Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15

patriarchy Related Abstracts

15 Challenges of Women Leadership in a Patriarchy Society: Implications for Development of African Women

Authors: Catherine Oluyemo

Abstract:

In Africa, patriarchy has manifested itself in the socio-cultural, political, economic and legal institutions. The decree of the father as the male head of the family has contributed to the powerlessness of women in African nations. To buttress this perception, in his work Meno, Plato made a declaration in the platonic dialogue that the desirable quality of a man should be the capacity to administer the state, and in the administration of it to benefit his friends and harm his enemies; and he must also be careful not to suffer harm himself. Furthermore, he said: a woman's good worth may also be easily described as ordering her house, keep what is indoors, and obey her husband. The works of Aristotle portrayed women as morally, intellectually, and physically inferior to men; they saw women as the property of men; claimed that women's role in society was to reproduce and serve men in the household; and saw male domination of women as natural and virtuous. This has been sustained for ages and is incessantly impinging on the involvement of women in African leadership positions. The purpose of this paper is to make sense of the concept of patriarchy in relations to women participation in Africa leadership, and its challenges in the participation of women in the leadership positions of Africa. It seeks to discover what women should do to make their voices heard, to participate in leadership arrangements so as to actualize their potentials in contributing to the development of Africa.

Keywords: Development, Leadership, Women, patriarchy, actualize, potentials

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14 Female Dis-Empowerment in Contemporary Zimbabwe: A Re-Look at Shona Writers’ Vision of the Factors and Solutions

Authors: Godwin Makaudze

Abstract:

The majority of women in contemporary Zimbabwe continue to hold marginalised and insignificant positions in society and to be accorded negative and stereotyped images in literature. In light of this, government and civic organisations and even writers channel many resources, time, and efforts towards the emancipation of the female gender. Using the Africana womanist and socio-historical literary theories and focussing on two post-colonial novels, this paper re-engages the dis-empowerment of women in contemporary Zimbabwe, examining the believed causes and suggested solutions. The paper observes that the writers whip the already whipped by blaming patriarchy, African men and cultural practices as the underlying causes of such a sorry state of affairs while at the same time celebrating war against all these, as well as education, unity among women, Christianity and single motherhood as panaceas to the problem. The paper concludes that the writers’ anger is misdirected as they have fallen trap to the very popular yet mythical victim-blame motif espoused by many writers who focus on Shona people’s problems.

Keywords: solutions, patriarchy, Zimbabwe, cultural practices, female dis-empowerment, Shona novel

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13 Women's Sexual Experience in Pakistan: Associations of Patriarchy and Psychological Distress

Authors: Haya Fatimah, Sana Tahir

Abstract:

Sexuality is a social construct which is considered as the most confidential affair among individuals where women tend to refrain themselves more from sexually explicit behavior than men. Patriarchy has an elevated influence on the expression of female sexuality. While women’s sexual experiences are suppressed men are entitled to pleasure themselves according to their desire. The purpose of this study is to explore how the internalization of patriarchy affects women’s sexuality. Similarly, it was investigated how women sexuality is associated with psychological distress. The sample consisted of 100(age 20-40) married women. Participants were selected through a combination of convenient and snowball sampling. Women were asked to provide data regarding patriarchal beliefs, sexual awareness and DAS (depression, anxiety, and stress). Pearson Product Moment Correlation Analyze was conducted to examine the nature of the relationship between patriarchal beliefs, sexual awareness and psychological distress in married women. There is a significant negative relation between sexual awareness and patriarchal beliefs (r=-.391, p<.001). There also lies a significant negative relation between sexual awareness and depression, anxiety, stress (r=-.359, p<.001) (r=.301, p=.002) (r=-.221, p=.027). The results reveal that women with strong patriarchal beliefs have less sexual awareness in terms of sexual consciousness, sexual monitoring, sexual assertiveness and sexual appeal consciousness. Similarly, women with strong patriarchal beliefs and less sexual awareness have high levels of depression, anxiety, and stress.

Keywords: Psychological distress, female sexuality, patriarchy, sexual awareness

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12 New Trends in Pakistani Cinema: Muslim Women, Cinematic Struggle and the Global World

Authors: Sana Zia

Abstract:

One of the most important questions for research on Muslim women's representation is the relationship between Islam and women’s situation in Islamic countries. In this context, certain questions can be raised like is it possible to analyze women’s situation in Islamic countries like Pakistan? Or what is the relationship between Islam and patriarchy? So this paper will examine all these questions by analysing Muslim women's representation in Pakistani Cinema. It is also significant to note that despite political and religious constraints in Muslim countries, in particular, Pakistan, women have not only been part of the film industry for long, but they also have chosen films as their feminist tool to question and expose the effects of patriarchy, religious fundamentalism, and gender-specific socio-cultural oppression. The religious-cultural ethos that could include gender-specific restrictions and limitations on their creative expression as Muslim women in an Islamic society. A new wave of Pakistani cinema is pivoting around strong Muslim female characters and opened up a new thought about Islamic women.Their contributions and success through this medium emphasized the need to investigate the significance and effectiveness of contemporary cinema as a tool of resistance and cross-cultural communication in a Muslim society. So this research can also provide a better understanding about Islam that needs to be modernized and reclaimed from the clutches of fundamentalism and extremism. This paper thus investigates the interrelation of women's representation and Pakistani cinema by analysing two films ‘Bol: To speak up’ and ‘Dukhter: Daughter’. The feminist analysis of these films not only helps to understand the new trends and dimensions in representation of Muslim women in Pakistani cinema, but this also helps to raise awareness globally regarding the depiction of Muslim women. So to foreground the above mentioned discussion, the films under study helps to evaluate their significance, the role they play towards activism, resistance, and global awareness in terms of what could be termed as a Muslim woman. The paper thus provides a valuable insight that how and why Islam is being used as a mechanism to merge social, political and economic factors to define the rights and conditions of Pakistani Muslim women and highlight the cinematic struggle of the film maker’s which by using films as an awareness tool are going to highlight the problems and issues of Muslim women in the global world.

Keywords: Muslim Women, patriarchy, Pakistani cinema, religious fundamentalism

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11 Traveling Abroad and the Construction of British Identity and Culture in Selected Women Writers: Lady Elizabeth Craven's A Journey Through the Crimea to Constantinople (1789) and Lady Mary Wortley Montagu's Embassy Letters (1716-1718)

Authors: Raja Al-Khalili

Abstract:

Traveling abroad for British citizens in the eighteenth century was usually performed for two reasons. The first major form was for administering the expanding realm of the British Empire and its need for officials in governing the natives and facilitating the work of business companies. The other form of travel was for pleasure and involved a manifestation of wealth. This form of travel was a prelude for the modern industry of tourism and usually involved a tour of Europe and the Mediterranean. In both forms of travel the British encountered a myriad of cultures. Travel had fostered a sense of pride and confirmed an ethnocentric view of British superiority, but it also brought a critical self-examination of belonging to a colonial empire that thrives on the weaknesses of other nations. Women writers in particular have sought in the travels a kind of self-exploration of the nature of social patriarchy in a diversity of cultures. Both Lady Elizabeth Craven in A Journey through the Crimea to Constantinople (1789) and Lady Mary Wortley Montagu in Embassy Letters (1716-1718) have observed the culture of the Ottomans and then pursued to reflect on the social role of women in England.

Keywords: travel writing, patriarchy, Elizabeth Craven, Lady Mary Wortley

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10 A Detailed Study of Sexism in Mizo Language

Authors: H. C. Laltleipuii, Lalruatdiki Siakeng

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Mizo is a language spoken by the natives of Mizoram in North-East India. The Mizo society is a patriarchal society and hence is encumbered with trails of sexism in its language. Sexist language expresses discrimination on the basis of gender. While women are primarily affected, it is not however limited to just the female gender. This paper focuses on the sexist language that reflects the discrimination of women in the male-dominated, male-centered society of the Mizo. The main purpose of this paper is to emphasize with details, sexism that can be found in three aspects of language: in the naming of animate and inanimate objects or words in general, in the idioms and phrases and proverbs. This study will also take into account the gender neutral terms that are in use in the language.

Keywords: Gender, Sexism, patriarchy, Mizo

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9 A Philosophical Study of Men's Rights Discourses in Light of Feminism

Authors: Michael Barker

Abstract:

Men’s rights activists are largely antifeminism. Evaluation of men’s rights discourses, however, shows that men’s rights’ goals would be better achieved by working with feminism. Discussion of men’s rights discourses, though, is prone to confusion because there is no commonly used men’s rights language. In the presentation ‘male sexism’, ‘matriarchy’ and ‘masculism’ will be unpacked as part of a suggested men’s rights language. Once equipped with a men’s rights vocabulary, sustained philosophical assessment of the extent to which several categories of male disadvantages are wrongful will be offered. Following this, conditions that cause each category of male sexism will be discussed. It shall be argued that male sexism is caused more so by matriarchy than by patriarchy or by feminism. In closing, the success at which various methods address the categories of male sexism will be contrasted. Ultimately, it will be shown that male disadvantages are addressed more successfully by methods that work with, than against, feminism.

Keywords: Gender studies, Feminism, patriarchy, men’s rights, male sexism, matriarchy, masculism

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8 Patriarchy and Clearance Rates of Sexual Victimization: A Multilevel Analysis

Authors: Margaret Schmuhl, Michelle Cubellis

Abstract:

Violence against women (VAW) is a widespread social problem affecting nearly two million women in the United States each year. Recently, feminist criminologists have sought to examine patriarchy as a guiding framework for understanding violence against women. Literature on VAW often examines measures of structural gender equality, often overlooking ideological patriarchy which is necessary for structural inequality to remain unchallenged. Additionally, empirical literature generally focuses on extreme forms of VAW, rape, and femicide, often neglecting more common types of violence. This literature, under the theoretical guidance of the Liberal, Radical, and Marxist feminist traditions, finds mixed support for the relationship of patriarchy and VAW. Explanations for these inconsistencies may include data availability, and the use of different operationalizations of structural patriarchy. Research is needed to examine fuller operationalizations of patriarchy in social institutions and to extend this theoretical framework to the criminal justice response to VAW (i.e., clearance rates). This study examines sexual violence clearance rates under the theoretical guidance of these feminist traditions using incident- and county-level data from National Incident Based Reporting System and other sources in multilevel modelling. The findings suggest mixed support for the feminist hypotheses and that patriarchy and gender equality differentially affect arrest clearance rates and clearance through exceptional means for sexual violence.

Keywords: Violence Against Women, Gender equality, patriarchy, multilevel modelling, clearance rates, sexual victimization

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7 Analysis of Subordination: The Reproductive Sphere

Authors: Aneesa Shafi

Abstract:

Reproduction is a complex term in a setting where it is continuously being shaped by epistemological shifts in knowledge. It denotes not just fertility, birth and childcare related practices but also the ideas that shape those practices. These ideas and practices figure into understandings of social and cultural renewal. Patriarchy continues to be a dominating force in the formation of these ideas and practices. Contemporary times are characterized by the resurgence of the whims of patriarchal politics in delineating the margins of women’s health care. This has further emboldened the struggle for reproductive rights on the global stage. The paper examines the subordination of the right to bodily autonomy of women within the ambit of their reproductive rights. Reproductive rights are recognized human rights and women’s rights. Why these rights of women face stiff opposition is established, as is the structure that creates hurdles to their enjoyment. The negotiation of this structure in the everyday life through women’s agency is also established. The reproductive sphere includes not just the process of reproduction but also social reproduction- domestic work, spheres of production and reproduction, population and birth (control) issues.

Keywords: Gender, Women, Reproduction, patriarchy

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6 Gender Equality and the Politics of Presence among the Maasai in Kenya

Authors: Shillah Memusi

Abstract:

Underrepresentation of women in governance structures is a global phenomenon, with patriarchal considerations being among the main, if not the top, reason for this in Sub Saharan Africa. This paper demonstrates that gender norms and informal rules have perpetuated a culture of stereotypical gender roles that have limited women’s public participation and leadership in society. To achieve this, the paper explores barriers to women’s political engagement, and how these are navigated in the face of gender equality laws. Situated in Kenya’s Maasai community, the paper investigates the influence of set laws on the increased involvement of women from the patriarchal community in the political economy. It gives special attention to the intersectionality of formal and informal laws and the subsequent interpretation and implementation of gender equality. The paper then concludes by demonstrating the benefits of exploring alternative gender equality pathways, as informed by contextual realities of settings such as patriarchal communities.

Keywords: Women, Equality, Public Participation, patriarchy, Kenya

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5 Bound By Patriarchy: Women’s Experience of Internal Migration in Bangladesh

Authors: Fouzia Mannan, Deepa Joshi

Abstract:

Millions of Bangladeshis move from low-income agrarian villages to the country’s urban landscape with the hope to gain from the rapidly-growing middle-income urban, industrial future. However, the economic gains are mostly offset by new forms of extreme depravity, indignity, and inequality. Nonetheless, many scholars report unique gendered gains through migration - the rupture of traditional, entrenched inequalities by gender, providing women not only reliable incomes but also the opportunity to re-negotiate gendered roles, responsibilities and identities. In this study, we present the reflections of ten long-term urban migrant women in Dhaka city: of their gains, their losses as well as their aspirations for the future. Our findings show the incredibly high costs of a migration that is induced by desperate rural poverty. Further, we find that patriarchy persists - within the often 'kutcha' walls of urban low-income homes to the nature of so-called economic opportunities - in the constant intertwining of capitalism, globalization, and patriarchy. Caught in between, women have little choice but to cope with these new vulnerabilities by relying on the very norms and boundaries established by patriarchy and by recreating patriarchy to celebrate the (if) gains from displacement and migration.

Keywords: Gender, Urbanization, patriarchy, internal migration

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4 History of Russian Women: The Historical Overview of the Images and Roles of Women in Old and Modern Russia

Authors: Elena Chernyak

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The status of Russian women has changed dramatically over the course of Russian history and under different leadership and economic, political, and social conditions. The perception of women, their submissive roles, and low social status cause gender conflict that affects society: demographical issues, increased numbers of divorces, alcoholism, drug abuse, and crime. Despite the fact that around the world women are becoming more independent, protected by law, and play more important roles in society, Russian women are still dependent on men financially, socially, and psychologically. This paper critically explores the experience of Russian women over the course of over a thousand year of Russian history and how the position and image of women changed in Russian Empire, Soviet and post-Soviet Russia and what role women play in contemporary Russia. This paper is a result of deep examination of historical and religious literature, mass media, internet sources, and documents. This analysis shows that throughout history, the role and image of women in society have repeatedly varied depending on ideological and social conditions. In particular, the history of Russian women may be divided into five main periods. The first was the period of paganism, when almost all areas of life were open for women and when women were almost equal in social roles with men. During the second period, starting with the beginning of the Mongol invasion in the 13th century, the position of women was diminishing due to social transformation to the patriarchal society in which women started playing subordinate role in family and society. The third period – the period from the fourteenth through the sixteenth centuries - is a period of the total seclusion of Russian women from each part of social life. The fourth, Soviet period started after the Revolution of 1917. During that time, the position of women was drastically changed due to the transformation of traditional gender roles under the Bolshevik government. Woman's role was seen as worker-mothers who had a double duty: a worker and a mother. The final period began after the collapse of the Soviet Union. The restructuring (Perestroika) and post-Restructuring periods have had contradictory consequences and tremendous impact on Russian society. The image of women as partners and equal to men, which was promoted during the Soviet regime, has been replaced with the traditional functionalist views on family and the role of women, in which men and women have different but supposedly complementary roles. Modern Russia, despite publicly stating its commitment to equal rights, during last two decades has been reverting to an older social model with its emphasis on traditional gender roles, patriarchal ideas of dominant masculinity, and adverse attitudes to women, which are further supported and reinforced by the reviving Russian Orthodox Church. As demonstrated in this review, Russian women have never possessed the same rights as men and have always been subordinate to men. During all period of Russian history, patriarchal ideology maintained and reinforced in Russian society has always subjected women to manipulation, oppression, and victimization and portrayed women as not a ‘full human being’.

Keywords: Women, Religion, patriarchy, Russia, Russian orthodox church

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3 De/Reconstructing the Notion of Women as Perpetrators of Terrorism: The Case of Boko Haram

Authors: Damilohun D. Ayoyo, Anthony Mpiani, Temitope B. Oriola

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The debate on women’s roles in insurgencies and terrorist organizations continues to garner scholarly attention. While some scholars view women insurgents and terrorists as perpetrators, others have argued that they are non-agents and victims. This paper de/reconstructs the notion of ‘women as perpetrators’ of terrorism. Drawing on the narratives of rescued female Boko Haram operatives, and Boko Haram’s tactics for recruiting and deploying women and girls, the paper advances three main arguments. First, the growing social construction of women as perpetrators of terrorism – particularly radical Islamic terrorism – downplays the socio-cultural and structural processes leading to women’s involvement with terrorist organizations. Second, women agency in Boko Haram activities is better understood when grounded in the cultural and structural contexts of Northern Nigeria, Boko Haram’s construction of ‘female,’ and the experiences of female Boko Haram operatives. Third, the mechanisms through which female Boko Haram operatives are recruited and deployed make them more of non-agents and victims than perpetrators of terrorism. The paper draws on the agency-structure approach and argues that the gendered power asymmetries embedded in the cultures and structures of Northern Nigeria –the base of Boko Haram– contribute to the nature and dynamics of women’s involvement in the insurgency. Although the paper does not negate the agency of women in terrorism, it aligns with the studies that consider women insurgents as more victims than perpetrators of terror.

Keywords: Sharia, patriarchy, Boko Haram, Northern Nigeria, female agency, perpetrator of terror, radical Islamic terrorism, victim of terror, women insurgents

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2 Patriarchy and Gender Discrimination as seen in the Novels of Ahdaf Soueif’s In the Eye of the Sun (1992) and Pramoedya Ananta Toer’s The Girl from the Coast (2002)

Authors: Nagwa Soliman

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Women for centuries have undergone gender discrimination under the pretext of patriarchy which is engraved in the culture and tradition of some societies. It is important to highlight that this condition has been encoded by the male gender to dominate and manipulate women. It is therefore necessary to draw attention to this important obstacle that stands in the way of women’s achievement of their full potential and humanity in the face of these cultural traditions. The appropriate style that was chosen for this literary analysis is a qualitative research method that relies on the feminist technique using Freud’s psychological theories. This article explores patriarchy and gender discrimination as portrayed in Ahdaf Soueif’s In The Eye of the Sun (1992) and Pramoedya Ananta Toer’s The Girl from the Coast (2002). It could be argued that those two novels describe a society that is feminist, patriarchal, and gender discriminatory. Moreover, it is important to assert that patriarchy and gender discrimination are part of the system’s social order which compels the female characters to adjust to society’s norms and conventions. This social order is supported by traditional and cultural masculine attitudes and results in sustaining gender inequality, female stereo typing and patriarchy which suppress women’s beliefs and dreams.

Keywords: Feminism, Gender Discrimination, patriarchy, stereotype

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1 Divorce for Iranian-Canadian Women: A Life and Death Matter

Authors: Shila Khayambashi

Abstract:

Iran’s long history of patriarchy, coupled with the devaluation of women’s rights after Iran’s Islamic revolution of 1979, has subjected Iranian women to different forms of domestic abuse. Upon their migration, however, many Iranian women end their abusive relationship by filing for divorce. In many instances, leaving the abusive environment exposes these Iranian women to more dangerous circumstances. Iranian diasporic community has witnessed several domestically-charged fatalities in the past few years after the abused wives either ended their violent marriages or attempted to establish some control in their marital relationships. While the casualties have been reported in Iranian new media and press, the Canadian media failed to pay much attention to any of these cases. In this paper, I examine the post-migratory factors that encourage the abused Iranian women to leave their abusers after years of endurance. Additionally, I indicate the roles of organizational and governmental support for minority women who decide to terminate their violent relationships. I will also explore how the Canadian media outlets circumvent and ignore the cases of these minority victims.

Keywords: divorce, patriarchy, domestic abuse, women's right

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