Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 28

patients Related Abstracts

28 The Impact of Plants on Relaxation of Patients in Hospitals, Case Study: District 6th, Tehran

Authors: Hashem Hashemnejad, Abbas Yazdanfar, Mahzad Mohandes Tarighi, Denial Sadighi


One of the factors that can have a positive influence on the mental health is the presence of trees and flowers. Research shows that even a glance at nature can evoke positive feelings in the person and reduce his tension and stress. According to the historical, cultural, religious, and individual background in each geographical district, the relaxing or spiritual impact of certain kinds of flowers can be evaluated. In this paper, using a questionnaire, the amount of relaxing impact of prevalent trees and flowers of the district on the patients was examined. The results showed that cedar and pomegranate trees and jasmine and rose in flowers, respectively, relax the patients.

Keywords: Plants, Mental Health, patients, relaxing

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27 The Use of Respiratory Index of Severity in Children (RISC) for Predicting Clinical Outcomes for 3 Months-59 Months Old Patients Hospitalized with Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Visayas Community Medical Center, Cebu City from January 2013 - June 2

Authors: Karl Owen L. Suan, Juliet Marie S. Lambayan, Floramay P. Salo-Curato


Objective: To predict the outcome among patients admitted with community-acquired pneumonia (ages 3 months to 59 months old) admitted in Visayas Community Medical Center using the Respiratory Index of Severity in Children (RISC). Design: A cross-sectional study design was used. Setting: The study was done in Visayas Community Medical Center, which is a private tertiary level in Cebu City from January-June 2013. Patients/Participants: A total of 72 patients were initially enrolled in the study. However, 1 patient transferred to another institution, thus 71 patients were included in this study. Within 24 hours from admission, patients were assigned a RISC score. Statistical Analysis: Cohen’s kappa coefficient was used for inter-rater agreement for categorical data. This study used frequency and percentage distribution for qualitative data. Mean, standard deviation and range were used for quantitative data. To determine the relationship of each RISC score parameter and the total RISC score with the outcome, a Mann Whitney U Test and 2x2 Fischer Exact test for testing associations were used. A p value less of than 0.05 alpha was considered significant. Results: There was a statistical significance between RISC score and clinical outcome. RISC score of greater than 4 was correlated with intubation and/or mortality. Conclusion: The RISC scoring system is a simple combination of clinical parameters and a reliable tool that will help stratify patients aged 3 months to 59 months in predicting clinical outcome.

Keywords: patients, clinical outcome, RISC, community-acquired pneumonia

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26 Factors Related with Self-Care Behaviors among Iranian Type 2 Diabetic Patients: An Application of Health Belief Model

Authors: Ali Soroush, Mehdi Mirzaei Alavijeh, Touraj Ahmadi Jouybari, Fazel Zinat-Motlagh, Abbas Aghaei, Mari Ataee


Diabetes is a disease with long cardiovascular, renal, ophthalmic and neural complications. It is prevalent all around the world including Iran, and its prevalence is increasing. The aim of this study was to determine the factors related to self-care behavior based on health belief model among sample of Iranian diabetic patients. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 301 type 2 diabetic patients in Gachsaran, Iran. Data collection was based on an interview and the data were analyzed by SPSS version 20 using ANOVA, t-tests, Pearson correlation, and linear regression statistical tests at 95% significant level. Linear regression analyses showed the health belief model variables accounted for 29% of the variation in self-care behavior; and perceived severity and perceived self-efficacy are more influential predictors on self-care behavior among diabetic patients.

Keywords: Diabetes, patients, self-care behaviors, health belief model

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25 Lung Cancer Patients in Eastern Region of Nepal

Authors: Ram Sharan Mehta


The number of new cancer cases annually is estimated to rise from 10.9 million in 2002 to more than 16 million by 2020, if current trends continue. Much of this increase in absolute numbers derives from the ageing of populations worldwide. The objectives of this study were to find out the demographic characteristics of the admitted cancer patients in BPKIHS. It was hospital based descriptive cross-sectional study conducted reviewing all the records of admitted diagnosed cancer patients in BPKIHS from 15th October 2004 to 14th October 2012. Using total enumerative sampling technique all 1379 diagnosed cancer patients record were reviewed after obtaining the permission from concerned authorities. Using SPSS-15 software package data was analyzed. It was found that majority (71%) of cancer patients were of age more than 40 years and equal of both sexes. Most of the clients were form Sunsari (31.1%), Morang (16.6%) and Jhapa (17%) districts. The mean hospitalization day is 8.32 and very few patients (5.2%) were only cured. The numbers of cancer patients are markedly increases in BPKIHS, especially in advanced stage. It is mandatory to start the cancer information and education programme in eastern region of Nepal and proper management of cancer patients using chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery at BPKIHS for quality patient care.

Keywords: Cancer, Lung, patients, Nepal

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24 Profile of the Renal Failure Patients under Haemodialysis at B. P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences Nepal

Authors: Ram Sharan Mehta, Sanjeev Sharma


Introduction: Haemodialysis (HD) is a mechanical process of removing waste products from the blood and replacing essential substances in patients with renal failure. First artificial kidney developed in Netherlands in 1943 AD First successful treatment of CRF reported in 1960AD, life-saving treatment begins for CRF in 1972 AD. In 1973 AD Medicare took over financial responsibility for many clients and after that method become popular. BP Koirala institute of health science is the only center outside the Kathmandu, where HD service is available. In BPKIHS PD started in Jan.1998, HD started in August 2002 till September 2003 about 278 patients received HD. Day by day the number of HD patients is increasing in BPKIHS as with institutional growth. No such type of study was conducted in past hence there is lack of valid & reliable baseline data. Hence, the investigators were interested to conduct the study on " Profile of the Renal Failure patients under Haemodialysis at B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences Nepal". Objectives: The objectives of the study were: to find out the Socio-demographic characteristics of the patients, to explore the knowledge of the patients regarding disease process and Haemodialysis and to identify the problems encountered by the patients. Methods: It is a hospital-based exploratory study. The population of the study was the clients under HD and the sampling method was purposive. Fifty-four patients undergone HD during the period of 17 July 2012 to 16 July 2013 of complete one year were included in the study. Structured interview schedule was used for collect data after obtaining validity and reliability. Results: Total 54 subjects had undergone for HD, having age range of 5-75 years and majority of them were male (74%) and Hindu (93 %). Thirty-one percent illiterate, 28% had agriculture their occupation, 80% of them were from very poor community, and about 30% subjects were unaware about the disease they suffering. Majority of subjects reported that they had no complications during dialysis (61%), where as 20% reported nausea and vomiting, 9% Hypotension, 4% headache and 2%chest pain during dialysis. Conclusions: CRF leading to HD is a long battle for patients, required to make major and continuous adjustment, both physiologically and psychologically. The study suggests that non-compliance with HD regimen were common. The socio-demographic and knowledge profile will help in the management and early prevention of disease and evaluate aspects that will influence care and patients can select mode of treatment themselves properly.

Keywords: treatment, patients, Haemodialysis, profile, Nepal

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23 Knowledge and Capabilities of Primary Caregivers in Providing Quality Care for Elderly Patients with Post- Operative Hip Fracture, Songklanagarind Hospital

Authors: Manee Hasap, Mongkolchai Hasap, Tasanee Nasae


The purpose of this study was to evaluate the primary caregivers’ knowledge and capabilities for providing quality care to be hospitalized post-hip fracture surgery elderly patients. The theoretical framework of the study was derived from the concepts of dependent care agency in Orem’s Self-Care theory, and family care provision for the elderly and chronically ill patients. 59 subjects were purposively selected. The subjects were primary caregivers of post-operated hip fracture elderly patients who had been admitted to the Orthopaedic Ward of Songklanagarind Hospital. Demographic data of the caregivers and patients were collected by non-participant observation using the evaluation and recording forms. The reliability of caregivers’ knowledge measurement (0.86) was obtained by KR-20 and that of caregivers’ capabilities for post-operative care evaluation form (0.97) obtained from 2 observers by interrater reliability. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistic, which were frequency, percentage, mean, and standard deviation. The result of this study indicated that elderly patients with post-hip fracture surgery had many pre-discharge self care limitations. Approximately, 75% of the caregivers had knowledge to respond to patient’s essential needs at a high level, while the rest (25%) had this knowledge a moderate level. For observation, 57.63% of the subjects had capabilities in care practice at a moderate level; 28.81% had capabilities in care practice at a high level, while 13.56% had at a low level. The result of this study can be used as basic information for patients and caregivers capabilities developing plan especially, providing patients’ activities, accident surveillance and complications prevention for a good life quality of elderly patients after hip surgery both hospitalization and rehabilitation at home.

Keywords: patients, care givers’ knowledge, care givers’ capabilities, elderly hip fracture patients

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22 A Survey of Chronic Pain Patients’ Experiences in the Emergency Department

Authors: G. Fitzpatrick, S. O. Chonghaile, D. Harmon


Objective: Chronic pain patients represent a unique challenge in the Emergency Department. Very little literature has been published regarding this group of patients. Our aim was to determine the attitude of patients with chronic pain to the Emergency Department in order to improve and streamline their future visits. Methods: A two-year survey was carried out on Chronic Pain Patients regarding their Emergency Department Attendances. Patients attending the Pain Clinic in Croom Hospital, Co. Limerick were asked to complete a 20-part questionnaire regarding their experiences of visiting the Emergency Department in the preceding year. 46 questionnaires were completed. Results: Unbearable breakthrough pain was the main reason for visiting the Emergency Department. More than half (54%) of those surveyed were not satisfied with the treatment received. Problems indicated included under-treatment of pain (59%), a sense of being under undue suspicion of drug-seeking behaviour (33%) and a perception that the patient themselves understood their condition better than the treating doctor (76%). Paracetamol, NSAIDs, or time off work comprised 72% of the treatments offered – all of which could have been provided by their General Practitioner. Only 4% were offered a nerve block. 67% felt that the creation of personalised Patient Plans, consisting of an agreed plan between the patient, their pain specialist, and the Emergency Department, would expedite their trip through the Emergency Department. Conclusions: Chronic pain patients generally have a negative experience in the ED. Possible future solutions include increasing our empathy and levels of knowledge, provision of nerve blocks in the ED, and use of personalised “Patient Plans” to streamline the treatment pathway for this group of patients.

Keywords: Emergency Department, patients, Survey, Chronic Pain

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21 Evaluation of Food Services by the Patients in Hospitals of Athens in Greece

Authors: I. Mentziou, C. Delezos, A. Nestoridou, G. Boskou


Introduction: The system of production and distribution of meals can have a significant impact on the food intake of hospital patients who are likely to develop malnutrition. In hospitals, the consequences of food borne infections can range from annoying to life-threatening for a patient, since they can lead up to death in vulnerable groups. Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the satisfaction of the patients from the food services in Greek hospitals. Methods: Eleven hospitals of the Attica region were chosen. The sample derived from 637 adult patients who were hospitalized in those hospitals, during the period September 2009 - April 2010. Tailor made questionnaires were used to interview patients upon their satisfaction from the current food service system as well as from the total quality management system of the hospital. The number of completed questionnaires was proportional to the hospital capacity. Results: The majority of the patients seem to be pleased from the quality and the variety of the meals; they judged positively the behaviour of the food service personnel and the hygiene of serving conditions. Patients made suggestions for more frequent meals, larger variety of choices and better presented meals served under proper hygiene conditions by the personnel. Conclusions: The results indicate that the patients are satisfied in regards to the meal choices and the serving methods. However, factors like temperature and hygiene conditions are not always perceived to be in a way that fulfills the necessary prerequisite requirements. A total quality management system as a driver for better patient satisfaction is Indispensable.

Keywords: hospital, Evaluation, patients, food service, HACCP

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20 Counselling Needs of Psychiatric Patients as Perceived by Their Medical Personnel, in Federal Neuropsychiatric Hospital, Aro, Abeokuta

Authors: F. N. Bolu-Steve, T. A. Ajiboye


A study was carried out on the awareness of counselling needs of psychiatric patients as perceived by medical personnel in the Federal Neuropsychiatric hospital, Aro, Abeokuta, Nigeria. The respondents comprised of medical personnel of the Neuropsychiatric hospital in Aro. Purposive sampling technique was used to select the respondents. The target population of the study consisted of all medical doctors treating the psychiatric patients. A total of 200 respondents participated in the study out of which 143 were males and 57 of them were females. With their years of experience as a medical doctors, 49.5% of them have worked between 1-5 years, 30.5% of the respondents have 6-10 years’ experience while those with 16 years and above experience are 7.0%. The major counselling need of psychiatric patients as expressed by medical doctors is the need to have information about the right balance diet. The data were analyzed using percentages, mean, frequency, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and t-test statistical tools. The instrument used for data collection was the structured questionnaire titled “Counselling Needs of Psychiatric Patients Questionnaire” (CNPPQ). This instrument was drafted by the researchers through the review of related literature. The reliability of the instrument was established using test-retest method. A reliability index of 0.74 was obtained. Three of the hypotheses were rejected while two of them were accepted at 0.05 alpha level of significance. Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended that broad based counselling services should be provided to psychiatric patients in order to assist them to develop positive self- image and to cope with their challenges.

Keywords: Counselling, Psychiatric, patients, Needs, Medical Personnel

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19 Innovations in the Implementation of Preventive Strategies and Measuring Their Effectiveness Towards the Prevention of Harmful Incidents to People with Mental Disabilities who Receive Home and Community Based Services

Authors: Carlos V. Gonzalez


Background: Providers of in-home and community based services strive for the elimination of preventable harm to the people under their care as well as to the employees who support them. Traditional models of safety and protection from harm have assumed that the absence of incidents of harm is a good indicator of safe practices. However, this model creates an illusion of safety that is easily shaken by sudden and inadvertent harmful events. As an alternative, we have developed and implemented an evidence-based resilient model of safety known as C.O.P.E. (Caring, Observing, Predicting and Evaluating). Within this model, safety is not defined by the absence of harmful incidents, but by the presence of continuous monitoring, anticipation, learning, and rapid response to events that may lead to harm. Objective: The objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of the C.O.P.E. model for the reduction of harm to individuals with mental disabilities who receive home and community based services. Methods: Over the course of 2 years we counted the number of incidents of harm and near misses. We trained employees on strategies to eliminate incidents before they fully escalated. We trained employees to track different levels of patient status within a scale from 0 to 10. Additionally, we provided direct support professionals and supervisors with customized smart phone applications to track and notify the team of changes in that status every 30 minutes. Finally, the information that we collected was saved in a private computer network that analyzes and graphs the outcome of each incident. Result and conclusions: The use of the COPE model resulted in: A reduction in incidents of harm. A reduction the use of restraints and other physical interventions. An increase in Direct Support Professional’s ability to detect and respond to health problems. Improvement in employee alertness by decreasing sleeping on duty. Improvement in caring and positive interaction between Direct Support Professionals and the person who is supported. Developing a method to globally measure and assess the effectiveness of prevention from harm plans. Future applications of the COPE model for the reduction of harm to people who receive home and community based services are discussed.

Keywords: Safety, Disability, Resilience, Mental Illness, patients, harm

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18 Attitudes of Health Personnel towards Patients as Expressed by Literate Adults in Ilorin Metropolis, Kwara State: Implications for Counseling

Authors: Yahaya Lasiele Alabi, Odebode Aminat Adeola


Attitudes of health personnel usually influence the speed of recovery. It is essential that professional counsellors investigate the attitude of health personnel toward patients. In view of this, this study examined attitudes of health personnel towards patients as expressed by literate adults in Ilorin metropolis, Kwara State. The study also examined the influence of gender, age, and educational qualification on the respondents’ views. A self designed instrument tittled ‘Attitude of Health Personnel towards Patients Questionnaire (AHPPQ)’ was used to collect data from six hundred respondents, who were selected through a two-stage sampling procedure. Four research questions were constructed while three null hypotheses were formulated and tested using t-test and ANOVA at 0.05 alpha level. The findings of the study showed that literate adults in Ilorin metropolis expressed that health personnel have negative attitude towards patients. It was also found out that there was no significant difference in the attitude of health personnel towards Patients as expressed by literate adults in Ilorin metropolis on the basis of gender, age, and educational qualification. Based on the findings of this study, recommendations were made that Government should formulate policies and laws that will promote disposition of positive attitudes toward patients by health personnel. Health Counsellors should be employed and involved in organisation of seminars and workshops from time to time in order to encourage health personnel to interract positively with patients.

Keywords: patients, attitude, health personnel, Kwara State

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17 Patients' Perceptions of Receiving a Diagnosis of a Haematological Malignancy, following the SPIKES Protocol

Authors: Lauren Dixon, David Galvani


Objective: Sharing devastating news with patients is often considered the most difficult task of doctors. This study aimed to explore patients’ perceptions of receiving bad news including which features improve the experience and which areas need refining. Methods: A questionnaire was written based on the steps of the SPIKES model for breaking bad news. 20 patients receiving treatment for a haematological malignancy completed the questionnaire. Results: Overall, the results are promising as most patients praised their consultation. ‘Poor’ was more commonly rated by women and participants aged 45-64. The main differences between the ‘excellent’ and ‘poor’ consultations include the doctor’s sensitivity and checking the patients’ understanding. Only 35% of patients were asked their existing knowledge and 85% of consultations failed to discuss the impact of the diagnosis on daily life. Conclusion: This study agreed with the consensus of existing literature. The commended aspects include consultation set-up and information given. Areas patients felt needed improvement include doctors determining the patient’s existing knowledge and exploring how the diagnosis will affect the patient’s life. With a poorer prognosis, doctors should work on conveying appropriate hope. The study was limited by a small sample size and potential recall bias.

Keywords: Cancer, Diagnosis, Haematology, patients

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16 Sleep Quality as Perceived by Critically Ill Patients at El Manial University Hospitals

Authors: Mohamed Adel Ahmed, Warda Youssef Morsy , Hanaa Ali El Feky


Background: Literature review cited that sleep is absolutely essential for surviving and reclamation of the quality of life. Critically ill patients often have poor sleep quality with prolonged sleep latency, sleep fragmentation, decreased sleep efficiency and frequent arousals. Nurses have a unique role for the early diagnosis of sleep disorders, decreasing stressors levels and providing the necessary environmental regulations to create a therapeutic ambiance. The aim of the study: to assess perceived sleep quality and identify factors affecting sleep quality among adult critically ill patients At El Manial University Hospital. Research Design: A descriptive exploratory design was utilized. Research questions: a) how do adult critically ill patients perceive sleep quality in the Critical Care Department of El Manial University Hospital? b) What are the factors affecting sleep quality among adult critically ill patients at El Manial University Hospital? Setting: selected critical and cardiac care units at El Manial University Hospital. Sample: A samples of convenience consisting of 100 adult male and female patients were included in the study. Tools of data collection: tool 1: Socio-demographic and Medical Data Sheet, tool 2: Modified St Mary's Hospital Sleep Questionnaire tool 3: Factors Affecting Sleep Quality Questionnaire among ICU Patients Results: The current study revealed that 76.0% of the studied sample had lack of sleep disturbance before hospitalization. However, 84 % had sleep disturbances during ICU stay, of these more than two-thirds (67 %) had moderate sleep disturbance. Presence of strange and bad odors, noise, having pain, fear of death and a loud voice produced by the ICU personnel had the most significant negative impact on patients’ sleep in percentage of 52.4, 50, 61.9, 45.2, 52.4, respectively. Conclusion: Sleep disturbances in the ICU are multifactorial, and ICU patients’ perceived degrees of sleep disturbance as a moderate. Recommendations: Based on findings of the present study, the following are recommended to be done by ICU nurses; create a healing ICU environment that should incorporate noise, light and temperature controls; decrease stimuli during night time hours to promote regulation of the circadian rhythm, allow usage of sleeping aids such as relaxing music, eye patches and earplugs into their daily nursing practice; cluster nursing activities and eliminate non-essential treatments during night time hours to allow uninterrupted sleep periods of at least 90 minutes to complete one sleep cycle , and minimize staff conversation, alarm noise and light during the quiet night time hours.

Keywords: Perception, patients, Sleep Quality, critically ill

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15 The Effects of a Nursing Dignity Care Program on Patients’ Dignity in Care

Authors: Yea-Pyng Lin


Dignity is a core element of nursing care. Maintaining the dignity of patients is an important issue because the health and recovery of patients can be adversely affected by a lack of dignity in their care. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of a nursing dignity care program upon patients’ dignity in care. A quasi-experimental research design was implemented. Nurses were recruited by purposive sampling, and their patients were recruited by simple random sampling. Nurses in the experimental group received the nursing educational program on dignity care, while nurses in the control group received in-service education as usual. Data were collected via two instruments: the dignity in care scale for nurses and the dignity in care scale to patients, both of which were developed by the researcher. Both questionnaires consisted of three domains: agreement, importance, and frequencies of providing dignity care. A total of 178 nurses in the experimental group and 193 nurses in the control group completed the pretest and the follow-up evaluations at the first month, the third month, and the sixth month. The number of patients who were cared for by the nurses in the experimental group was 94 in the pretest. The number of patients in the post-test at the first, third, and sixth months were 91, 85, and 77, respectively. In the control group, 88 patients completed the II pretest, and 80 filled out the post-test at the first month, 77 at the third, and 74 at the sixth month. The major findings revealed the scores of agreement domain among nurses in the experimental group were found significantly different from those who in the control group at each point of time. The scores of importance domain between these two groups also displayed significant differences at pretest and the first month of post-test. Moreover, the frequencies of proving dignity care to patients were significant at pretest, the third month and sixth month of post-test. However, the experimental group had only significantly different from those who in the control group on the frequencies of receiving dignity care especially in the items of ‘privacy care,’ ‘communication care,’ and ‘emotional care’ for the patients. The results show that the nursing program on dignity care could increase nurses’ dignity care for patients in three domains of agreement, importance, and frequencies of providing dignity care. For patients, only the frequencies of receiving dignity care were significantly increased. Therefore, the nursing program on dignity care could be applicable for nurses’ in-service education and practice to enhance the ability of nurses to care for patient’s dignity.

Keywords: Nursing Education, patients, Nurses, dignity care, quasi-experimental

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14 Automatic Queuing Model Applications

Authors: Fahad Suleiman


Queuing, in medical system is the process of moving patients in a specific sequence to a specific service according to the patients’ nature of illness. The term scheduling stands for the process of computing a schedule. This may be done by a queuing based scheduler. This paper focuses on the medical consultancy system, the different queuing algorithms that are used in healthcare system to serve the patients, and the average waiting time. The aim of this paper is to build automatic queuing system for organizing the medical queuing system that can analyses the queue status and take decision which patient to serve. The new queuing architecture model can switch between different scheduling algorithms according to the testing results and the factor of the average waiting time. The main innovation of this work concerns the modeling of the average waiting time is taken into processing, in addition with the process of switching to the scheduling algorithm that gives the best average waiting time.

Keywords: patients, scheduling algorithms, queuing systems, queuing system models

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13 Social Support in Adherence to Therapy in Bioenterics Intragastric Balloon

Authors: Mariela González, Zoraide Lugli


Objective: to determine the relationship between perceived social support and adherence to therapy in patients who have been placed BioEnteric intragastric balloon (BIB). Material and method: 75 obese (56 women and 19 men) between 18 and 65 years (M = 39.29, SD = 11.82), who attended five centers in the city of Caracas, where he carried out this procedure. We used Social Support Scale and treatment adherence behavior respectively. The procedure was contacted the centers and the sample was selected. Subsequently, the inventories were applied before and the month after the before and three months after the balloon set. Results: Show that participants were characterized by moderate levels in the variables. On the other hand, those who perceive that they perceived support from friends are those who report adherence to therapy. Conclusions: From the results, it is suggested promote social support networks, which could be essential to achieve and maintain adherence to therapy in patients with BioEnterics intragastric balloon.

Keywords: patients, BioEnteric intragastric balloon, perceived social support, adherence to therapy

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12 Medical Social Work: Connotation, Prospects, and Challenges in Pakistan

Authors: Syeda Mahnaz Hassan


Social work as a specialized field, grounded in scientific knowledge and skills, is more inclined towards problem-solving process rather than charity focused approach. Medical social work, as a primary method, deals with the bio-psychosocial-spiritual elements of an individual with a problem and assesses the pliability and strength of the patients, social support systems, and their families, to assist the patients to resolve their problems independently. The medical social worker, also known as case-worker or care-worker, has to play a substantial role in the rehabilitation and retrieval of an affected person. This paper examines the roles played and responsibilities discharged by the Medical Social Workers internationally and specifically concerning Pakistan. The capacity constraints and challenges confronted by Medical Social Workers in hospitals have also been highlighted, and some policy implications have been suggested to enhance the capabilities of Medical Social Workers for serving the patients in a befitting manner.

Keywords: Rehabilitation, Pakistan, patients, medical social work

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11 Adherence of Hypertensive Patients to Lifestyle Modification Factors: A Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Fadwa Alhalaiqa, Ahmad Al-Nawafleh, Abdul-Monim Batiha, Rami Masadeh, Aida Abd Alrazek


Healthy lifestyle recommendations (e.g. physical inactivity, unhealthy diet, increased cholesterol levels, obesity, and poor stress management) play an important role in controlling BP. This study aimed to assess lifestyle modification factors among patient diagnosed with hypertension. Methods and materials: A cross section-survey design was used. Data was collected by four questionnaires one was the beliefs about medication (BMQ) and rest were developed to collect data about demographics and clinical characteristics and lifestyle modification factors. Results: Total 312 questionnaires had been completed. The participants had a mean age of 57.6 years (SD =11.8). The results revealed that our participants did not follow healthy lifestyle recommendations; for example the means BS level, BMI, and cholesterol levels were 155 mg/dl (SD= 71.9), 29 kg/2m (SD= 5.4) and 197 mg/dl (SD= 86.6) respectively. A significant correlation was shown between age and BP (P= 0.000). Increase in DBP correlates with a significant increase in cholesterol level (P= .002) and BMI (P= .006). Conclusion: Hypertensive patients did not adhere to healthy lifestyle modification factors. Therefore, an urgent action by addressing behavioral risk factors has a positive impact on preventing and controlling hypertension.

Keywords: Hypertension, Adherence, Healthy lifestyle, patients

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10 Difference between 'HDR Ir-192 and Co-60 Sources' for High Dose Rate Brachytherapy Machine

Authors: Md Serajul Islam


High Dose Rate (HDR) Brachytherapy is used for cancer patients. In our country’s prospect, we are using only cervices and breast cancer treatment by using HDR. The air kerma rate in air at a reference distance of less than a meter from the source is the recommended quantity for the specification of gamma ray source Ir-192 in brachytherapy. The absorbed dose for the patients is directly proportional to the air kerma rate. Therefore the air kerma rate should be determined before the first use of the source on patients by qualified medical physicist who is independent from the source manufacturer. The air kerma rate will then be applied in the calculation of the dose delivered to patients in their planning systems. In practice, high dose rate (HDR) Ir-192 afterloader machines are mostly used in brachytherapy treatment. Currently, HDR-Co-60 increasingly comes into operation too. The essential advantage of the use of Co-60 sources is its longer half-life compared to Ir-192. The use of HDRCo-60 afterloading machines is also quite interesting for developing countries. This work describes the dosimetry at HDR afterloading machines according to the protocols IAEA-TECDOC-1274 (2002) with the nuclides Ir-192 and Co-60. We have used 3 different measurement methods (with a ring chamber, with a solid phantom and in free air and with a well chamber) in dependence of each of the protocols. We have shown that the standard deviations of the measured air kerma rate for the Co-60 source are generally larger than those of the Ir-192 source. The measurements with the well chamber had the lowest deviation from the certificate value. In all protocols and methods, the deviations stood for both nuclides by a maximum of about 1% for Ir-192 and 2.5% for Co-60-Sources respectively.

Keywords: Cancer, patients, Ir-192 source, cheap treatment cost

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9 High-Value Health System for All: Technologies for Promoting Health Education and Awareness

Authors: M. P. Sebastian


Health for all is considered as a sign of well-being and inclusive growth. New healthcare technologies are contributing to the quality of human lives by promoting health education and awareness, leading to the prevention, early diagnosis and treatment of the symptoms of diseases. Healthcare technologies have now migrated from the medical and institutionalized settings to the home and everyday life. This paper explores these new technologies and investigates how they contribute to health education and awareness, promoting the objective of high-value health system for all. The methodology used for the research is literature review. The paper also discusses the opportunities and challenges with futuristic healthcare technologies. The combined advances in genomics medicine, wearables and the IoT with enhanced data collection in electronic health record (EHR) systems, environmental sensors, and mobile device applications can contribute in a big way to high-value health system for all. The promise by these technologies includes reduced total cost of healthcare, reduced incidence of medical diagnosis errors, and reduced treatment variability. The major barriers to adoption include concerns with security, privacy, and integrity of healthcare data, regulation and compliance issues, service reliability, interoperability and portability of data, and user friendliness and convenience of these technologies.

Keywords: Education, Healthcare, Big Data, technologies, patients, information communication technologies (ICT)

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8 Measuring Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points Implementation in Riyadh Hospitals

Authors: A. Alrasheed, I. Connerton


Daily provision of high quality food and hygiene to patients is a challenging goal of the healthcare. In Saudi Arabia, matters related to food safety and hygiene are regulated by the Ministry of Health (MOH) and the Saudi Food and Drugs Authority (SFDA). The purpose of this research is to discuss the food safety management inconsistencies and flaws, in particular the ones related to Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) in Riyadh’s MOH hospitals. As required by law, written HACCP regulations must be implemented, and food handlers need to receive the training accordingly. However, in Saudi hospitals, this is not a requirement, and the food handlers do not need to hold training certificates in food safety or HACCP. Nowadays, the matter of food safety and hygiene have become increasingly important since the decision makers want to align these regulations with the majority of the world and to implement HACCP fully and for this purpose, the SFDA was established. 

Keywords: Food Safety, hospitals, Saudi Arabia, patients, HACCP

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7 Patients’ Trust in Health Care Systems

Authors: Dilara Usta, Fatos Korkmaz


Background: Individuals who utilise health services maintain relationships with health professionals, insurers and institutions. The nature of these relationships requires service receivers to have trust in the service providers because maintaining health services without reciprocal trust is very difficult. Therefore, individual evaluations of trust within the scope of health services have become increasingly important. Objective: To investigate patients’ trust in the health-care system and their relevant socio-demographical characteristics. Methods: This research was conducted using a descriptive design which included 493 literate patients aged 18-65 years who were hospitalised for a minimum of two days at public university and training&research hospitals in Ankara, Turkey. Patients’ trust in health-care professionals, insurers, and institutions were investigated. Data were collected using a demographic questionnaire and the Multidimensional Trust in Health-Care Systems Scale between September 2015 and April 2016. Results: The participants’ mean age was 47.7±13.1; 70% had a moderate income and 69% had a prior hospitalisation and 63.5% of the patients were satisfied with the health-care services. The mean Multidimensional Trust in Health-Care Systems Scale score for the sample was 61.5±8.3; the provider subscale had a mean of 38.1±5, the insurers subscale had a mean of 12.9±3.7, and institutions subscale had a mean of 10.6±1.9. Conclusion: Patients’ level of trust in the health-care system was above average and the trust level of the patients with higher educational and socio-economic levels was lower compared to the other patients. Health-care professionals should raise awareness about the significance of trust in the health-care system.

Keywords: Nursing, Trust, patients, Health Care System, delivery of health care

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6 Patients' Interpretation of Prescribed Medication Instructions: A Pilot Study among Diabetes Mellitus Patients at Makanye Clinic in Limpopo Province, South Africa

Authors: Charity Ngoatle, Tebogo M. Mothiba, Mahlapahlapana J. Themane


Misapprehension of medications instructions due to poor health literacy is common in diabetic patients, predominantly leading to suboptimal medication therapy caused by taking less than expected, or getting inadequate medication concentration. Globally, 50% of adults have been reported to have misunderstood medication instructions which could be the cause of not using medication as prescribed. Reading material has been found not to improve people’s knowledge to the extent where they would be informed and knowledgeable about their health. This, therefore, depicts that instructive materials alone cannot improve health literacy but further patient education is still needed to explain what the information really mean. The aim of this study was to investigate patients’ interpretation of prescribed medication instructions at Makanye Clinic in Limpopo Province, South Africa. The study used a mixed method approach. A non-probability purposive and simple random sampling strategies will be used to select ten (10) participants for the pilot study. Semi-structured interviews with a guide and self- administered structured questionnaires will be used to collect data. Tesch’s eight steps for qualitative data analysis and SPSS version 24 with descriptive statistics will be adopted. The preliminary findings from other studies show that: (a) poor health literacy negatively affect medication adherence, (b) general literacy influence health literacy, and (c) there are poor health outcomes and medication adverse effects due to poor medication comprehension.

Keywords: patients, diabetes mellitus, instructions, prescribed medication

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5 User Requirements Study in Order to Improve the Quality of Social Robots for Dementia Patients

Authors: Konrad Rejdak


Introduction: Neurodegenerative diseases are frequently accompanied by loss and unwanted change in functional independence, social relationships, and economic circumstances. Currently, the achievements of social robots to date is being projected to improve multidimensional quality of life among people with cognitive impairment and others. Objectives: Identification of particular human needs in the context of the changes occurring in course of neurodegenerative diseases. Methods: Based on the 110 surveys performed in the Medical University of Lublin from medical staff, patients, and caregivers we made prioritization of the users' needs as high, medium, and low. The issues included in the surveys concerned four aspects: user acceptance, functional requirements, the design of the robotic assistant and preferred types of human-robot interaction. Results: We received completed questionnaires; 50 from medical staff, 30 from caregivers and 30 from potential users. Above 90% of the respondents from each of the three groups, accepted a robotic assistant as a potential caregiver. High priority functional capability of assistive technology was to handle emergencies in a private home-like recognizing life-threatening situations and reminding about medication intake. With reference to the design of the robotic assistant, the majority of the respondent would like to have an anthropomorphic appearance with a positive emotionally expressive face. The most important type of human-robot interaction was a voice-operated system and by touchscreen. Conclusion: The results from our study might contribute to a better understanding of the system and users’ requirements for the development of a service robot intended to support patients with dementia.

Keywords: Dementia, patients, long term care, assistant robot

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4 Prevalence of Intestinal Parasite among Patients Attending Two Medical Centers in Jos

Authors: G. I. Ozumba, V. A. Pam, V. A. Adejoh, S. A. Odey


Intestinal parasitic infections are the most common parasitic infections of the man commonly resulting in morbidity and mortality in infected individuals. Two hundred (200) patients from two medical centers were randomly examined for intestinal parasites using normal saline wet mount and formol-ether concentration methods. One hundred patients each were examined from Plateau State Specialist Hospital (PSSH) and Vom Christian Hospital (VCH) respectively. Of the 100 patients examined at PSSH, (22.0%) tested positive for intestinal parasites, while only (6.0%) was reported for VCH. Ascaris lumbricoides and Taenia spp. were significantly (P value=0.0002726) the most prevalent intestinal parasites in PSSH with (31.8%) respectively. Balantidium coli and Entamoeba histolytica were the least prevalent at (4.5%) respectively. Hookworm (50.0%) was significantly (P<0.0001) the most prevalent intestinal parasite in VCH, followed by A. lumbricoides (33.3%), while Taenia spp. (16.7%) was the least. Female subjects 12(54.5%) were more infected than their male 10(45.4%) counterparts in PSSH. The difference (P value=0.3633) in the infection between female and male subjects at PSSH was not significant. Female subjects were significantly (P value=0.0008586) more infected 4(66.7%) than male subjects 2(33.3%) at VCH. The prevalence of intestinal parasite in relation to age in PSSH shows a significantly (P-value = 0.02573) high level among age group 11-20years 9(36.0%). On the contrary, the high prevalence of intestinal parasites among age groups 31-40 years 2(9.1%) at VCH was not significant (P value=0.1595). The result in relation to a water source in patients attending PSSH shows that the boreholes sources (66.7%) had a significantly (P<0.0001) high prevalence of intestinal parasites, while the least prevalence was observed in tap source (7.9%). Results from VCH shows that streams/rivers (16.7%) revealed high prevalence, while the tap source was least parasitized (10.0%). There was no significant difference (P value=0.436) in the prevalence of parasites in relation to the water source at VCH. This prevalence is directly related to the sanitary condition, socio-economic status, educational level, the age and hygienic habits of the patients. Thus, necessary sanitary policies, awareness, screening and de-worming exercises and occasional check of intestinal parasites are recommended.

Keywords: patients, Prevalence, intestinal parasites, Jos

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3 Results of an Educative Procedure by Nursing on Patients Subjected to a Transplant from Hematopoietic Parents

Authors: C. Catalina Zapata, Z. Claudia Montoya


Transplant from hematopoietic parents (THP) or medulla (MT) is a procedure used to replace the medulla that does not work as part of a disease or when it is destroyed either by a treatment of high medication doses against cancer or by radiation. The transplant process has three stages, a stage prior to transplant, during and after the transplant. It is held with the help of an interdisciplinary team, including nursing, carrying out mainly educative procedures to warrant the adhesion and the changes in lifestyles needed to whom will undergo this procedure. The aim of the study was to assess the results of an educative procedure by nursing, on adult patients subjected to a transplant from hematopoietic parents at a high complexity institution of Medellin city, Colombia. This study had an observational longitudinal design. According to the rules of protocol, the educative activity must be held on all patients joining the procedure. Four instruments were designed in order to collect all the information. One of them to measure the sociodemographic variables, another one to measure self-care practices, another one to measure transplant knowledge and its cares and the other one to measure the 30-day post-transplant complications. The last three instruments were applied before and after the educative procedure. A univaried analysis was carried out but the bivaried analysis was not carried out since there were not statistically meaningful differences before and after. Within the results, ten patients were evaluated. The average age was 38.2 (13.38 SD – standard deviation), 8/10 were men. Some self-care practices such us having pets and plants and consuming some specific food as well as little use of UV protection are all present in this type of patients and are not modified after the procedure. In measuring the knowledge, something stands out among the answers. It is the fact that some patients do not know what the medulla is, the nature of separating wastes at home and the need to consult about vomit and nausea. The most frequent complications during the first thirty days were: nausea, vomit, fever, and rash. They are considered to be expected within this period. Patients do not exhibit differences in their level of knowledge before and after the educative procedure by nursing. The patients’ self-care practices do not involve all the necessary ones to avoid complications. During the first 30 days, most of the complications are typical of the transplant process from hematopoietic parents.

Keywords: Education, Nursing, Family, patients, bone marrow transplant, Transplantation of hematopoietic progenitors

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2 Resolving Problems Experienced by Involving Patients in the Development of Pharmaceutical Products at Post-Launch Stage of Pharmaceutical Product Development

Authors: Clara T. Fatoye, April Betts, Abayomi Odeyemi, Francis A. Fatoye, Isaac O. Odeyemi


Background: The post-launch stage is the last stage in the development of a pharmaceutical product. It is important to involve patients in the development of pharmaceutical products at the post-launch stage, as patients are the end-users of pharmaceutical products. It is expected that involving them might ensure an effective working relationship among the various stakeholders. However, involving patients in the development of pharmaceutical products comes with its problems. Hence, this study examined how to resolve problems experienced by involving patients in the developments of pharmaceutical products’ at post-launch consisting of Positioning of pharmaceutical products (POPP), detailing of pharmaceutical products (DOPP) and reimbursement and Formulary Submission (R&FS). Methods: A questionnaire was used for the present study. It was administered at the ISPOR Glasgow 2017 to 104 participants, all of which were professionals from Market access (MA) and health economics and outcomes research (HEOR) backgrounds. They were asked how the issues experienced by patients can be resolved. Participants responded under six domains as follows: communication, cost, effectiveness, external factors, Quality of life (QoL) and safety. Thematic analysis was carried out to identify strategies to resolve issues experienced by patients at the post-launch stage. Results: Three (3) factors cut across at POPP, DOPP, and R&FS that is (external factors, communication and QoL). The first resolution method was an external factor that is, the relationship with stakeholders and policymakers. Communication was also identified as a resolution method that can help to resolve problems experienced by patients at the post-launch stage. The third method was QoL as perceived by the patients based on professionals’ opinions. Other strategies that could be used to resolve problems experienced were the effectiveness of pharmaceutical products at the DOPP level and cost at R&FS. Conclusion: The study showed that focusing on external factors, communication, and patients’ QoL are methods for resolving issues experienced by involving patients at the post-launch stage of pharmaceutical product development. Hence, effective working relationships between patients, policymakers and stakeholders may help to resolve problems experienced at the post-launch stage. Healthcare policymakers are to be aware of these findings as they may help them to put appropriate strategies in place to enhance the involvement of patients in pharmaceutical product development at the post-launch stage, thereby improving the health outcomes of the patients.

Keywords: Quality of Life, patients, QOL, pharmaceutical products, post-launch stage

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1 Microbial Contamination of Cell Phones of Health Care Workers: Case Study in Mampong Municipal Government Hospital, Ghana

Authors: Francis Gyapong, Denis Yar


The use of cell phones has become an indispensable tool in the hospital's settings. Cell phones are used in hospitals without restrictions regardless of their unknown microbial load. However, the indiscriminate use of mobile devices, especially at health facilities, can act as a vehicle for transmitting pathogenic bacteria and other microorganisms. These potential pathogens become exogenous sources of infection for the patients and are also a potential health hazard for self and as well as family members. These are a growing problem in many health care institutions. Innovations in mobile communication have led to better patient care in diabetes, asthma, and increased in vaccine uptake via SMS. Notwithstanding, the use of cell phones can be a great potential source for nosocomial infections. Many studies reported heavy microbial contamination of cell phones among healthcare workers and communities. However, limited studies have been reported in our region on bacterial contamination on cell phones among healthcare workers. This study assessed microbial contamination of cell phones of health care workers (HCWs) at the Mampong Municipal Government Hospital (MMGH), Ghana. A cross-sectional design was used to characterize bacterial microflora on cell phones of HCWs at the MMGH. A total of thirty-five (35) swab samples of cell phones of HCWs at the Laboratory, Dental Unit, Children’s Ward, Theater and Male ward were randomly collected for laboratory examinations. A suspension of the swab samples was each streak on blood and MacConkey agar and incubated at 37℃ for 48 hours. Bacterial isolates were identified using appropriate laboratory and biochemical tests. Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method was used to determine the antimicrobial sensitivity tests of the isolates. Data analysis was performed using SPSS version 16. All mobile phones sampled were contaminated with one or more bacterial isolates. Cell phones from the Male ward, Dental Unit, Laboratory, Theatre and Children’s ward had at least three different bacterial isolates; 85.7%, 71.4%, 57.1% and 28.6% for both Theater and Children’s ward respectively. Bacterial contaminants identified were Staphylococcus epidermidis (37%), Staphylococcus aureus (26%), E. coli (20%), Bacillus spp. (11%) and Klebsiella spp. (6 %). Except for the Children ward, E. coli was isolated at all study sites and predominant (42.9%) at the Dental Unit while Klebsiella spp. (28.6%) was only isolated at the Children’s ward. Antibiotic sensitivity testing of Staphylococcus aureus indicated that they were highly sensitive to cephalexin (89%) tetracycline (80%), gentamycin (75%), lincomycin (70%), ciprofloxacin (67%) and highly resistant to ampicillin (75%). Some of these bacteria isolated are potential pathogens and their presence on cell phones of HCWs could be transmitted to patients and their families. Hence strict hand washing before and after every contact with patient and phone be enforced to reduce the risk of nosocomial infections.

Keywords: patients, Mobile Phones, bacterial contamination, MMGH

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