Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 16

Path Planning Related Abstracts

16 Optimization Based Obstacle Avoidance

Authors: R. Dariani, S. Schmidt, R. Kasper


Based on a non-linear single track model which describes the dynamics of vehicle, an optimal path planning strategy is developed. Real time optimization is used to generate reference control values to allow leading the vehicle alongside a calculated lane which is optimal for different objectives such as energy consumption, run time, safety or comfort characteristics. Strict mathematic formulation of the autonomous driving allows taking decision on undefined situation such as lane change or obstacle avoidance. Based on position of the vehicle, lane situation and obstacle position, the optimization problem is reformulated in real-time to avoid the obstacle and any car crash.

Keywords: Optimal Control, Path Planning, Autonomous Driving, obstacle avoidance

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15 Path Planning for Collision Detection between two Polyhedra

Authors: M. Khouil, N. Saber, M. Mestari


This study aimed to propose, a different architecture of a Path Planning using the NECMOP. where several nonlinear objective functions must be optimized in a conflicting situation. The ability to detect and avoid collision is very important for mobile intelligent machines. However, many artificial vision systems are not yet able to quickly and cheaply extract the wealth information. This network, which has been particularly reviewed, has enabled us to solve with a new approach the problem of collision detection between two convex polyhedra in a fixed time (O (1) time). We used two types of neurons linear and threshold logic, which simplified the actual implementation of all the networks proposed. This article represents a comprehensive algorithm that determine through the AMAXNET network a measure (a mini-maximum point) in a fixed time, which allows us to detect the presence of a potential collision.

Keywords: Neural Network, Path Planning, collision detection, convex polyhedron

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14 Optimization of Robot Motion Planning Using Biogeography Based Optimization (Bbo)

Authors: Jaber Nikpouri, Arsalan Amralizadeh


In robotics manipulators, the trajectory should be optimum, thus the torque of the robot can be minimized in order to save power. This paper includes an optimal path planning scheme for a robotic manipulator. Recently, techniques based on metaheuristics of natural computing, mainly evolutionary algorithms (EA), have been successfully applied to a large number of robotic applications. In this paper, the improved BBO algorithm is used to minimize the objective function in the presence of different obstacles. The simulation represents that the proposed optimal path planning method has satisfactory performance.

Keywords: Path Planning, robotic manipulator, biogeography-based optimization, obstacle detection

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13 Analysis of Influencing Factors on Infield-Logistics: A Survey of Different Farm Types in Germany

Authors: Michael Mederle, Heinz Bernhardt


The Management of machine fleets or autonomous vehicle control will considerably increase efficiency in future agricultural production. Especially entire process chains, e.g. harvesting complexes with several interacting combine harvesters, grain carts, and removal trucks, provide lots of optimization potential. Organization and pre-planning ensure to get these efficiency reserves accessible. One way to achieve this is to optimize infield path planning. Particularly autonomous machinery requires precise specifications about infield logistics to be navigated effectively and process optimized in the fields individually or in machine complexes. In the past, a lot of theoretical optimization has been done regarding infield logistics, mainly based on field geometry. However, there are reasons why farmers often do not apply the infield strategy suggested by mathematical route planning tools. To make the computational optimization more useful for farmers this study focuses on these influencing factors by expert interviews. As a result practice-oriented navigation not only to the field but also within the field will be possible. The survey study is intended to cover the entire range of German agriculture. Rural mixed farms with simple technology equipment are considered as well as large agricultural cooperatives which farm thousands of hectares using track guidance and various other electronic assistance systems. First results show that farm managers using guidance systems increasingly attune their infield-logistics on direction giving obstacles such as power lines. In consequence, they can avoid inefficient boom flippings while doing plant protection with the sprayer. Livestock farmers rather focus on the application of organic manure with its specific requirements concerning road conditions, landscape terrain or field access points. Cultivation of sugar beets makes great demands on infield patterns because of its particularities such as the row crop system or high logistics demands. Furthermore, several machines working in the same field simultaneously influence each other, regardless whether or not they are of the equal type. Specific infield strategies always are based on interactions of several different influences and decision criteria. Single working steps like tillage, seeding, plant protection or harvest mostly cannot be considered each individually. The entire production process has to be taken into consideration to detect the right infield logistics. One long-term objective of this examination is to integrate the obtained influences on infield strategies as decision criteria into an infield navigation tool. In this way, path planning will become more practical for farmers which is a basic requirement for automatic vehicle control and increasing process efficiency.

Keywords: Path Planning, autonomous vehicle control, infield logistics, process optimizing

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12 An Exponential Field Path Planning Method for Mobile Robots Integrated with Visual Perception

Authors: Magdy Roman, Mostafa Shoeib, Mostafa Rostom


Global vision, whether provided by overhead fixed cameras, on-board aerial vehicle cameras, or satellite images can always provide detailed information on the environment around mobile robots. In this paper, an intelligent vision-based method of path planning and obstacle avoidance for mobile robots is presented. The method integrates visual perception with a new proposed field-based path-planning method to overcome common path-planning problems such as local minima, unreachable destination and unnecessary lengthy paths around obstacles. The method proposes an exponential angle deviation field around each obstacle that affects the orientation of a close robot. As the robot directs toward, the goal point obstacles are classified into right and left groups, and a deviation angle is exponentially added or subtracted to the orientation of the robot. Exponential field parameters are chosen based on Lyapunov stability criterion to guarantee robot convergence to the destination. The proposed method uses obstacles' shape and location, extracted from global vision system, through a collision prediction mechanism to decide whether to activate or deactivate obstacles field. In addition, a search mechanism is developed in case of robot or goal point is trapped among obstacles to find suitable exit or entrance. The proposed algorithm is validated both in simulation and through experiments. The algorithm shows effectiveness in obstacles' avoidance and destination convergence, overcoming common path planning problems found in classical methods.

Keywords: Computer Vision, Convergence, Mobile Robots, Path Planning, Collision Avoidance

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11 Application of Rapidly Exploring Random Tree Star-Smart and G2 Quintic Pythagorean Hodograph Curves to the UAV Path Planning Problem

Authors: Luiz G. Véras, Felipe L. Medeiros, Lamartine F. Guimarães


This work approaches the automatic planning of paths for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) through the application of the Rapidly Exploring Random Tree Star-Smart (RRT*-Smart) algorithm. RRT*-Smart is a sampling process of positions of a navigation environment through a tree-type graph. The algorithm consists of randomly expanding a tree from an initial position (root node) until one of its branches reaches the final position of the path to be planned. The algorithm ensures the planning of the shortest path, considering the number of iterations tending to infinity. When a new node is inserted into the tree, each neighbor node of the new node is connected to it, if and only if the extension of the path between the root node and that neighbor node, with this new connection, is less than the current extension of the path between those two nodes. RRT*-smart uses an intelligent sampling strategy to plan less extensive routes by spending a smaller number of iterations. This strategy is based on the creation of samples/nodes near to the convex vertices of the navigation environment obstacles. The planned paths are smoothed through the application of the method called quintic pythagorean hodograph curves. The smoothing process converts a route into a dynamically-viable one based on the kinematic constraints of the vehicle. This smoothing method models the hodograph components of a curve with polynomials that obey the Pythagorean Theorem. Its advantage is that the obtained structure allows computation of the curve length in an exact way, without the need for quadratural techniques for the resolution of integrals.

Keywords: Path Planning, path smoothing, Pythagorean hodograph curve, RRT*-Smart

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10 A Review on Comparative Analysis of Path Planning and Collision Avoidance Algorithms

Authors: Divya Agarwal, Pushpendra S. Bharti


Autonomous mobile robots (AMR) are expected as smart tools for operations in every automation industry. Path planning and obstacle avoidance is the backbone of AMR as robots have to reach their goal location avoiding obstacles while traversing through optimized path defined according to some criteria such as distance, time or energy. Path planning can be classified into global and local path planning where environmental information is known and unknown/partially known, respectively. A number of sensors are used for data collection. A number of algorithms such as artificial potential field (APF), rapidly exploring random trees (RRT), bidirectional RRT, Fuzzy approach, Purepursuit, A* algorithm, vector field histogram (VFH) and modified local path planning algorithm, etc. have been used in the last three decades for path planning and obstacle avoidance for AMR. This paper makes an attempt to review some of the path planning and obstacle avoidance algorithms used in the field of AMR. The review includes comparative analysis of simulation and mathematical computations of path planning and obstacle avoidance algorithms using MATLAB 2018a. From the review, it could be concluded that different algorithms may complete the same task (i.e. with a different set of instructions) in less or more time, space, effort, etc.

Keywords: Algorithms, Path Planning, Autonomous Mobile Robots, obstacle avoidance

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9 Calpoly Autonomous Transportation Experience: Software for Driverless Vehicle Operating on Campus

Authors: F. Tang, S. Boskovich, A. Raheja, Z. Aliyazicioglu, S. Bhandari, N. Tsuchiya


Calpoly Autonomous Transportation Experience (CATE) is a driverless vehicle that we are developing to provide safe, accessible, and efficient transportation of passengers throughout the Cal Poly Pomona campus for events such as orientation tours. Unlike the other self-driving vehicles that are usually developed to operate with other vehicles and reside only on the road networks, CATE will operate exclusively on walk-paths of the campus (potentially narrow passages) with pedestrians traveling from multiple locations. Safety becomes paramount as CATE operates within the same environment as pedestrians. As driverless vehicles assume greater roles in today’s transportation, this project will contribute to autonomous driving with pedestrian traffic in a highly dynamic environment. The CATE project requires significant interdisciplinary work. Researchers from mechanical engineering, electrical engineering and computer science are working together to attack the problem from different perspectives (hardware, software and system). In this abstract, we describe the software aspects of the project, with a focus on the requirements and the major components. CATE shall provide a GUI interface for the average user to interact with the car and access its available functionalities, such as selecting a destination from any origin on campus. We have developed an interface that provides an aerial view of the campus map, the current car location, routes, and the goal location. Users can interact with CATE through audio or manual inputs. CATE shall plan routes from the origin to the selected destination for the vehicle to travel. We will use an existing aerial map for the campus and convert it to a spatial graph configuration where the vertices represent the landmarks and edges represent paths that the car should follow with some designated behaviors (such as stay on the right side of the lane or follow an edge). Graph search algorithms such as A* will be implemented as the default path planning algorithm. D* Lite will be explored to efficiently recompute the path when there are any changes to the map. CATE shall avoid any static obstacles and walking pedestrians within some safe distance. Unlike traveling along traditional roadways, CATE’s route directly coexists with pedestrians. To ensure the safety of the pedestrians, we will use sensor fusion techniques that combine data from both lidar and stereo vision for obstacle avoidance while also allowing CATE to operate along its intended route. We will also build prediction models for pedestrian traffic patterns. CATE shall improve its location and work under a GPS-denied situation. CATE relies on its GPS to give its current location, which has a precision of a few meters. We have implemented an Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF) that allows the fusion of data from multiple sensors (such as GPS, IMU, odometry) in order to increase the confidence of localization. We also noticed that GPS signals can easily get degraded or blocked on campus due to high-rise buildings or trees. UKF can also help here to generate a better state estimate. In summary, CATE will provide on-campus transportation experience that coexists with dynamic pedestrian traffic. In future work, we will extend it to multi-vehicle scenarios.

Keywords: Sensor Fusion, Path Planning, driverless vehicle, state estimate

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8 Fast Return Path Planning for Agricultural Autonomous Terrestrial Robot in a Known Field

Authors: Carlo Cernicchiaro, Pedro D. Gaspar, Martim L. Aguiar


The agricultural sector is becoming more critical than ever in view of the expected overpopulation of the Earth. The introduction of robotic solutions in this field is an increasingly researched topic to make the most of the Earth's resources, thus going to avoid the problems of wear and tear of the human body due to the harsh agricultural work, and open the possibility of a constant careful processing 24 hours a day. This project is realized for a terrestrial autonomous robot aimed to navigate in an orchard collecting fallen peaches below the trees. When it receives the signal indicating the low battery, it has to return to the docking station where it will replace its battery and then return to the last work point and resume its routine. Considering a preset path in orchards with tree rows with variable length by which the robot goes iteratively using the algorithm D*. In case of low battery, the D* algorithm is still used to determine the fastest return path to the docking station as well as to come back from the docking station to the last work point. MATLAB simulations were performed to analyze the flexibility and adaptability of the developed algorithm. The simulation results show an enormous potential for adaptability, particularly in view of the irregularity of orchard field, since it is not flat and undergoes modifications over time from fallen branch as well as from other obstacles and constraints. The D* algorithm determines the best route in spite of the irregularity of the terrain. Moreover, in this work, it will be shown a possible solution to improve the initial points tracking and reduce time between movements.

Keywords: Path Planning, fastest return path, agricultural autonomous terrestrial robot, docking station

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7 Three-Dimensional Optimal Path Planning of a Flying Robot for Terrain Following/Terrain Avoidance

Authors: Amirreza Kosari, Hossein Maghsoudi, Malahat Givar


In this study, the three-dimensional optimal path planning of a flying robot for Terrain Following / Terrain Avoidance (TF/TA) purposes using Direct Collocation has been investigated. To this purpose, firstly, the appropriate equations of motion representing the flying robot translational movement have been described. The three-dimensional optimal path planning of the flying vehicle in terrain following/terrain avoidance maneuver is formulated as an optimal control problem. The terrain profile, as the main allowable height constraint has been modeled using Fractal Generation Method. The resulting optimal control problem is discretized by applying Direct Collocation numerical technique, and then transformed into a Nonlinear Programming Problem (NLP). The efficacy of the proposed method is demonstrated by extensive simulations, and in particular, it is verified that this approach could produce a solution satisfying almost all performance and environmental constraints encountering a low-level flying maneuver

Keywords: Optimal Control, Path Planning, Nonlinear Programming, terrain following

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6 Autonomous Kuka Youbot Navigation Based on Machine Learning and Path Planning

Authors: Carlos Gordon, Patricio Encalada, Henry Lema, Diego Leon, Dennis Chicaiza


The following work presents a proposal of autonomous navigation of mobile robots implemented in an omnidirectional robot Kuka Youbot. We have been able to perform the integration of robotic operative system (ROS) and machine learning algorithms. ROS mainly provides two distributions; ROS hydro and ROS Kinect. ROS hydro allows managing the nodes of odometry, kinematics, and path planning with statistical and probabilistic, global and local algorithms based on Adaptive Monte Carlo Localization (AMCL) and Dijkstra. Meanwhile, ROS Kinect is responsible for the detection block of dynamic objects which can be in the points of the planned trajectory obstructing the path of Kuka Youbot. The detection is managed by artificial vision module under a trained neural network based on the single shot multibox detector system (SSD), where the main dynamic objects for detection are human beings and domestic animals among other objects. When the objects are detected, the system modifies the trajectory or wait for the decision of the dynamic obstacle. Finally, the obstacles are skipped from the planned trajectory, and the Kuka Youbot can reach its goal thanks to the machine learning algorithms.

Keywords: Machine Learning, Path Planning, autonomous navigation, robotic operative system, open source computer vision library

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5 Path Planning for Multiple Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Based on Adaptive Probabilistic Sampling Algorithm

Authors: Long Cheng, Tong He, Iraj Mantegh, Wen-Fang Xie


Path planning is essential for UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) with autonomous navigation in unknown environments. In this paper, an adaptive probabilistic sampling algorithm is proposed for the GPS-denied environment, which can be utilized for autonomous navigation system of multiple UAVs in a dynamically-changing structured environment. This method can be used for Unmanned Aircraft Systems Traffic Management (UTM) solutions and in autonomous urban aerial mobility, where a number of platforms are expected to share the airspace. A path network is initially built off line based on available environment map, and on-board sensors systems on the flying UAVs are used for continuous situational awareness and to inform the changes in the path network. Simulation results based on MATLAB and Gazebo in different scenarios and algorithms performance measurement show the high efficiency and accuracy of the proposed technique in unknown environments.

Keywords: Path Planning, obstacle avoidance, adaptive probabilistic sampling, multiple unmanned aerial vehicles, unknown environments

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4 Application of Heuristic Integration Ant Colony Optimization in Path Planning

Authors: Zeyu Zhang, Guisheng Yin, Ziying Zhang, Liguo Zhang


This paper mainly studies the path planning method based on ant colony optimization (ACO), and proposes heuristic integration ant colony optimization (HIACO). This paper not only analyzes and optimizes the principle, but also simulates and analyzes the parameters related to the application of HIACO in path planning. Compared with the original algorithm, the improved algorithm optimizes probability formula, tabu table mechanism and updating mechanism, and introduces more reasonable heuristic factors. The optimized HIACO not only draws on the excellent ideas of the original algorithm, but also solves the problems of premature convergence, convergence to the sub optimal solution and improper exploration to some extent. HIACO can be used to achieve better simulation results and achieve the desired optimization. Combined with the probability formula and update formula, several parameters of HIACO are tested. This paper proves the principle of the HIACO and gives the best parameter range in the research of path planning.

Keywords: Ant colony optimization, Path Planning, heuristic integration, probability formula

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3 Genetic Algorithms Based ACPS Safety

Authors: Emine Laarouchi, Daniela Cancila, Laurent Soulier, Hakima Chaouchi


Cyber-Physical Systems as drones proved their efficiency for supporting emergency applications. For these particular applications, travel time and autonomous navigation algorithms are of paramount importance, especially when missions are performed in urban environments with high obstacle density. In this context, however, safety properties are not properly addressed. Our ambition is to optimize the system safety level under autonomous navigation systems, by preserving performance of the CPS. At this aim, we introduce genetic algorithms in the autonomous navigation process of the drone to better infer its trajectory considering the possible obstacles. We first model the wished safety requirements through a cost function and then seek to optimize it though genetics algorithms (GA). The main advantage in the use of GA is to consider different parameters together, for example, the level of battery for navigation system selection. Our tests show that the GA introduction in the autonomous navigation systems minimize the risk of safety lossless. Finally, although our simulation has been tested for autonomous drones, our approach and results could be extended for other autonomous navigation systems such as autonomous cars, robots, etc.

Keywords: Safety, Genetic Algorithms, Drones, Path Planning, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, cps, ACPS

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2 LanE-change Path Planning of Autonomous Driving Using Model-Based Optimization, Deep Reinforcement Learning and 5G Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communications

Authors: William Li


Lane-change path planning is a crucial and yet complex task in autonomous driving. The traditional path planning approach based on a system of carefully-crafted rules to cover various driving scenarios becomes unwieldy as more and more rules are added to deal with exceptions and corner cases. This paper proposes to divide the entire path planning to two stages. In the first stage the ego vehicle travels longitudinally in the source lane to reach a safe state. In the second stage the ego vehicle makes lateral lane-change maneuver to the target lane. The paper derives the safe state conditions based on lateral lane-change maneuver calculation to ensure collision free in the second stage. To determine the acceleration sequence that minimizes the time to reach a safe state in the first stage, the paper proposes three schemes, namely, kinetic model based optimization, deep reinforcement learning, and 5G vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communications. The paper investigates these schemes via simulation. The model-based optimization is sensitive to the model assumptions. The deep reinforcement learning is more flexible in handling scenarios beyond the model assumed by the optimization. The 5G V2V eliminates uncertainty in predicting future behaviors of surrounding vehicles by sharing driving intents and enabling cooperative driving.

Keywords: Connected Vehicles, Path Planning, Autonomous Driving, deep reinforcement learning, lane change, V2V communications

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1 Design and Implementation of Bluetooth Controlled Autonomous Vehicle

Authors: Amanuel Berhanu Kesamo


This paper presents both circuit simulation and hardware implementation of a robot vehicle that can be either controlled manually via Bluetooth with video streaming or navigate autonomously to a target point by avoiding obstacles. In manual mode, the user controls the mobile robot using C# windows form interfaced via Bluetooth. The camera mounted on the robot is used to capture and send the real time video to the user. In autonomous mode, the robot plans the shortest path to the target point while avoiding obstacles along the way. Ultrasonic sensor is used for sensing the obstacle in its environment. An efficient path planning algorithm is implemented to navigate the robot along optimal route.

Keywords: Autonomous, Path Planning, Arduino UNO, Bluetooth module, remote controlled robot, ultra sonic sensor

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