Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

pasture Related Abstracts

5 Performance of Heifer Camels (Camelus dromedarius) on Native Range Supplemented with Different Energy Levels

Authors: Muhammad, Shehu, B. F., Madigawa, I. L., H. A. Alkali

Abstract:

The study was conducted to assess heifer camel behavior and live weight changes on native range supplemented with different energy levels. A total of nine camels aged between 2 and 3 years were randomly allotted into three groups and supplemented with 3400, 3600 and 3800 Kcal and designated A, B and C, respectively. The data obtained was analyzed for variance in a Completely Randomized Design. The heifers utilized average of 371.70 min/day (64% of daylight time) browsing on native pasture and 2.30 min/day (6%) sand bathing. A significantly higher mean time was spent by heifers on browsing Leptadenia hastata (P<0.001), Dichrostachys cinerea (P<0.01), Acacia nilotica (P<0.001) and Ziziphus spina-christi (P<0.05) in early dry season (January). No significant difference was recorded on browsing time on Tamarindus indica, Adansonia digitata, Piliostigma reticulatum, Parkia biglobosaand Azadirachta indica. No significant (P<0.05) liveweight change was recorded on she-camels due to the three energy levels. It was concluded that nutritive browse species in the study area could meet camel nutrient requirements including energy. Further research on effect of period on camel nutrients requirement in different physiological conditions is recommended.

Keywords: camel, heifer, grazing, pasture

Procedia PDF Downloads 418
4 On-Farm Evaluation of Fast and Slow Growing Genotypes for Organic and Pasture Poultry Production Systems

Authors: Komala Arsi, Terrel Spencer, Casey M. Owens, Dan J. Donoghue, Ann M. Donoghue

Abstract:

Organic poultry production is becoming increasingly popular in the United States with approximately 17% increase in the sales of organic meat and poultry in 2016. As per the National Organic Program (NOP), organic poultry production system should operate according to specific standards, including access to outdoors. In the United States, organic poultry farmers are raising both fast growing and slow growing genotypes for alternative productive systems. Even though heritage breed birds grow much slower compared to commercial breeds, many free range producers believe that they are better suited for outdoor production systems. We conducted an on-farm trial on a working pasture poultry farm to compare the performance and meat quality characteristics of a slow-growing heritage breed (Freedom Rangers, FR), and two commonly used fast growing types of chickens (Cornish cross, CC and Naked Neck, NN), raised on pasture, in side by side pens segregated by breed (n=70/breed). CC and NN group birds were reared for eight weeks whereas FR group birds were reared for 10 weeks and all the birds were commercially processed. By the end of the rearing period, the final body weight of FR group birds was significantly lower than both the fast growing genotypes (CC and NN). Both CC and NN birds showed significantly higher live weight, carcass weight as well as fillet, tender and leg yield (P < 0.05). There was no difference in the wing and rack yield among the different groups. Color of the meat was measured using CEILAB method and expressed as lightness (L), redness (a*) and yellowness (b*). The breast meat from FR birds was much redder (higher a* values) and less yellow (lesser b* values) compared to both the fast growing type of chickens (P < 0.05). Overall, fast growing genotypes produced higher carcass weight and meat yield compared to slow growing genotypes and appear to be an economical option for alternative production systems.

Keywords: Meat Quality, pasture, fast growing chickens, slow growing chickens

Procedia PDF Downloads 84
3 Mesotrione and Tembotrione Applied Alone or in Tank-Mix with Atrazine on Weed Control in Elephant Grass

Authors: Alexandre M. Brighenti

Abstract:

The experiment was carried out in Valença, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, to evaluate the selectivity and weed control of carotenoid biosynthesis inhibiting herbicides applied alone or in combination with atrazine in elephant grass crop. The treatments were as follows: mesotrione (0.072 and 0.144 kg ha-1 + 0.5% v/v mineral oil - Assist®), tembotrione (0.075 and 0.100 kg ha-1 + 0.5% v/v mineral oil - Aureo®), atrazine + mesotrione (1.25 + 0.072 kg ha-1 + 0.5% v/v mineral oil - Assist®), atrazine + tembotrione (1.25 + 0.100 kg ha-1 + 0.5% v/v mineral oil - Aureo®), atrazine + mesotrione (1.25 + 0.072 kg ha-1), atrazine + tembotrione (1.25 + 0.100 kg ha-1) and two controls (hoed and unhoed check). Two application rates of mesotrione with the addition of mineral oil or the tank mixture of atrazine plus mesotrione, with or without the addition of mineral oil, did not provide injuries capable to reduce elephant grass forage yield. Tembotrione was phytotoxic to elephant grass when applied with mineral oil. Atrazine and tembotrione in a tank-mix, with or without mineral oil, were also phytotoxic to elephant grass. All treatments provided satisfactory weed control.

Keywords: Weeds, forage, pasture, Napier grass, Pennisetum purpureum

Procedia PDF Downloads 137
2 Measurement of in-situ Horizontal Root Tensile Strength of Herbaceous Vegetation for Improved Evaluation of Slope Stability in the Alps

Authors: Michael T. Lobmann, Camilla Wellstein, Stefan Zerbe

Abstract:

Vegetation plays an important role for the stabilization of slopes against erosion processes, such as shallow erosion and landslides. Plant roots reinforce the soil, increase soil cohesion and often cross possible shear planes. Hence, plant roots reduce the risk of slope failure. Generally, shrub and tree roots penetrate deeper into the soil vertically, while roots of forbs and grasses are concentrated horizontally in the topsoil and organic layer. Therefore, shrubs and trees have a higher potential for stabilization of slopes with deep soil layers than forbs and grasses. Consequently, research mainly focused on the vertical root effects of shrubs and trees. Nevertheless, a better understanding of the stabilizing effects of grasses and forbs is needed for better evaluation of the stability of natural and artificial slopes with herbaceous vegetation. Despite the importance of vertical root effects, field observations indicate that horizontal root effects also play an important role for slope stabilization. Not only forbs and grasses, but also some shrubs and trees form tight horizontal networks of fine and coarse roots and rhizomes in the topsoil. These root networks increase soil cohesion and horizontal tensile strength. Available methods for physical measurements, such as shear-box tests, pullout tests and singular root tensile strength measurement can only provide a detailed picture of vertical effects of roots on slope stabilization. However, the assessment of horizontal root effects is largely limited to computer modeling. Here, a method for measurement of in-situ cumulative horizontal root tensile strength is presented. A traction machine was developed that allows fixation of rectangular grass sods (max. 30x60cm) on the short ends with a 30x30cm measurement zone in the middle. On two alpine grass slopes in South Tyrol (northern Italy), 30x60cm grass sods were cut out (max. depth 20cm). Grass sods were pulled apart measuring the horizontal tensile strength over 30cm width over the time. The horizontal tensile strength of the sods was measured and compared for different soil depths, hydrological conditions, and root physiological properties. The results improve our understanding of horizontal root effects on slope stabilization and can be used for improved evaluation of grass slope stability.

Keywords: mountain, Landslide, pasture, grassland, horizontal root effect, shallow erosion

Procedia PDF Downloads 19
1 Welfare and Sustainability in Beef Cattle Production on Tropical Pasture

Authors: Andre Pastori D'Aurea, Lauriston Bertelli Feranades, Luis Eduardo Ferreira, Leandro Dias Pinto, Fabiana Ayumi Shiozaki

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to improve the production of beef cattle on tropical pasture without harming this environment. On tropical pastures, cattle's live weight gain is lower than feedlot, and forage production is seasonable, changing from season to season. Thus, concerned with sustainable livestock production, the Premix Company has developed strategies to improve the production of beef cattle on tropical pasture to ensure sustainability of welfare and production. There are two important principles in this productivity system: 1) increase individual gains with use of better supplementation and 2) increase the productivity units with better forage quality like corn silage or other forms of forage conservations, actually used only in winter, and adding natural additives in the diet. This production system was applied from June 2017 to May 2018 in the Research Center of Premix Company, Patrocínio Paulista, São Paulo State, Brazil. The area used had 9 hectares of pasture of Brachiaria brizantha. 36 steers Nellore were evaluated for one year. The initial weight was 253 kg. The parameters used were daily average gain and gain per area. This indicated the corrections to be made and helped design future fertilization. In this case, we fertilized the pasture with 30 kg of nitrogen per animal divided into two parts. The diet was pasture and protein-energy supplements (0.4% of live weight). The supplement used was added with natural additive Fator P® – Premix Company). Fator P® is an additive composed by amino acids (lysine, methionine and tyrosine, 16400, 2980 and 3000 mg.kg-1 respectively), minerals, probiotics (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, 7 x 10E8 CFU.kg-1) and essential fatty acids (linoleic and oleic acids, 108.9 and 99g.kg-1 respectively). Due to seasonal changes, in the winter we supplemented the diet by increasing the offer of forage, supplementing with maize silage. It was offered 1% of live weight in silage corn and 0.4% of the live weight in protein-energetic supplements with additive Fator P ®. At the end of the period, the productivity was calculated by summing the individual gains for the area used. The average daily gain of the animals were 693 grams per day and was produced 1.005 kg /hectare/year. This production is about 8 times higher than the average of Brazilian meat national production. To succeed in this project, it is necessary to increase the gains per area, so it is necessary to increase the capacity per area. Pasture management is very important to the project's success because the dietary decisions were taken from the quantity and quality of the forage. We, therefore, recommend the use of animals in the growth phase because the response to supplementation is greater in that phase and we can allocate more animals per area. This system's carbon footprint reduces emissions by 61.2 percent compared to the Brazilian average. This beef cattle production system can be efficient and environmentally friendly to the natural. Another point is that bovines will benefit from their natural environment without competing or having an impact on human food production.

Keywords: Environment, Sustainability, pasture, cattle production

Procedia PDF Downloads 13