Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 20

Patient Safety Related Abstracts

20 Patient Safety Culture in Brazilian Hospitals from Nurse's Team Perspective

Authors: Carmen Silvia Gabriel, Dsniele Bernardi da Costa, Andrea Bernardes, Sabrina Elias Mikael, Daniele da Silva Ramos


The goal of this quantitative study is to investigate patient safety culture from the perspective of professional from the hospital nursing team.It was conducted in two Brazilian hospitals,.The sample included 282 nurses Data collection occurred in 2013, through the questionnaire Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture.Based on the assessment of the dimensions is stressed that, in the dimension teamwork across hospital units, 69.4% of professionals agree that when a lot of work needs to be done quickly, they work together as a team; about the dimension supervisor/ manager expectations and actions promoting safety, 70.2% agree that their supervisor overlooks patient safety problems.Related to organizational learning and continuous improvement, 56.5% agree that there is evaluation of the effectiveness of the changes after its implementation.On hospital management support for patient safety, 52.8% refer that the actions of hospital management show that patient safety is a top priority.On the overall perception of patient safety, 57.2% disagree that patient safety is never compromised due to higher amount of work to be completed.In what refers to feedback and communication about error, 57.7% refer that always and usually receive such information. Relative to communication openness, 42.9% said they never or rarely feel free to question the decisions / actions of their superiors.On frequency of event reporting, 64.7% said often and always notify events with no damages to patients..About teamwork across hospital units is noted similarity between the percentages of agreement and disagreement, as on the item there is a good cooperation among hospital units that need to work together, that indicates 41.4% and 40.5% respectively.Related to adequacy of professionals, 77.8 % disagree on the existence of sufficient amount of employees to do the job, 52.4% agree that shift changes are problematic for patients. On nonpunitive response to errors, 71.7% indicate that when an event is reported it seems that the focus is on the person.On the patient safety grade of the institution, 41.6 % classified it as very good. it is concluded that there are positive points in the safety culture, and some weaknesses as a punitive culture and impaired patient safety due to work overload .

Keywords: Patient Safety, safety culture, quality of health care, health services evaluation, nursing team

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19 Evaluation of the Patient Identification Process in Healthcare Facilities in a Brazilian City Area

Authors: Carmen Silvia Gabriel, Maria de Fátima Paiva Brito, Mariane de Paula Candido, Vanessa Barato Oliveira


Patient identification is a necessary practice to ensure patient safety in any healthcare environment, including emergency care units, test laboratories, home care and clinics. The present study aimed to provide evidence that can effectively contribute to practices concerning patient identification. Its objective was to investigate patient identification in basic healthcare units through patient safety standards. To do so, a descriptive and non-experimental research outline study was carried out to inquire how patient identification takes place in a particular situation. All technical manager nurses from the chosen healthcare facilities were included in the sample for the study. Data was collected in September of 2014 after approval from the Committee of Ethics. All researched institutions fit the same profile: they’re public facilities for general care with observation beds. None of them has a wristband identification protocol or policy. Only one institution mentioned using some kind of visual identification; namely, body tags separated by colors according to the type of care, but it still does not apply the recommended tags by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. This study allowed the authors to acknowledge how important the commitment from the whole healthcare team in the patient identification process is and also acknowledge how necessary it is to implement institutional policies that may aid the healthcare units in this area to promote a quality and safe patient care.

Keywords: Identification, Nursing, Patient Safety, emergency care units

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18 A Look into Surgical Site Infections: Impact of Collective Interventions

Authors: Lisa Bennett, Cynthia Walters, Cynthia Argani, Andy Satin, Geeta Sood, Kerri Huber, Lisa Grubb, Woodrow Noble, Melissa Eichelberger, Darlene Zinalabedini, Eric Ausby, Jeffrey Snyder, Kevin Kirchoff


Background: Surgical site infections (SSIs) within the obstetric population pose a variety of complications, creating clinical and personal challenges for the new mother and her neonate during the postpartum period. Our journey to achieve compliance with the SSI core measure for cesarean sections revealed many opportunities to improve these outcomes. Objective: Achieve and sustain core measure compliance keeping surgical site infection rates below the national benchmark pooled mean of 1.8% in post-operative patients, who delivered via cesarean section at the Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center. Methods: A root cause analysis was performed and revealed several environmental, pharmacologic, and clinical practice opportunities for improvement. A multidisciplinary approach led by the OB Safety Nurse, OB Medical Director, and Infectious Disease Department resulted in the implementation of fourteen interventions over a twenty-month period. Interventions included: post-operative dressing changes, standardizing operating room attire, broadening pre-operative antibiotics, initiating vaginal preps, improving operating room terminal cleaning, testing air quality, and re-educating scrub technicians on technique. Results: Prior to the implementation of our interventions, the SSI quarterly rate in Obstetrics peaked at 6.10%. Although no single intervention resulted in dramatic improvement, after implementation of all fourteen interventions, the quarterly SSI rate has subsequently ranged from to 0.0% to 2.70%. Significance: Taking an introspective look at current practices can reveal opportunities for improvement which previously were not considered. Collectively the benefit of these interventions has shown a significant decrease in surgical site infection rates. The impact of this quality improvement project highlights the synergy created when members of the multidisciplinary team work in collaboration to improve patient safety, and achieve a high quality of care.

Keywords: Patient Safety, Quality improvement, cesarean section, surgical site infection, collaboration and teamwork

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17 The Nursing Rounds System: Effect of Patient's Call Light Use, Bed Sores, Fall and Satisfaction Level

Authors: Bassem Saleh, Hussam Nusair, Nariman Al Zubadi, Shams Al Shloul, Usama Saleh


The nursing round system (NRS) means checking patients on an hourly basis during the A (0700–2200 h) shift and once every 2 h during the B (2200–0700 h) by the assigned nursing staff. The overall goal of this prospective study is to implement an NRS in a major rehabilitation centre—Sultan Bin Abdulaziz Humanitarian City—in the Riyadh area of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The purposes of this study are to measure the effect of the NRS on: (i) the use of patient call light; (ii) the number of incidences of patients’ fall; (iii) the number of incidences of hospital-acquired bed sores; and (iv) the level of patients’ satisfaction. All patients hospitalized in the male stroke unit will be involved in this study. For the period of 8 weeks (17 December 2009–17 February 2010) All Nursing staff on the unit will record each call light and the patient’s need. Implementation of the NRS would start on 18 February 2010 and last for 8 weeks, until 18 April 2010. Data collected throughout this period will be compared with data collected during the 8 weeks period immediately preceding the implementation of the NRS (17 December 2009–17 February 2010) in order to measure the impact of the call light use. The following information were collected on all subjects involved in the study: (i) the Demographic Information Form; (ii) authors’ developed NRS Audit Form; (iii) Patient Call Light Audit Form; (iv) Patient Fall Audit Record; (v) Hospital-Acquired Bed Sores Audit Form; and (vi) hospital developed Patient Satisfaction Records. The findings suggested that a significant reduction on the use of call bell (P < 0.001), a significant reduction of fall incidence (P < 0.01) while pressure ulcer reduced by 50% before and after the implementation of NRS. In addition, the implementation of NRS increased patient satisfaction by 7/5 (P < 0.05).

Keywords: Patient Safety, patient satisfaction, call light, patient-care management, rounds

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16 Comparative Study on the Evaluation of Patient Safety in Malaysian Retail Pharmacy Setup

Authors: Palanisamy Sivanandy, Tan Tyng Wei, Tan Wee Loon, Lim Chong Yee


Background: Patient safety has become a major concern over recent years with elevated medication errors; particularly prescribing and dispensing errors. Meticulous prescription screening and diligent drug dispensing is therefore important to prevent drug-related adverse events from inflicting harm to patients. Hence, pharmacists play a significant role in this scenario. The evaluation of patient safety in a pharmacy setup is crucial to contemplate current practices, attitude and perception of pharmacists towards patient safety. Method: The questionnaire for Pharmacy Survey on Patient Safety Culture developed by the Agency for Healthcare and Research Quality (AHRQ) was used to assess patient safety. Main objectives of the study was to evaluate the attitude and perception of pharmacists towards patient safety in retail pharmacies setup in Malaysia. Results: 417 questionnaire were distributed via convenience sampling in three different states of Malaysia, where 390 participants were responded and the response rate was 93.52%. The overall positive response rate (PRR) was ranged from 31.20% to 87.43% and the average PRR was found to be 67%. The overall patient safety grade for our pharmacies was appreciable and it ranges from good to very good. The study found a significant difference in the perception of senior and junior pharmacists towards patient safety. The internal consistency of the questionnaire contents /dimensions was satisfactory (Cronbach’s alpha - 0.92). Conclusion: Our results reflect that there was positive attitude and perception of retail pharmacists towards patient safety. Despite this, various efforts can be implemented in the future to amplify patient safety in retail pharmacies setup.

Keywords: Perception, Patient Safety, Medication Errors, attitude, positive response rate

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15 Patient Care Needs Assessment: An Evidence-Based Process to Inform Quality Care and Decision Making

Authors: Wynne De Jong, Robert Miller, Ross Riggs


Beyond the number of nurses providing care for patients, having nurses with the right skills, experience and education is essential to ensure the best possible outcomes for patients. Research studies continue to link nurse staffing and skill mix with nurse-sensitive patient outcomes; numerous studies clearly show that superior patient outcomes are associated with higher levels of regulated staff. Due to the limited number of tools and processes available to assist nurse leaders with staffing models of care, nurse leaders are constantly faced with the ongoing challenge to ensure their staffing models of care best suit their patient population. In 2009, several hospitals in Ontario, Canada participated in a research study to develop and evaluate an RN/RPN utilization toolkit. The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a toolkit for Registered Nurses/Registered Practical Nurses Staff mix decision-making based on the College of Nurses of Ontario, Canada practice standards for the utilization of RNs and RPNs. This paper will highlight how an organization has further developed the Patient Care Needs Assessment (PCNA) questionnaire, a major component of the toolkit. Moreover, it will demonstrate how it has utilized the information from PCNA to clearly identify patient and family care needs, thus providing evidence-based results to assist leaders with matching the best staffing skill mix to their patients.

Keywords: Patient Safety, nurse staffing models of care, skill mix, nursing health human resources

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14 Pill-Box Dispenser as a Strategy for Therapeutic Management: A Qualitative Evaluation

Authors: Bruno R. Mendes, Francisco J. Caldeira, Rita S. Luís


Population ageing is directly correlated to an increase in medicine consumption. Beyond the latter and the polymedicated profile of elderly, it is possible to see a need for pharmacotherapeutic monitoring due to cognitive and physical impairment. In this sense, the tracking, organization and administration of medicines become a daily challenge and the pill-box dispenser system a solution. The pill-box dispenser (system) consists in a small compartmentalized container to unit dose organization, which means a container able to correlate the patient’s prescribed dose regimen and the time schedule of intake. In many European countries, this system is part of pharmacist’s role in clinical pharmacy. Despite this simple solution, therapy compliance is only possible if the patient adheres to the system, so it is important to establish a qualitative and quantitative analysis on the perception of the patient on the benefits and risks of the pill-box dispenser as well as the identification of the ideal system. The analysis was conducted through an observational study, based on the application of a standardized questionnaire structured with the numerical scale of Likert (5 levels) and previously validated on the population. The study was performed during a limited period of time and under a randomized sample of 188 participants. The questionnaire consisted of 22 questions: 6 background measures and 16 specific measures. The standards for the final comparative analysis were obtained through the state-of-the-art on the subject. The study carried out using the Likert scale afforded a degree of agreement and discordance between measures (Sample vs. Standard) of 56,25% and 43,75%, respectively. It was concluded that the pill-box dispenser has greater acceptance among a younger population, that was not the initial target of the system. However, this allows us to guarantee a high adherence in the future. Additionally, it was noted that the cost associated with this service is not a limiting factor for its use. The pill-box dispenser system, as currently implemented, demonstrates an important weakness regarding the quality and effectiveness of the medicines, which is not understood by the patient, revealing a significant lack of literacy when it concerns with medicine area. The characteristics of an ideal system remain unchanged, which means that the size, appearance and availability of information in the pill-box continue to be indispensable elements for the compliance with the system. The pill-box dispenser remains unsuitable regarding container size and the type of treatment to which it applies. Despite that, it might be a future standard for clinical pharmacy, allowing a differentiation of the pharmacist role, as well as a wider range of applications to other age groups and treatments.

Keywords: Patient Safety, Clinical Pharmacy, Medicines, pill-box dispenser

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13 Finding the Association Rule between Nursing Interventions and Early Evaluation Results of In-Hospital Cardiac Arrest to Improve Patient Safety

Authors: Wei-Chih Huang, Pei-Lung Chung, Ching-Heng Lin, Hsuan-Chia Yang, Der-Ming Liou


Background: In-Hospital Cardiac Arrest (IHCA) threaten life of the inpatients, cause serious effect to patient safety, quality of inpatients care and hospital service. Health providers must identify the signs of IHCA early to avoid the occurrence of IHCA. This study will consider the potential association between early signs of IHCA and the essence of patient care provided by nurses and other professionals before an IHCA occurs. The aim of this study is to identify significant associations between nursing interventions and abnormal early evaluation results of IHCA that can assist health care providers in monitoring inpatients at risk of IHCA to increase opportunities of IHCA early detection and prevention. Materials and Methods: This study used one of the data mining techniques called association rules mining to compute associations between nursing interventions and abnormal early evaluation results of IHCA. The nursing interventions and abnormal early evaluation results of IHCA were considered to be co-occurring if nursing interventions were provided within 24 hours of last being observed in abnormal early evaluation results of IHCA. The rule based methods were utilized 23.6 million electronic medical records (EMR) from a medical center in Taipei, Taiwan. This dataset includes 733 concepts of nursing interventions that coded by clinical care classification (CCC) codes and 13 early evaluation results of IHCA with binary codes. The values of interestingness and lift were computed as Q values to measure the co-occurrence and associations’ strength between all in-hospital patient care measures and abnormal early evaluation results of IHCA. The associations were evaluated by comparing the results of Q values and verified by medical experts. Results and Conclusions: The results show that there are 4195 pairs of associations between nursing interventions and abnormal early evaluation results of IHCA with their Q values. The indication of positive association is 203 pairs with Q values greater than 5. Inpatients with high blood sugar level (hyperglycemia) have positive association with having heart rate lower than 50 beats per minute or higher than 120 beats per minute, Q value is 6.636. Inpatients with temporary pacemaker (TPM) have significant association with high risk of IHCA, Q value is 47.403. There is significant positive correlation between inpatients with hypovolemia and happened abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias), Q value is 127.49. The results of this study can help to prevent IHCA from occurring by making health care providers early recognition of inpatients at risk of IHCA, assist with monitoring patients for providing quality of care to patients, improve IHCA surveillance and quality of in-hospital care.

Keywords: Patient Safety, association rule mining, in-hospital cardiac arrest, nursing intervention

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12 Assessment of Intern Students' Attitudes towards Medical Errors

Authors: Nilgün Katrancı, Pınar Göv


With the acceleration and assessment of quality and patient safety works in healthcare services in the 21st century, activities to reduce errors have gained importance. The prevention and reduction of unintended consequences related to healthcare services and errors made during the delivery of healthcare services can be achieved by understanding the causes of the errors. Communication is the basic reason most frequently seen in such cases. Nurses who communicate with patients more closely and for longer time play a more critical role in ensuring patient safety compared to other healthcare professionals. To reduce the risk of medical errors and increase the quality of care, it is important to raise the awareness of nurses about patient safety in training period. This descriptive study was conducted between February 2017 and May 2017 to assess intern students' attitudes towards and knowledge of patient safety and medical errors. The target population of the study consists of intern students at the Faculty of Nursing in Gaziantep University (N=180). The study did not apply any sample selection method, and the research group consisted of 90 female and 37 male senior students who were available and accepted to take part in the study (N=127). The study used personal information form and medical error attitude scale to collect data. The medical error attitude scale consists of 16 items and 3 sub-dimensions. The most frequently seen medical error in the clinics the interns worked at was found as ‘Failure to comply with asepsis rules’ with a rate of 67,7%. The most frequent case among reasons for not disclosing an error is ‘noticing and correcting the error before affecting the patient’ with the rate of 70,9%. The most frequently expressed implications of disclosing a serious error for the intern students participating in the study are ‘harming patient trust (78%)’ and ‘possibility of overreaction by patient (62,2%)’. According to the results of the study, the awareness of the students about the importance of medical errors and error reporting was found high (3,48 ± 0,49). Consequently, it is important to assess and positively improve the attitudes of nurses and other healthcare professionals towards medical errors for the determination of causes of medical errors and their prevention.

Keywords: Patient Safety, healthcare service, intern student, medical error

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11 Developing Medical Leaders: A Realistic Evaluation Study for Improving Patient Safety and Maximising Medical Engagement

Authors: Lisa Fox, Jill Aylott


There is a global need to identify ways to engage doctors in non-clinical matters such as medical leadership, service improvement and health system transformation. Using the core principles of Realistic Evaluation (RE), this study examined what works, for doctors of different grades, specialities and experience in an acute NHS Hospital Trust in the UK. Realistic Evaluation is an alternative to more traditional cause and effect evaluation models and seeks to understand the interdependencies of Context, Mechanism and Outcome proposing that Context (C) + Mechanism (M) = Outcome (O). In this study, the context, mechanism and outcome were examined from within individual medical leaders to determine what enables levels of medical engagement in a specific improvement project to reduce hospital inpatient mortality. Five qualitative case studies were undertaken with consultants who had regularly completed mortality reviews over a six month period. The case studies involved semi-structured interviews to test the theory behind the drivers for medical engagement. The interviews were analysed using a theory-driven thematic analysis to identify CMO configurations to explain what works, for whom and in what circumstances. The findings showed that consultants with a longer length of service became more engaged if there were opportunities to be involved in the beginning of an improvement project, with more opportunities to affect the design. Those that are new to a consultant role were more engaged if they felt able to apply any learning directly into their own settings or if they could use it as an opportunity to understand more about the organisation they are working in. This study concludes that RE is a useful methodology for better understanding the complexities of motivation and consultant engagement in a trust wide service improvement project. The study showed that there should be differentiated and bespoke training programmes to maximise each individual doctor’s propensity for medical engagement. The RE identified that there are different ways to ensure that doctors have the right skills to feel confident in service improvement projects.

Keywords: Patient Safety, Medical Leadership, Service Improvement, realistic evaluation, medical engagement

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10 WHO Surgical Safety Checklist in a Rural Ugandan Hospital, Barriers and Drivers to Implementation

Authors: Lucie Litvack, Malaz Elsaddig, Kevin Jones


There is strong evidence to support the efficacy of the World Health Organization (WHO) Surgical Safety Checklist in improving patient safety; however, its use can be associated with difficulties. This study uses qualitative data collected in Kitovu Healthcare Complex, a rural Ugandan hospital, to identify factors that may influence the use of the checklist in a low-income setting. Potential barriers to and motivators for the hospital’s use of this checklist are identified and explored through observations of current patient safety practices; semi-structured interviews with theatre staff; a focus group with doctors; and trial implementation of the checklist. Barriers identified include the institutional context; knowledge and understanding; patient safety culture; resources and checklist contents. Motivators for correct use include prior knowledge; team attitudes; and a hospital advocate. Challenges are complex and unique to this socioeconomic context. Stepwise change to improve patient safety practices, local champions, whole team training, and checklist modification may assist the implementation and sustainable use of the checklist in an effective way.

Keywords: Patient Safety, Anaesthesia, Uganda, WHO surgical safety checklist

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9 Effect of Smartphone Applications on Patients' Knowledge of Surgery-Related Adverse Events during Hospitalization

Authors: Eunjoo Lee


Background: As the number of surgeries increases, the incidence of adverse events is likely to become more prevalent. Patients who are somewhat knowledgeable about surgery-related adverse events are more likely to engage in safety initiatives to prevent them. Objectives: To evaluate the impact of a smartphone application developed during the study to enhance patients’ knowledge of surgery-related adverse events during hospitalization. Design: Non-randomized, one group, measured pre- and post-intervention. Participants: Thirty-six hospitalized patients admitted to the orthopedics unit of a general hospital in South Korea. Methods. First, a smartphone application to enhance patients’ knowledge of surgery-related adverse events was developed through an iterative process, which included a literature review, expert consultation, and pilot testing. The application was installed on participants’ smartphones, and research assistants taught the participants to use it. Twenty-five true/false questions were used to assess patients’ knowledge of preoperative precautions (eight items), surgical site infection (five items), Foley catheter management (four items), drainage management (four items), and anesthesia-related complications (four items). Results: Overall, the percentage of correct answers increased significantly, from 57.02% to 73.82%, although answers related to a few specific topics did not increase that much. Although the patients’ understanding of drainage management and the Foley catheter did increase substantially after they used the smartphone application, it was still relatively low. Conclusions: The smartphone application developed during this study enhanced the patients’ knowledge of surgery-related adverse events during hospitalization. However, nurses must make an additional effort to help patients to understand certain topics, including drainage and Foley catheter management. Relevance to clinical practice: Insufficient patient knowledge increases the risk of adverse events during hospitalization. Nurses should take active steps to enhance patients’ knowledge of a range of safety issues during hospitalization, in order to decrease the number of surgery-related adverse events.

Keywords: Patient Safety, Patient Education, Patient participation, smartphone application, surgical errors

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8 Applying Simulation-Based Digital Teaching Plans and Designs in Operating Medical Equipment

Authors: Kuo-Kai Lin, Po-Lun Chang


Background: The Emergency Care Research Institute released a list for the top 10 medical technology hazards in 2017, with the following hazard topping the list: ‘infusion errors can be deadly if simple safety steps are overlooked.’ In addition, hospitals use various assessment items to evaluate the safety of their medical equipment, confirming the importance of medical equipment safety. In recent years, the topic of patient safety has garnered increasing attention. Accordingly, various agencies have established patient safety-related committees to coordinate, collect, and analyze information regarding abnormal events associated with medical practice. Activities to promote and improve employee training have been introduced to diminish the recurrence of medical malpractice. Objective: To allow nursing personnel to acquire the skills needed to operate common medical equipment and update and review such skills whenever necessary to elevate medical care quality and reduce patient injuries caused by medical equipment operation errors. Method: In this study, a quasi-experimental design was adopted and nurses from a regional teaching hospital were selected as the study sample. Online videos instructing the operation method of common medical equipment were made and quick response codes were designed for the nursing personnel to quickly access the videos when necessary. Senior nursing supervisors and equipment experts were invited to formulate a ‘Scale-based Questionnaire for Assessing Nursing Personnel’s Operational Knowledge of Common Medical Equipment’ to evaluate the nursing personnel’s literacy regarding the operation of the medical equipment. From March to October 2017, an employee training on medical equipment operation and a practice course (simulation course) were implemented, after which the effectiveness of the training and practice course were assessed. Results: Prior to and after the training and practice course, the 66 participating nurses scored 58 and 87 on ‘operational knowledge of common medical equipment,’ respectively (showing a significant statistical difference; t = -9.407, p < .001); 53.5 and 86.3 on ‘operational knowledge of 12-lead electrocardiography’ (z = -2.087, p < .01), respectively; 40 and 79.5 on ‘operational knowledge of cardiac defibrillators’ (z = -3.849, p < .001), respectively; 90 and 98 on ‘operational knowledge of Abbott pumps’ (z = -1.841, p = 0.066), respectively; and 8.7 and 13.7 on ‘perceived competence’ (showing a significant statistical difference; t = -2.77, p < .05). In the participating hospital, medical equipment operation errors were observed in both 2016 and 2017. However, since the implementation of the intervention, medical equipment operation errors have not yet been observed up to October 2017, which can be regarded as the secondary outcome of this study. Conclusion: In this study, innovative teaching strategies were adopted to effectively enhance the professional literacy and skills of nursing personnel in operating medical equipment. The training and practice course also elevated the nursing personnel’s related literacy and perceived competence of operating medical equipment. The nursing personnel was thus able to accurately operate the medical equipment and avoid operational errors that might jeopardize patient safety.

Keywords: Patient Safety, medical equipment, digital teaching plan, simulation-based teaching plan, operational knowledge

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7 Interdisciplinary Teaching for Nursing Students: A Key to Understanding Teamwork

Authors: Ilana Margalith, Yaron Niv


One of the most important factors of professional health treatment is teamwork, in which each discipline contributes its expert knowledge, thus ensuring quality and a high standard of care as well as efficient communication (one of the International Patient Safety Goals). However, in most countries, students are educated separately by each health discipline. They are exposed to teamwork only during their clinical experience, which in some cases is short and skill-oriented. In addition, health organizations in most countries are hierarchical and although changes have occurred in the hierarchy of the medical system, there are still disciplines that underrate the unique contributions of other health professionals, thus, young graduates of health professions develop and base their perception of their peers from other disciplines on insufficient knowledge. In order to establish a wide-ranging perception among nursing students as to the contribution of different health professionals to the health of their patients, students at the Clalit Nursing Academy, Rabin Campus (Dina), Israel, participated in an interdisciplinary clinical discussion with students from several different professions, other than nursing, who were completing their clinical experience at Rabin Medical Center in medicine, health psychology, social work, audiology, physiotherapy and occupational therapy. The discussion was led by a medical-surgical nursing instructor. Their tutors received in advance, a case report enabling them to prepare the students as to how to present their professional theories and interventions regarding the case. Mutual stimulation and acknowledgment of the unique contribution of each part of the team enriched the nursing students' understanding as to how their own nursing interventions could be integrated into the entire process towards a safe and speedy recovery of the patient.

Keywords: Patient Safety, Nursing Education, health professions' students, interdisciplinary clinical discussion

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6 Making the Right Call for Falls: Evaluating the Efficacy of a Multi-Faceted Trust Wide Approach to Improving Patient Safety Post Falls

Authors: Jawaad Saleem, Hannah Wright, Peter Sommerville, Adrian Hopper


Introduction: Inpatient falls are the most commonly reported patient safety incidents, and carry a significant burden on resources, morbidity, and mortality. Ensuring adequate post falls management of patients by staff is therefore paramount to maintaining patient safety especially in out of hours and resource stretched settings. Aims: This quality improvement project aims to improve the current practice of falls management at Guys St Thomas Hospital, London as compared to our 2016 Quality Improvement Project findings. Furthermore, it looks to increase current junior doctors confidence in managing falls and their use of new guidance protocols. Methods: Multifaceted Interventions implemented included: the development of new trust wide guidelines detailing management pathways for patients post falls, available for intranet access. Furthermore, the production of 2000 lanyard cards distributed amongst junior doctors and staff which summarised these guidelines. Additionally, a ‘safety signal’ email was sent from the Trust chief medical officer to all staff raising awareness of falls and the guidelines. Formal falls teaching was also implemented for new doctors at induction. Using an established incident database, 189 consecutive falls in 2017were retrospectively analysed electronically to assess and compared to the variables measured in 2016 post interventions. A separate serious incident database was used to analyse 50 falls from May 2015 to March 2018 to ascertain the statistical significance of the impact of our interventions on serious incidents. A similar questionnaire for the 2017 cohort of foundation year one (FY1) doctors was performed and compared to 2016 results. Results: Questionnaire data demonstrated improved awareness and utility of guidelines and increased confidence as well as an increase in training. 97% of FY1 trainees felt that the interventions had increased their awareness of the impact of falls on patients in the trust. Data from the incident database demonstrated the time to review patients post fall had decreased from an average of 130 to 86 minutes. Improvement was also demonstrated in the reduced time to order and schedule X-ray and CT imaging, 3 and 5 hours respectively. Data from the serious incident database show that ‘the time from fall until harm was detected’ was statistically significantly lower (P = 0.044) post intervention. We also showed the incidence of significant delays in detecting harm ( > 10 hours) reduced post intervention. Conclusions: Our interventions have helped to significantly reduce the average time to assess, order and schedule appropriate imaging post falls. Delays of over ten hours to detect serious injuries after falls were commonplace; since the intervention, their frequency has markedly reduced. We suggest this will lead to identifying patient harm sooner, reduced clinical incidents relating to falls and thus improve overall patient safety. Our interventions have also helped increase clinical staff confidence, management, and awareness of falls in the trust. Next steps include expanding teaching sessions, improving multidisciplinary team involvement to aid this improvement.

Keywords: Patient Safety, Falls, Clinical care, Quality improvement, serious incidents

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5 Applying the Global Trigger Tool in German Hospitals: A Retrospective Study in Surgery and Neurosurgery

Authors: Mareen Brosterhaus, Antje Hammer, Steffen Kalina, Stefan Grau, Anjali A. Roeth, Hany Ashmawy, Thomas Gross, Marcel Binnebosel, Wolfram T. Knoefel, Tanja Manser


Background: The identification of critical incidents in hospitals is an essential component of improving patient safety. To date, various methods have been used to measure and characterize such critical incidents. These methods are often viewed by physicians and nurses as external quality assurance, and this creates obstacles to the reporting events and the implementation of recommendations in practice. One way to overcome this problem is to use tools that directly involve staff in measuring indicators of quality and safety of care in the department. One such instrument is the global trigger tool (GTT), which helps physicians and nurses identify adverse events by systematically reviewing randomly selected patient records. Based on so-called ‘triggers’ (warning signals), indications of adverse events can be given. While the tool is already used internationally, its implementation in German hospitals has been very limited. Objectives: This study aimed to assess the feasibility and potential of the global trigger tool for identifying adverse events in German hospitals. Methods: A total of 120 patient records were randomly selected from two surgical, and one neurosurgery, departments of three university hospitals in Germany over a period of two months per department between January and July, 2017. The records were reviewed using an adaptation of the German version of the Institute for Healthcare Improvement Global Trigger Tool to identify triggers and adverse event rates per 1000 patient days and per 100 admissions. The severity of adverse events was classified using the National Coordinating Council for Medication Error Reporting and Prevention. Results: A total of 53 adverse events were detected in the three departments. This corresponded to adverse event rates of 25.5-72.1 per 1000 patient-days and from 25.0 to 60.0 per 100 admissions across the three departments. 98.1% of identified adverse events were associated with non-permanent harm without (Category E–71.7%) or with (Category F–26.4%) the need for prolonged hospitalization. One adverse event (1.9%) was associated with potentially permanent harm to the patient. We also identified practical challenges in the implementation of the tool, such as the need for adaptation of the global trigger tool to the respective department. Conclusions: The global trigger tool is feasible and an effective instrument for quality measurement when adapted to the departmental specifics. Based on our experience, we recommend a continuous use of the tool thereby directly involving clinicians in quality improvement.

Keywords: Patient Safety, adverse events, global trigger tool, record review

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4 Getting It Right Before Implementation: Using Simulation to Optimize Recommendations and Interventions After Adverse Event Review

Authors: Melissa Langevin, Natalie Ward, Colleen Fitzgibbons, Christa Ramsey, Melanie Hogue, Anna Theresa Lobos


Description: Root Cause Analysis (RCA) is used by health care teams to examine adverse events (AEs) to identify causes which then leads to recommendations for prevention Despite widespread use, RCA has limitations. Best practices have not been established for implementing recommendations or tracking the impact of interventions after AEs. During phase 1 of this study, we used simulation to analyze two fictionalized AEs that occurred in hospitalized paediatric patients to identify and understand how the errors occurred and generated recommendations to mitigate and prevent recurrences. Scenario A involved an error of commission (inpatient drug error), and Scenario B involved detecting an error that already occurred (critical care drug infusion error). Recommendations generated were: improved drug labeling, specialized drug kids, alert signs and clinical checklists. Aim: Use simulation to optimize interventions recommended post critical event analysis prior to implementation in the clinical environment. Methods: Suggested interventions from Phase 1 were designed and tested through scenario simulation in the clinical environment (medicine ward or pediatric intensive care unit). Each scenario was simulated 8 times. Recommendations were tested using different, voluntary teams and each scenario was debriefed to understand why the error was repeated despite interventions and how interventions could be improved. Interventions were modified with subsequent simulations until recommendations were felt to have an optimal effect and data saturation was achieved. Along with concrete suggestions for design and process change, qualitative data pertaining to employee communication and hospital standard work was collected and analyzed. Results: Each scenario had a total of three interventions to test. In, scenario 1, the error was reproduced in the initial two iterations and mitigated following key intervention changes. In scenario 2, the error was identified immediately in all cases where the intervention checklist was utilized properly. Independently of intervention changes and improvements, the simulation was beneficial to identify which of these should be prioritized for implementation and highlighted that even the potential solutions most frequently suggested by participants did not always translate into error prevention in the clinical environment. Conclusion: We conclude that interventions that help to change process (epinephrine kit or mandatory checklist) were more successful at preventing errors than passive interventions (signage, change in memory aids). Given that even the most successful interventions needed modifications and subsequent re-testing, simulation is key to optimizing suggested changes. Simulation is a safe, practice changing modality for institutions to use prior to implementing recommendations from RCA following AE reviews.

Keywords: Simulation, Pediatrics, Patient Safety, Root Cause Analysis, adverse events

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3 Lessons Learnt from a Patient with Pseudohyperkalaemia Secondary to Polycythaemia Rubra Vera in a Neuro-ICU Patient Resulting in Dangerous Interventions: Lessons Learnt on Patient Safety Improvement

Authors: Dinoo Kirthinanda, Sujani Wijeratne


Pseudohyperkalaemia is a common benign in vitro phenomenon caused by the release of potassium ions (K+) from cells during specimen processing. Analysis of haemolysed blood samples for predominantly intracellular electrolytes may lead to re-investigation and potentially harmful interventions. We report a case of a 52-year male with myeloproliferative disease manifested as Polycythaemia Rubra Vera, Hypertension and hypertensive nephropathy with stage 3 chronic kidney disease admitted to Neuro-intensive care unit (NICU) with an intra-cerebral haemorrhage secondary to hypertensive bleed. His initial blood investigations showed hyperkalemia with serum K+ 6.2 mmol/L yet the bedside arterial blood gas analysis yielded K+ of 4.6 mmol/L. The patient was however given hyperkalemia regime twice based on venous electrolyte analysis. The discrepancy between the bedside electrolyte analysis using arterial blood and venous blood prompted further evaluation. The 12 lead Electrocardiogram showed U waves and sinus bradycardia corresponding to the serum K+ of 2.8 mmol/L on arterial blood gas analysis. Immediate K+ replacement ensured the patient did not develop life-threatening cardiac complications. Pseudohyperkalaemia may pose diagnostic challenges in the absence of detectable haemolysis and should be suspected in susceptible patients with normal Electrocardiogram and Glomerular Filtration Rate to avoid potentially life-threatening interventions. When in doubt, rapid analysis of arterial blood gas may be useful for accurate quantification of potassium.

Keywords: Patient Safety, pseudohyperkalaemia, haemolysis, myeloproliferative disorder

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2 Medical Workforce Knowledge of Adrenaline (Epinephrine) Administration in Anaphylaxis in Adults Considerably Improved with Training in an UK Hospital from 2010 to 2017

Authors: Jan C. Droste, Justine Burns, Nithin Narayan


Introduction: Life-threatening detrimental effects of inappropriate adrenaline (epinephrine) administration, e.g., by giving the wrong dose, in the context of anaphylaxis management is well documented in the medical literature. Half of the fatal anaphylactic reactions in the UK are iatrogenic, and the median time to a cardio-respiratory arrest can be as short as 5 minutes. It is therefore imperative that hospital doctors of all grades have active and accurate knowledge of the correct route, site, and dosage of administration of adrenaline. Given this time constraint and the potential fatal outcome with inappropriate management of anaphylaxis, it is alarming that surveys over the last 15 years have repeatedly shown only a minority of doctors to have accurate knowledge of adrenaline administration as recommended by the UK Resuscitation Council guidelines (2008 updated 2012). This comparison of survey results of the medical workforce over several years in a small NHS District General Hospital was conducted in order to establish the effect of the employment of multiple educational methods regarding adrenaline administration in anaphylaxis in adults. Methods: Between 2010 and 2017, several education methods and tools were used to repeatedly inform the medical workforce (doctors and advanced clinical practitioners) in a single district general hospital regarding the treatment of anaphylaxis in adults. Whilst the senior staff remained largely the same cohort, junior staff had changed fully in every survey. Examples included: (i) Formal teaching -in Grand Rounds; during the junior doctors’ induction process; advanced life support courses (ii) In-situ simulation training performed by the clinical skills simulation team –several ad hoc sessions and one 3-day event in 2017 visiting 16 separate clinical areas performing an acute anaphylaxis scenario using actors- around 100 individuals from multi-disciplinary teams were involved (iii) Hospital-wide distribution of the simulation event via the Trust’s Simulation Newsletter (iv) Laminated algorithms were attached to the 'crash trolleys' (v) A short email 'alert' was sent to all medical staff 3 weeks prior to the survey detailing the emergency treatment of anaphylaxis (vi) In addition, the performance of the surveys themselves represented a teaching opportunity when gaps in knowledge could be addressed. Face to face surveys were carried out in 2010 ('pre-intervention), 2015, and 2017, in the latter two occasions including advanced clinical practitioners (ACP). All surveys consisted of convenience samples. If verbal consent to conduct the survey was obtained, the medical practitioners' answers were recorded immediately on a data collection sheet. Results: There was a sustained improvement in the knowledge of the medical workforce from 2010 to 2017: Answers improved regarding correct drug by 11% (84%, 95%, and 95%); the correct route by 20% (76%, 90%, and 96%); correct site by 40% (43%, 83%, and 83%) and the correct dose by 45% (27%, 54%, and 72%). Overall, knowledge of all components -correct drug, route, site, and dose-improved from 13% in 2010 to 62% in 2017. Conclusion: This survey comparison shows knowledge of the medical workforce regarding adrenaline administration for treatment of anaphylaxis in adults can be considerably improved by employing a variety of educational methods.

Keywords: Patient Safety, Medical Education, anaphylaxis, Epinephrine, adrenaline

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1 The Safe Introduction of Tocilizumab for the Treatment of SARS-CoV-2 Pneumonia at an East London District General Hospital

Authors: Andrew Read, Alice Parry, Kate Woods


Since the advent of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, the search for medications that can reduce mortality and morbidity has been a global research priority. Several multi-center trials have recently demonstrated improved mortality associated with the use of Tocilizumab, an interleukin-6 receptor antagonist, in patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. Initial data supported the administration in patients requiring respiratory support (non-invasive or invasive ventilation), but more recent data has shown benefit in all hypoxic patients. At the height of the second wave of COVID-19 infections in London, our hospital introduced the use of Tocilizumab for patients with severe COVID-19. Tocilizumab is licensed for use in chronic inflammatory conditions and has been associated with an increased risk of severe bacterial and fungal infections, as well as reactivation of chronic viral infections (e.g., hepatitis B). It is a specialist drug that suppresses the formation of C-reactive protein (CRP) for 6 – 12 weeks. It is not widely used by the general medical community. We aimed to assess Tocilizumab use in our hospital and to implement changes to the protocol as required to ensure administration was safe and appropriate. A retrospective study design was used to assess prescriptions over an initial 3-week period in both intensive care and on the medical wards. This amounted to a total of 13 patients. The initial data collection identified four key areas of concern: adherence to national and local inclusion & exclusion criteria; a collection of appropriate screening blood prior to administration; documentation of informed consent or best interest decision and documentation of Tocilizumab administration on patient discharge information, to alert future healthcare providers that typical measures of inflammation and infection, such as CRP, are unreliable for up to 3-months. Data were collected from electronic notes, blood results and observation charts, and cross referenced with pharmacy data. Initial results showed that all four key areas were completed in approximately 50% of cases. Of particular concern was adherence to exclusion criteria, such as current evidence of bacterial infection, and ensuring the correct screening blood was sent to exclude infections such as hepatitis. To remedy this and improve patient safety, the initial data was presented to relevant healthcare professionals. Subsequently, three interventions were introduced and education on each provided to hospital staff. An electronic ‘order set’ collating the appropriate screening blood was created simplifying the screening process. Pre-formed electronic documentation which can be inserted into the notes was created to provide a framework for consent discussions and reduce the time needed for junior doctors to complete this task. Additionally, a ‘Tocilizumab’ administration card was created and administered via pharmacy. This was distributed to each patient on discharge to ensure future healthcare professionals were aware of the potential effects of Tocilizumab administration, including suppression of CRP. Following these changes, repeat data collection over two months illustrated that each of the 4 safety aspects was met with a 100% success rate in every patient. Although this demonstrates good progress and effective interventions the challenge will be to maintain this progress. The audit data collection is ongoing

Keywords: Education, Patient Safety, SARS-CoV-2, Tocilizumab

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