Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

particulates Related Abstracts

4 Influence of Particulate Fractions on Air Quality for Four Major Congested Cities of India over a Period of Four Years from 2006-2009

Authors: I. Mukherjee, J. Ghose, T. Chakraborty, S. Chaudhury, R. Majumder

Abstract:

India is the second most populated nation in the world. With the Indian population hitting the 1.26 billion mark in the year 2014, there has been an unprecedented rise in power and energy requirements throughout the nation. This mammoth demand for energy, both at the industrial as well as at the domestic household level, as well as the increase in the usage of automobiles has led to a corresponding increase in the total tonnage of fuels being burnt every year. This, in turn, has led to an increase in the concentration of atmospheric pollutants over the years with enhanced particulate concentrations being reported for different parts of the country. Considering the adverseness of the particulates, the paper analyses the role of the particulates on the air quality of four major congested cities of the country namely, Kolkata (22034’ N, 88024’ E), Delhi (28038’N , 77012’ E), Bangalore (12058’ N , 77038’E) and Mumbai (18.9750° N, 72.8258° E) over a period of four years from 2006-2009. The fractional contribution of the finer fractions to the coarser one has been considered in the study in addition to the relative occurrences of the particulate fractions with respect to the other gaseous pollutants such as sulphur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOX).

Keywords: Air quality, NOx, particulates, yearly variation, relative occurrence, SO2

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3 Corrosion Characterization of ZA-27 Metal Matrix Composites

Authors: P. V. Krupakara, H. V. Jayaprakash

Abstract:

This paper deals with the high corrosion resistance developed by the metal matrix composites when compared with that of matrix alloy by open circuit potential test. Matrix selected is ZA-27 and reinforcement selected is red mud particulates, which is a ceramic material. The composites are prepared using liquid melt metallurgy technique using vortex method. Preheated but uncoated red mud particulates are added to the melt. Metal matrix composites containing 2, 4 and 6 weight percentage of red mud are casted. Matrix was also casted in the same way for comparison. Specimen are fabricated according to ASTM standards. The corrodents used for the tests were 0.025, 0.05 and 0.1 molar sodium hydroxide solutions. They are subjected to Open Circuit Potential studies and weight loss corrosion tests. Corrosion rate was found to be decreased with increase in exposure time in both experiments. Effect of exposure time and presence of increased percentage of reinforcement red mud is discussed in detail.

Keywords: Composites, vortex, particulates, red mud

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2 Characterization of Atmospheric Aerosols by Developing a Cascade Impactor

Authors: Sapan Bhatnagar

Abstract:

Micron size particles emitted from different sources and produced by combustion have serious negative effects on human health and environment. They can penetrate deep into our lungs through the respiratory system. Determination of the amount of particulates present in the atmosphere per cubic meter is necessary to monitor, regulate and model atmospheric particulate levels. Cascade impactor is used to collect the atmospheric particulates and by gravimetric analysis, their concentration in the atmosphere of different size ranges can be determined. Cascade impactors have been used for the classification of particles by aerodynamic size. They operate on the principle of inertial impaction. It consists of a number of stages each having an impaction plate and a nozzle. Collection plates are connected in series with smaller and smaller cutoff diameter. Air stream passes through the nozzle and the plates. Particles in the stream having large enough inertia impact upon the plate and smaller particles pass onto the next stage. By designing each successive stage with higher air stream velocity in the nozzle, smaller diameter particles will be collected at each stage. Particles too small to be impacted on the last collection plate will be collected on a backup filter. Impactor consists of 4 stages each made of steel, having its cut-off diameters less than 10 microns. Each stage is having collection plates, soaked with oil to prevent bounce and allows the impactor to function at high mass concentrations. Even after the plate is coated with particles, the incoming particle will still have a wet surface which significantly reduces particle bounce. The particles that are too small to be impacted on the last collection plate are then collected on a backup filter (microglass fiber filter), fibers provide larger surface area to which particles may adhere and voids in filter media aid in reducing particle re-entrainment.

Keywords: Environment, particulates, aerodynamic diameter, cascade, re-entrainment

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1 Effects and Mechanization of a High Gradient Magnetic Separation Process for Particulate and Microbe Removal from Ballast Water

Authors: Zhijun Ren, Zhang Lin, Zhao Ye, Zuo Xiangyu, Mei Dongxing

Abstract:

As a pretreatment process of ballast water treatment, the performance of high gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) technology for the removal of particulates and microorganisms was studied. The results showed that HGMS process could effectively remove suspended particles larger than 5 µm and had ability to resist impact load. Microorganism could also be effectively removed by HGMS process, and the removal effect increased with increasing magnetic field strength. The maximum removal rates for Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) were 4016.1% and 9675.3% higher, respectively, than without the magnetic field. In addition, the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of the microbes decreased by 32.2% when the magnetic field strength was 15.4 mT for 72 min. The microstructure of the stainless steel wool was investigated, and the results showed that particle removal by HGMS has common function by the magnetic force of the high-strength, high-gradient magnetic field on weakly magnetic particles in the water, and on the stainless steel wool.

Keywords: particulates, HGMS, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, steel wool magnetic medium

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