomura


We propose a method of crater detection from the image of the lunar surface captured by the small space probe. We use the principal component analysis (PCA) to detect craters. Nevertheless, considering severe environment of the space, it is impossible to use generic computer in practice. Accordingly, we have to implement the method in FPGA. This paper compares FPGA and generic computer by the processing time of a method of crater detection using principal component analysis.

Keywords: FPGA, PCA, crater, eigenvector, strength value, processing time

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22 An Efficient Acquisition Algorithm for Long Pseudo-Random Sequence

Authors: Chieh-Fu Chang, Wan-Hsin Hsieh, Ming-Seng Kao


In this paper, a novel method termed the Phase Coherence Acquisition (PCA) is proposed for pseudo-random (PN) sequence acquisition. By employing complex phasors, the PCA requires only complex additions in the order of N, the length of the sequence, whereas the conventional method utilizing fast Fourier transform (FFT) requires complex multiplications and additions both in the order of Nlog2N . In order to combat noise, the input and local sequences are partitioned and mapped into complex phasors in PCA. The phase differences between pairs of input and local phasors are utilized for acquisition, and thus complex multiplications are avoided. For more noise-robustness capability, the multi-layer PCA is developed to extract the code phase step by step. The significant reduction of computational loads makes the PCA an attractive method, especially when the sequence length of is extremely large which becomes intractable for the FFT-based acquisition.

Keywords: PCA, FFT, PN sequence, convolution theory

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21 Microarray Gene Expression Data Dimensionality Reduction Using PCA

Authors: Fuad M. Alkoot


Different experimental technologies such as microarray sequencing have been proposed to generate high-resolution genetic data, in order to understand the complex dynamic interactions between complex diseases and the biological system components of genes and gene products. However, the generated samples have a very large dimension reaching thousands. Therefore, hindering all attempts to design a classifier system that can identify diseases based on such data. Additionally, the high overlap in the class distributions makes the task more difficult. The data we experiment with is generated for the identification of autism. It includes 142 samples, which is small compared to the large dimension of the data. The classifier systems trained on this data yield very low classification rates that are almost equivalent to a guess. We aim at reducing the data dimension and improve it for classification. Here, we experiment with applying a multistage PCA on the genetic data to reduce its dimensionality. Results show a significant improvement in the classification rates which increases the possibility of building an automated system for autism detection.

Keywords: autism, classification, Gene expression, PCA, dimensionality reduction

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20 Discrimination Between Bacillus and Alicyclobacillus Isolates in Apple Juice by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Multivariate Analysis

Authors: Murada Alholy, Mengshi Lin, Omar Alhaj, Mahmoud Abugoush


Alicyclobacillus is a causative agent of spoilage in pasteurized and heat-treated apple juice products. Differentiating between this genus and the closely related Bacillus is crucially important. In this study, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) was used to identify and discriminate between four Alicyclobacillus strains and four Bacillus isolates inoculated individually into apple juice. Loading plots over the range of 1350 and 1700 cm-1 reflected the most distinctive biochemical features of Bacillus and Alicyclobacillus. Multivariate statistical methods (e.g. principal component analysis (PCA) and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA)) were used to analyze the spectral data. Distinctive separation of spectral samples was observed. This study demonstrates that FT-IR spectroscopy in combination with multivariate analysis could serve as a rapid and effective tool for fruit juice industry to differentiate between Bacillus and Alicyclobacillus and to distinguish between species belonging to these two genera.

Keywords: Spectroscopy, bacillus, PCA, FT-IR, alicyclobacillus

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19 Statistical Discrimination of Blue Ballpoint Pen Inks by Diamond Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) FTIR

Authors: Mohamed Izzharif Abdul Halim, Niamh Nic Daeid


Determining the source of pen inks used on a variety of documents is impartial for forensic document examiners. The examination of inks is often performed to differentiate between inks in order to evaluate the authenticity of a document. A ballpoint pen ink consists of synthetic dyes in (acidic and/or basic), pigments (organic and/or inorganic) and a range of additives. Inks of similar color may consist of different composition and are frequently the subjects of forensic examinations. This study emphasizes on blue ballpoint pen inks available in the market because it is reported that approximately 80% of questioned documents analysis involving ballpoint pen ink. Analytical techniques such as thin layer chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, UV-vis spectroscopy, luminescence spectroscopy and infrared spectroscopy have been used in the analysis of ink samples. In this study, application of Diamond Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) FTIR is straightforward but preferable in forensic science as it offers no sample preparation and minimal analysis time. The data obtained from these techniques were further analyzed using multivariate chemometric methods which enable extraction of more information based on the similarities and differences among samples in a dataset. It was indicated that some pens from the same manufactures can be similar in composition, however, discrete types can be significantly different.

Keywords: PCA, ATR FTIR, ballpoint, multivariate chemometric

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18 Computer Aide Discrimination of Benign and Malignant Thyroid Nodules by Ultrasound Imaging

Authors: Akbar Gharbali, Ali Abbasian Ardekani, Afshin Mohammadi


Introduction: Thyroid nodules have an incidence of 33-68% in the general population. More than 5-15% of these nodules are malignant. Early detection and treatment of thyroid nodules increase the cure rate and provide optimal treatment. Between the medical imaging methods, Ultrasound is the chosen imaging technique for assessment of thyroid nodules. The confirming of the diagnosis usually demands repeated fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB). So, current management has morbidity and non-zero mortality. Objective: To explore diagnostic potential of automatic texture analysis (TA) methods in differentiation benign and malignant thyroid nodules by ultrasound imaging in order to help for reliable diagnosis and monitoring of the thyroid nodules in their early stages with no need biopsy. Material and Methods: The thyroid US image database consists of 70 patients (26 benign and 44 malignant) which were reported by Radiologist and proven by the biopsy. Two slices per patient were loaded in Mazda Software version 4.6 for automatic texture analysis. Regions of interests (ROIs) were defined within the abnormal part of the thyroid nodules ultrasound images. Gray levels within an ROI normalized according to three normalization schemes: N1: default or original gray levels, N2: +/- 3 Sigma or dynamic intensity limited to µ+/- 3σ, and N3: present intensity limited to 1% - 99%. Up to 270 multiscale texture features parameters per ROIs per each normalization schemes were computed from well-known statistical methods employed in Mazda software. From the statistical point of view, all calculated texture features parameters are not useful for texture analysis. So, the features based on maximum Fisher coefficient and the minimum probability of classification error and average correlation coefficients (POE+ACC) eliminated to 10 best and most effective features per normalization schemes. We analyze this feature under two standardization states (standard (S) and non-standard (NS)) with Principle Component Analysis (PCA), Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) and Non-Linear Discriminant Analysis (NDA). The 1NN classifier was performed to distinguish between benign and malignant tumors. The confusion matrix and Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis were used for the formulation of more reliable criteria of the performance of employed texture analysis methods. Results: The results demonstrated the influence of the normalization schemes and reduction methods on the effectiveness of the obtained features as a descriptor on discrimination power and classification results. The selected subset features under 1%-99% normalization, POE+ACC reduction and NDA texture analysis yielded a high discrimination performance with the area under the ROC curve (Az) of 0.9722, in distinguishing Benign from Malignant Thyroid Nodules which correspond to sensitivity of 94.45%, specificity of 100%, and accuracy of 97.14%. Conclusions: Our results indicate computer-aided diagnosis is a reliable method, and can provide useful information to help radiologists in the detection and classification of benign and malignant thyroid nodules.

Keywords: Ultrasound Imaging, computer aided diagnosis, Texture Analysis, PCA, LDA, thyroid nodules, NDA

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17 Detection and Classification of Mammogram Images Using Principle Component Analysis and Lazy Classifiers

Authors: Rajkumar Kolangarakandy


Feature extraction and selection is the primary part of any mammogram classification algorithms. The choice of feature, attribute or measurements have an important influence in any classification system. Discrete Wavelet Transformation (DWT) coefficients are one of the prominent features for representing images in frequency domain. The features obtained after the decomposition of the mammogram images using wavelet transformations have higher dimension. Even though the features are higher in dimension, they were highly correlated and redundant in nature. The dimensionality reduction techniques play an important role in selecting the optimum number of features from the higher dimension data, which are highly correlated. PCA is a mathematical tool that reduces the dimensionality of the data while retaining most of the variation in the dataset. In this paper, a multilevel classification of mammogram images using reduced discrete wavelet transformation coefficients and lazy classifiers is proposed. The classification is accomplished in two different levels. In the first level, mammogram ROIs extracted from the dataset is classified as normal and abnormal types. In the second level, all the abnormal mammogram ROIs is classified into benign and malignant too. A further classification is also accomplished based on the variation in structure and intensity distribution of the images in the dataset. The Lazy classifiers called Kstar, IBL and LWL are used for classification. The classification results obtained with the reduced feature set is highly promising and the result is also compared with the performance obtained without dimension reduction.

Keywords: PCA, wavelet transformation, lazy classifiers, Kstar, IBL, LWL

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16 Visualization Tool for EEG Signal Segmentation

Authors: Neha Singh, Sneh Anand, Sweeti, Anoop Kant Godiyal, B. K. Panigrahi, Jayasree Santhosh


This work is about developing a tool for visualization and segmentation of Electroencephalograph (EEG) signals based on frequency domain features. Change in the frequency domain characteristics are correlated with change in mental state of the subject under study. Proposed algorithm provides a way to represent the change in the mental states using the different frequency band powers in form of segmented EEG signal. Many segmentation algorithms have been suggested in literature having application in brain computer interface, epilepsy and cognition studies that have been used for data classification. But the proposed method focusses mainly on the better presentation of signal and that’s why it could be a good utilization tool for clinician. Algorithm performs the basic filtering using band pass and notch filters in the range of 0.1-45 Hz. Advanced filtering is then performed by principal component analysis and wavelet transform based de-noising method. Frequency domain features are used for segmentation; considering the fact that the spectrum power of different frequency bands describes the mental state of the subject. Two sliding windows are further used for segmentation; one provides the time scale and other assigns the segmentation rule. The segmented data is displayed second by second successively with different color codes. Segment’s length can be selected as per need of the objective. Proposed algorithm has been tested on the EEG data set obtained from University of California in San Diego’s online data repository. Proposed tool gives a better visualization of the signal in form of segmented epochs of desired length representing the power spectrum variation in data. The algorithm is designed in such a way that it takes the data points with respect to the sampling frequency for each time frame and so it can be improved to use in real time visualization with desired epoch length.

Keywords: Segmentation, PCA, de-noising, multi-channel data, power spectra

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15 Intrusion Detection System Using Linear Discriminant Analysis

Authors: Mohammed Benattou, Zyad Elkhadir, Khalid Chougdali


Most of the existing intrusion detection systems works on quantitative network traffic data with many irrelevant and redundant features, which makes detection process more time’s consuming and inaccurate. A several feature extraction methods, such as linear discriminant analysis (LDA), have been proposed. However, LDA suffers from the small sample size (SSS) problem which occurs when the number of the training samples is small compared with the samples dimension. Hence, classical LDA cannot be applied directly for high dimensional data such as network traffic data. In this paper, we propose two solutions to solve SSS problem for LDA and apply them to a network IDS. The first method, reduce the original dimension data using principal component analysis (PCA) and then apply LDA. In the second solution, we propose to use the pseudo inverse to avoid singularity of within-class scatter matrix due to SSS problem. After that, the KNN algorithm is used for classification process. We have chosen two known datasets KDDcup99 and NSLKDD for testing the proposed approaches. Results showed that the classification accuracy of (PCA+LDA) method outperforms clearly the pseudo inverse LDA method when we have large training data.

Keywords: PCA, IDS, LDA, Pseudoinverse, NSL-KDD, KDDcup99

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14 Exploring the Role of Private Commercial Banks in Increasing Small and Medium Size Enterprises’ Financial Accessibility in Developing Countries: A Study in Bangladesh

Authors: Khondokar Farid Ahmmed, Robin Bown


It is widely recognized that the formal financing of Small and Medium Size Enterprises (SMEs) by Private Commercial Banks (PCBs) is restricted. Due to changing financial market competition, SMEs are now important customers to PCBs in the member countries of the Asian Development Bank (ADB). Various initiatives in enhancing the efficiency of risk assessment of PCBs have failed in increasing financing accessibility in the traditional financing system where information asymmetry is a key constraint. In this circumstance, PCBs need to undertake a holistic approach. Holistic approach refers to methods that attempt to fundamentally change established traditions. To undertake holistic approach, this study intends to find the entire established financing culture between PCBs and SMEs in a new lens beyond the tradition on the basis of two basic questions: “What is the traditional lending culture between PCBs and SMEs” and “What could be potential role of PCBs to develop that culture where focusing on SME financing to PCBs". This study considered formal SME financing in Bangladesh by focusing on SMEs applying for their first loan. Bangladesh is a member country of ADB. The data collection method is semi-structured and we utilized face-to-face interviews with in-depth branch managers, higher officials and owner-managers of SME customers of PCBs and higher officials of SME Foundation and the Bangladesh central bank. Discourse analysis method was used for data analysis on the frame of thematic discussion fully based on participants’ views. The research found that branch managers and loan officers have a high level of power in assessing and financing decision-making. There is a changing attitude in PCB sector in requiring flexible collateral assets. Branch managers (Loan Officers) consider value of business prospect of owner-mangers as complementary of collateral assets. However, the study found the assessment process of business prospect is entirely unstructured and linked with socio-cultural settings that does not support PCBs’ changing manner in terms of collateral requirement. The study redefined and classified collateral assets to include all financing constructs in a structure. The degree of value of the collateral assets determines the degree of business prospects. This study suggested applying an outside classroom-learning paradigm such as “knowledge tour” to enhance the value of the kinds of collateral assets. This is the scope of PCBs in increasing SMEs’ financing eligibility in win-win basis. The findings and proposition could be effective in other ADB member countries and audiences in the field.

Keywords: Financing, PCA, information asymmetry, PCB, CCA

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13 A Novel Approach for the Analysis of Ground Water Quality by Using Classification Rules and Water Quality Index

Authors: Kamakshaiah Kolli, R. Seshadri


Water is a key resource in all economic activities ranging from agriculture to industry. Only a tiny fraction of the planet's abundant water is available to us as fresh water. Assessment of water quality has always been paramount in the field of environmental quality management. It is the foundation for health, hygiene, progress and prosperity. With ever increasing pressure of human population, there is severe stress on water resources. Therefore efficient water management is essential to civil society for betterment of quality of life. The present study emphasizes on the groundwater quality, sources of ground water contamination, variation of groundwater quality and its spatial distribution. The bases for groundwater quality assessment are groundwater bodies and representative monitoring network enabling determination of chemical status of groundwater body. For this study, water samples were collected from various areas of the entire corporation area of Guntur. Water is required for all living organisms of which 1.7% is available as ground water. Water has no calories or any nutrients, but essential for various metabolic activities in our body. Chemical and physical parameters can be tested for identifying the portability of ground water. Electrical conductivity, pH, alkalinity, Total Alkalinity, TDS, Calcium, Magnesium, Sodium, Potassium, Chloride, and Sulphate of the ground water from Guntur district: Different areas of the District were analyzed. Our aim is to check, if the ground water from the above areas are potable or not. As multivariate are present, Data mining technique using JRIP rules was employed for classifying the ground water.

Keywords: Data Mining, Groundwater, classification, Water Quality Standards, PCA, potability, JRIP

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12 Attendance Management System Implementation Using Face Recognition

Authors: Zainab S. Abdullahi, Zakariyya H. Abdullahi, Sahnun Dahiru


Student attendance in schools is a very important aspect in school management record. In recent years, security systems have become one of the most demanding systems in school. Every institute have its own method of taking attendance, many schools in Nigeria use the old fashion way of taking attendance. That is writing the students name and registration number in a paper and submitting it to the lecturer at the end of the lecture which is time-consuming and insecure, because some students can write for their friends without the lecturer’s knowledge. In this paper, we propose a system that takes attendance using face recognition. There are many automatic methods available for this purpose i.e. biometric attendance, but they all waste time, because the students have to follow a queue to put their thumbs on a scanner which is time-consuming. This attendance is recorded by using a camera attached in front of the class room and capturing the student images, detect the faces in the image and compare the detected faces with database and mark the attendance. The principle component analysis was used to recognize the faces detected with a high accuracy rate. The paper reviews the related work in the field of attendance system, then describe the system architecture, software algorithm and result.

Keywords: Face Recognition, Face Detection, PCA, attendance system

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11 Use of Multivariate Statistical Techniques for Water Quality Monitoring Network Assessment, Case of Study: Jequetepeque River Basin

Authors: Jose Flores, Nadia Gamboa


A proper water quality management requires the establishment of a monitoring network. Therefore, evaluation of the efficiency of water quality monitoring networks is needed to ensure high-quality data collection of critical quality chemical parameters. Unfortunately, in some Latin American countries water quality monitoring programs are not sustainable in terms of recording historical data or environmentally representative sites wasting time, money and valuable information. In this study, multivariate statistical techniques, such as principal components analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), are applied for identifying the most significant monitoring sites as well as critical water quality parameters in the monitoring network of the Jequetepeque River basin, in northern Peru. The Jequetepeque River basin, like others in Peru, shows socio-environmental conflicts due to economical activities developed in this area. Water pollution by trace elements in the upper part of the basin is mainly related with mining activity, and agricultural land lost due to salinization is caused by the extensive use of groundwater in the lower part of the basin. Since the 1980s, the water quality in the basin has been non-continuously assessed by public and private organizations, and recently the National Water Authority had established permanent water quality networks in 45 basins in Peru. Despite many countries use multivariate statistical techniques for assessing water quality monitoring networks, those instruments have never been applied for that purpose in Peru. For this reason, the main contribution of this study is to demonstrate that application of the multivariate statistical techniques could serve as an instrument that allows the optimization of monitoring networks using least number of monitoring sites as well as the most significant water quality parameters, which would reduce costs concerns and improve the water quality management in Peru. Main socio-economical activities developed and the principal stakeholders related to the water management in the basin are also identified. Finally, water quality management programs will also be discussed in terms of their efficiency and sustainability.

Keywords: PCA, HCA, Jequetepeque, multivariate statistical

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10 Features Dimensionality Reduction and Multi-Dimensional Voice-Processing Program to Parkinson Disease Discrimination

Authors: Djamila Meghraoui, Bachir Boudraa, Thouraya Meksen, M.Boudraa


Parkinson's disease is a pathology that involves characteristic perturbations in patients’ voices. This paper describes a proposed method that aims to diagnose persons with Parkinson (PWP) by analyzing on line their voices signals. First, Thresholds signals alterations are determined by the Multi-Dimensional Voice Program (MDVP). Principal Analysis (PCA) is exploited to select the main voice principal componentsthat are significantly affected in a patient. The decision phase is realized by a Mul-tinomial Bayes (MNB) Classifier that categorizes an analyzed voice in one of the two resulting classes: healthy or PWP. The prediction accuracy achieved reaching 98.8% is very promising.

Keywords: PCA, Parkinson’s disease recognition, MDVP, multinomial Naive Bayes

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9 Longevity of Soybean Seeds Submitted to Different Mechanized Harvesting Conditions

Authors: Rute Faria, Digo Moraes, Amanda Santos, Dione Morais, Maria Sartori


Seed vigor is a fundamental component for the good performance of the entire soybean production process. Seeds with mechanical damage at harvest time will be more susceptible to fungal and insect attack during storage, which will invariably reduce their vigor to the field, compromising uniformity and final stand performance. Harvesters, even the most modern ones, when not properly regulated or operated, can cause irreversible damages to the seeds, compromising even their commercialization. Therefore, the control of an efficient harvest is necessary in order to guarantee a good quality final product. In this work, the damage caused by two different harvesters (one rented, and another one) was evaluated, traveling in two speeds (4 and 8 km / h). The design was completely randomized in 2 x 2 factorial, with four replications. To evaluate the physiological quality seed germination and vigor tests were carried out over a period of six months. A multivariate analysis of Principal Components (PCA) and clustering allowed us to verify that the leased machine had better performance in the incidence of immediate damages in the seeds, but after a storage period of 6 months the vigor of these seeds reduced more than own machine evidencing that such a machine would bring more damages to the seeds.

Keywords: Cluster Analysis, PCA, Glycine max (L.), vigor

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8 Development of a Computer Aided Diagnosis Tool for Brain Tumor Extraction and Classification

Authors: Fathi Kallel, Abdulelah Alabd Uljabbar, Abdulrahman Aldukhail, Abdulaziz Alomran


The brain is an important organ in our body since it is responsible about the majority actions such as vision, memory, etc. However, different diseases such as Alzheimer and tumors could affect the brain and conduct to a partial or full disorder. Regular diagnosis are necessary as a preventive measure and could help doctors to early detect a possible trouble and therefore taking the appropriate treatment, especially in the case of brain tumors. Different imaging modalities are proposed for diagnosis of brain tumor. The powerful and most used modality is the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). MRI images are analyzed by doctor in order to locate eventual tumor in the brain and describe the appropriate and needed treatment. Diverse image processing methods are also proposed for helping doctors in identifying and analyzing the tumor. In fact, a large Computer Aided Diagnostic (CAD) tools including developed image processing algorithms are proposed and exploited by doctors as a second opinion to analyze and identify the brain tumors. In this paper, we proposed a new advanced CAD for brain tumor identification, classification and feature extraction. Our proposed CAD includes three main parts. Firstly, we load the brain MRI. Secondly, a robust technique for brain tumor extraction is proposed. This technique is based on both Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA). DWT is characterized by its multiresolution analytic property, that’s why it was applied on MRI images with different decomposition levels for feature extraction. Nevertheless, this technique suffers from a main drawback since it necessitates a huge storage and is computationally expensive. To decrease the dimensions of the feature vector and the computing time, PCA technique is considered. In the last stage, according to different extracted features, the brain tumor is classified into either benign or malignant tumor using Support Vector Machine (SVM) algorithm. A CAD tool for brain tumor detection and classification, including all above-mentioned stages, is designed and developed using MATLAB guide user interface.

Keywords: classification, MRI, Feature Extraction, CAD, brain tumor, PCA, SVM, DWT

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7 Face Sketch Recognition in Forensic Application Using Scale Invariant Feature Transform and Multiscale Local Binary Patterns Fusion

Authors: Gargi Phadke, Mugdha Joshi, Shamal Salunkhe


Facial sketches are used as a crucial clue by criminal investigators for identification of suspects when the description of eyewitness or victims are only available as evidence. A forensic artist develops a sketch as per the verbal description is given by an eyewitness that shows the facial look of the culprit. In this paper, the fusion of Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) and multiscale local binary patterns (MLBP) are proposed as a feature to recognize a forensic face sketch images from a gallery of mugshot photos. This work focuses on comparative analysis of proposed scheme with existing algorithms in different challenges like illumination change and rotation condition. Experimental results show that proposed scheme can lead to better performance for the defined problem.

Keywords: PCA, SIFT feature, MLBP, face sketch

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6 Towards a Rigorous Analysis for a Supercritical Particulate Process

Authors: Yousef Bakhbakhi


Crystallization with supercritical fluids (SCFs), as a developed technology to produce particles of micron and sub-micron size with narrow size distribution, has found appreciable importance as an environmentally friendly technology. Particle synthesis using SCFs can be achieved employing a number of special processes involving solvent and antisolvent mechanisms. In this study, the compressed antisolvent (PCA) process is utilized as a model to analyze the theoretical complexity of crystallization with supercritical fluids. The population balance approach has proven to be an effectual technique to simulate and predict the particle size and size distribution. The nucleation and growth mechanisms of the particles formation in the PCA process is investigated using the population balance equation, which describes the evolution of the particle through coalescence and breakup levels with time. The employed mathematical population balance model contains a set of the partial differential equation with algebraic constraints, which demands a rigorous numerical approach. The combined Collocation and Galerkin finite element method are proposed as a high-resolution technique to solve the dynamics of the PCA process.

Keywords: PCA, supercritical carbon dioxide, particle formation, particle size and size distribution

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5 A Quantitative Survey Research on the Development and Assessment of Attitude toward Mathematics Instrument

Authors: Soofia Malik


The purpose of this study is to develop an instrument to measure undergraduate students’ attitudes toward mathematics (MAT) and to assess the data collected from the instrument for validity and reliability. The instrument is developed using five subscales: anxiety, enjoyment, self-confidence, value, and technology. The technology dimension is added as the fifth subscale of attitude toward mathematics because of the recent trend of incorporating online homework in mathematics courses as well as due to heavy reliance of higher education on using online learning management systems, such as Blackboard and Moodle. The sample consists of 163 (M = 82, F = 81) undergraduates enrolled in College Algebra course in the summer 2017 semester at a university in the USA. The data is analyzed to answer the research question: if and how do undergraduate students’ attitudes toward mathematics load using Principal Components Analysis (PCA)? As a result of PCA, three subscales emerged namely: anxiety/self-confidence scale, enjoyment, and value scale. After deleting the last five items or the last two subscales from the initial MAT scale, the Cronbach’s alpha was recalculated using the scores from 20 items and was found to be α = .95. It is important to note that the reliability of the initial MAT form was α = .93. This means that employing the final MAT survey form would yield consistent results in repeated uses. The final MAT form is, therefore, more reliable as compared to the initial MAT form.

Keywords: PCA, principal components analysis, college algebra, Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficient, technology in mathematics

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4 Differentiation between Different Rangeland Sites Using Principal Component Analysis in Semi-Arid Areas of Sudan

Authors: Nancy Ibrahim Abdalla, Abdelaziz Karamalla Gaiballa


Rangelands in semi-arid areas provide a good source for feeding huge numbers of animals and serving environmental, economic and social importance; therefore, these areas are considered economically very important for the pastoral sector in Sudan. This paper investigates the means of differentiating between different rangelands sites according to soil types using principal component analysis to assist in monitoring and assessment purposes. Three rangeland sites were identified in the study area as flat sandy sites, sand dune site, and hard clay site. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to reduce the number of factors needed to distinguish between rangeland sites and produce a new set of data including the most useful spectral information to run satellite image processing. It was performed using selected types of data (two vegetation indices, topographic data and vegetation surface reflectance within the three bands of MODIS data). Analysis with PCA indicated that there is a relatively high correspondence between vegetation and soil of the total variance in the data set. The results showed that the use of the principal component analysis (PCA) with the selected variables showed a high difference, reflected in the variance and eigenvalues and it can be used for differentiation between different range sites.

Keywords: Principal Component Analysis, PCA, rangeland sites, semi-arid areas, soil types

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3 Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship Study of Some Quinoline Derivatives as Antimalarial Agents

Authors: M. Ouassaf, S. Belaid


A series of quinoline derivatives with antimalarial activity were subjected to two-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (2D-QSAR) studies. Three models were implemented using multiple regression linear MLR, a regression partial least squares (PLS), nonlinear regression (MNLR), to see which descriptors are closely related to the activity biologic. We relied on a principal component analysis (PCA). Based on our results, a comparison of the quality of, MLR, PLS, and MNLR models shows that the MNLR (R = 0.914 and R² = 0.835, RCV= 0.853) models have substantially better predictive capability because the MNLR approach gives better results than MLR (R = 0.835 and R² = 0,752, RCV=0.601)), PLS (R = 0.742 and R² = 0.552, RCV=0.550) The model of MNLR gave statistically significant results and showed good stability to data variation in leave-one-out cross-validation. The obtained results suggested that our proposed model MNLR may be useful to predict the biological activity of derivatives of quinoline.

Keywords: PCA, QSAR, MLR, antimalarial, quinoline, MNLR

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2 Monitoring Blood Pressure Using Regression Techniques

Authors: Ahmad Dagamseh, Qasem Qananwah, Hiam AlQuran, Khalid Shaker Ibrahim


Blood pressure helps the physicians greatly to have a deep insight into the cardiovascular system. The determination of individual blood pressure is a standard clinical procedure considered for cardiovascular system problems. The conventional techniques to measure blood pressure (e.g. cuff method) allows a limited number of readings for a certain period (e.g. every 5-10 minutes). Additionally, these systems cause turbulence to blood flow; impeding continuous blood pressure monitoring, especially in emergency cases or critically ill persons. In this paper, the most important statistical features in the photoplethysmogram (PPG) signals were extracted to estimate the blood pressure noninvasively. PPG signals from more than 40 subjects were measured and analyzed and 12 features were extracted. The features were fed to principal component analysis (PCA) to find the most important independent features that have the highest correlation with blood pressure. The results show that the stiffness index means and standard deviation for the beat-to-beat heart rate were the most important features. A model representing both features for Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP) and Diastolic Blood Pressure (DBP) was obtained using a statistical regression technique. Surface fitting is used to best fit the series of data and the results show that the error value in estimating the SBP is 4.95% and in estimating the DBP is 3.99%.

Keywords: Principal Component Analysis, Blood Pressure, PCA, continuous monitoring, noninvasive optical system

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1 Analytical Authentication of Butter Using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy Coupled with Chemometrics

Authors: M. Bodner, M. Scampicchio


Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy coupled with chemometrics was used to distinguish between butter samples and non-butter samples. Further, quantification of the content of margarine in adulterated butter samples was investigated. Fingerprinting region (1400-800 cm–1) was used to develop unsupervised pattern recognition (Principal Component Analysis, PCA), supervised modeling (Soft Independent Modelling by Class Analogy, SIMCA), classification (Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis, PLS-DA) and regression (Partial Least Squares Regression, PLS-R) models. PCA of the fingerprinting region shows a clustering of the two sample types. All samples were classified in their rightful class by SIMCA approach; however, nine adulterated samples (between 1% and 30% w/w of margarine) were classified as belonging both at the butter class and at the non-butter one. In the two-class PLS-DA model’s (R2 = 0.73, RMSEP, Root Mean Square Error of Prediction = 0.26% w/w) sensitivity was 71.4% and Positive Predictive Value (PPV) 100%. Its threshold was calculated at 7% w/w of margarine in adulterated butter samples. Finally, PLS-R model (R2 = 0.84, RMSEP = 16.54%) was developed. PLS-DA was a suitable classification tool and PLS-R a proper quantification approach. Results demonstrate that FT-IR spectroscopy combined with PLS-R can be used as a rapid, simple and safe method to identify pure butter samples from adulterated ones and to determine the grade of adulteration of margarine in butter samples.

Keywords: PCA, margarine, simca, adulterated butter, PLS-DA, PLS-R

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