Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 18

particle size Related Abstracts

18 Effect of Particles Size and Volume Fraction Concentration on the Thermal Conductivity and Thermal Diffusivity of Al2O3 Nanofluids Measured Using Transient Hot–Wire Laser Beam Deflection Technique

Authors: W. Mahmood Mat Yunus, Faris Mohammed Ali, Zainal Abidin Talib


In this study we present new data for the thermal conductivity enhancement in four nanofluids containing 11, 25, 50, 63 nm diameter aluminum oxide (Al2O3) nanoparticles in distilled water. The nanofluids were prepared using single step method (i.e. by dispersing nanoparticle directly in base fluid) which was gathered in ultrasonic device for approximately 7 hours. The transient hot-wire laser beam displacement technique was used to measure the thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of the prepared nanofluids. The thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity were obtained by fitting the experimental data to the numerical data simulated for aluminum oxide in distilled water. The results show that the thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of nanofluids increases in non-linear behavior as the particle size increases. While, the thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of Al2O3 nanofluids was observed increasing linearly with concentration as the volume fraction concentration increases. We believe that the interfacial layer between solid/fluid is the main factor for the enhancement of thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of Al2O3 nanofluids in the present work.

Keywords: transient hot wire-laser beam technique, Al2O3 nanofluid, particle size, volume fraction concentration

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17 Synthesis and Characterization of Amino-Functionalized Polystyrene Nanoparticles as Reactive Filler

Authors: Abdulkareem Hamid, Yaseen Elhebshi, Nureddin Bin Issa, Xiaonong Chen


A convenient method of preparing ultrafine polystyrene latex nano-particles with amino groups on the surface is developed. Polystyrene latexes in the size range 50–400 nm were prepared via emulsion polymerization, using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as surfactant. Polystyrene with amino groups on the surface will be fine to use as organic filler to modify rubber. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to observe the morphology of silicon dioxide and functionalized polystyrene nano-particles. The nature of bonding between the polymer and the reactive groups on the filler surfaces was analyzed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was employed to examine the filler surface.

Keywords: Emulsion polymerization, particle size, reactive filler, polystyrene nanoparticles

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16 Particle Size Effect on Shear Strength of Granular Materials in Direct Shear Test

Authors: R. Alias, A. Kasa, M. R. Taha


The effect of particle size on shear strength of granular materials are investigated using direct shear tests. Small direct shear test (60 mm by 60 mm by 24 mm deep) were conducted for particles passing the sieves with opening size of 2.36 mm. Meanwhile, particles passing the standard 20 mm sieves were tested using large direct shear test (300 mm by 300 mm by 200 mm deep). The large direct shear tests and the small direct shear tests carried out using the same shearing rate of 0.09 mm/min and similar normal stresses of 100, 200, and 300 kPa. The results show that the peak and residual shear strength decreases as particle size increases.

Keywords: Shear Strength, particle size, granular material, direct shear test

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15 Formulation of Famotidine Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLN): Preparation, Evaluation and Release Study

Authors: Rachmat Mauludin, Nurmazidah


Background and purpose: Famotidine is an H2 receptor blocker. Absorption orally is rapid enough, but famotidine can be degraded by stomach acid causing dose reduction until 35.8% after 50 minutes. This drug also undergoes first-pass metabolism which reduced its bio availability only until 40-50%. To overcome these problems, Solid Lipid Nano particles (SLNs) as alternative delivery systems can be formulated. SLNs is a lipid-based drug delivery technology with 50-1000 nm particle size, where the drug incorporated into the bio compatible lipids and the lipid particles are stabilized using appropriate stabilizers. When the particle size is 200 nm or below, lipid containing famotidine can be absorbed through the lymphatic vessels to the subclavian vein, so first-pass metabolism can be avoided. Method: Famotidine SLNs with various compositions of stabilizer was prepared using a high-speed homogenization and sonication method. Then, the particle size distribution, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, particle morphology and in vitro release profiles were evaluated. Optimization of sonication time also carried out. Result: Particle size of SLN by Particle Size Analyzer was in range 114.6 up to 455.267 nm. Ultrasonicated SLNs within 5 minutes generated smaller particle size than SLNs which was ultrasonicated for 10 and 15 minutes. Entrapment efficiency of SLNs were 74.17 up to 79.45%. Particle morphology of the SLNs was spherical and distributed individually. Release study of Famotidine revealed that in acid medium, 28.89 up to 80.55% of famotidine could be released after 2 hours. Nevertheless in basic medium, famotidine was released 40.5 up to 86.88% in the same period. Conclusion: The best formula was SLNs which stabilized by 4% Poloxamer 188 and 1 % Span 20, that had particle size 114.6 nm in diameter, 77.14% famotidine entrapped, and the particle morphology was spherical and distributed individually. SLNs with the best drug release profile was SLNs which stabilized by 4% Eudragit L 100-55 and 1% Tween 80 which had released 36.34 % in pH 1.2 solution, and 74.13% in pH 7.4 solution after 2 hours. The optimum sonication time was 5 minutes.

Keywords: particle size, SLN, release study, famotodine, high speed homogenization

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14 Formulation and Ex Vivo Evaluation of Solid Lipid Nanoparticles Based Hydrogel for Intranasal Drug Delivery

Authors: Pramod Jagtap, Kisan Jadhav, Neha Dand


Risperidone (RISP) is an antipsychotic agent and has low water solubility and nontargeted delivery results in numerous side effects. Hence, an attempt was made to develop SLNs hydrogel for intranasal delivery of RISP to achieve maximum bioavailability and reduction of side effects. RISP loaded SLNs composed of 1.65% (w/v) lipid mass were produced by high shear homogenization (HSH) coupled ultrasound (US) method using glyceryl monostearate (GMS) or Imwitor 900K (solid lipid). The particles were loaded with 0.2% (w/v) of the RISP & surface-tailored with a 2.02% (w/v) non-ionic surfactant Tween® 80. Optimization was done using 32 factorial design using Design Expert® software. The prepared SLNs dispersion incorporated into Polycarbophil AA1 hydrogel (0.5% w/v). The final gel formulation was evaluated for entrapment efficiency, particle size, rheological properties, X ray diffraction, in vitro diffusion, ex vivo permeation using sheep nasal mucosa and histopathological studies for nasocilliary toxicity. The entrapment efficiency of optimized SLNs was found to be 76 ± 2 %, polydispersity index <0.3., particle size 278 ± 5 nm. This optimized batch was incorporated into hydrogel. The pH was found to be 6.4 ± 0.14. The rheological behaviour of hydrogel formulation revealed no thixotropic behaviour. In histopathology study, there was no nasocilliary toxicity observed in nasal mucosa after ex vivo permeation. X-ray diffraction data shows drug was in amorphous form. Ex vivo permeation study shows controlled release profile of drug.

Keywords: solid lipid nanoparticles, particle size, Risperidone, ex vivo

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13 Determining Sources of Sediments at Nkula Dam in the Middle Shire River, Malawi, Using Mineral Magnetic Approach

Authors: W. Zhang, M. K. Mzuza, L. S. Chapola, M. Tembo


Shire River is the largest and longest river in Malawi emptying its water into the Zambezi River in Mozambique. Siltation is now a major problem in the Shire River due to catchment degradation. This study analysed soil samples from tributaries of the Shire River to determine sources of sediments that cause siltation using the mineral magnetic approach. Bulk sediments and separated particle size fractions of representative samples were collected from tributaries on the western and eastern sides of the Shire River, and Nkula Dam. Eastern tributaries showed relatively higher ferrimagnetic mineral contents and ferrimagnetic to anti ferromagnetic ratios than western tributaries. Sediments from both sides of the Shire River were distinguished by χARM, SIRM versus χlf and S-100 versus SIRM. Findings in this study showed that most of the sediments originated from the western part of the Shire River. Tributaries on the eastern side of the Shire River had higher values for concentration related parameters (χlf, χfd, χARM, SIRM, HIRM, S-100, and χARM/SIRM) than tributaries on the western side. Bulky and detailed magnetic measurements carried out on particle size fractions provided additional confirmation of magnetic contrasts between the two sides of the river suggesting differences in lithology, topography, climate and weather regimes in the catchments. This study demonstrated that the magnetic approach can provide a reliable means of understanding major sediment sources of Nkula Dam and similar situations. It can also help to assess future variations in sediment composition resulting from catchment changes

Keywords: Topography, particle size, ferrimagnetic minerals, Shire River, tributaries rivers

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12 Effect of Variety and Fibre Type on Functional and organoleptic Properties of Plantain Flour Intended for Food "Fufu"

Authors: C. C. Okafor


The effect of different varieties of plantain (Horn, false horn and French) and fibre types (soy bean residue, cassava sievette and rice bran) on functional and organoleptic properties of plantain-based flour was assessed. Horn, false horn french were processed by washing, peeling with knife, slicing into 3mm thickness and steam blanched at 80℃ for 5minutes, oven dried at 65℃ for 48 hours and milled into flours with attrition mill, sieved with 60 mesh sieve, separately. Fibre sources were processed, milled and fractionated into 60, 40 & 20 mesh sizes. Both flours were blended as 80:20, 70:30 and 60:40. Results obtained indicated that water absorption capacity is highest (2.68) in French plantain variety irrespective of the fibre type used. And in all variety tested the swelling capacity is highest (2.93) when the plantain flour is blended with soy residue (SR) and lowest (1.25) when blended with rice brain (RB). The results show that there is significant variety and fibre type interaction effect at (P < : 0.05). Again the results showed that texture mold ability and overall acceptability were best (7.00) when soy residue was used where as addition of rice bran into plantain flour resulted in fufu with poor texture. This trend was observed in all the verities of plantain tested and in all of the particle size of flour. Using cassava serviette also yield fufu similar to that produced with soy residue in all the parameter tested (mold ability, texture and overall acceptability. Generally, plantain flours from french and false horn yielded better quality fufu in terms of texture mold ability, overall acceptability, irrespective of the fibre type used.

Keywords: Functional, Variety, particle size, organoleptic, sieve mesh

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11 Effect of Particle Size on Sintering Characteristics of Injection Molded 316L Powder

Authors: H. Özkan Gülsoy, Antonyraj Arockiasamy


The application of powder injection molding technology for the fabrication of metallic and non-metallic components is of growing interest as the process considerably saves time and cost. Utilizing this fabrication method, full dense components are being prepared in various sizes. In this work, our effort is focused to study the densification behavior of the parts made using different size 316L stainless steel powders. The metal powders were admixed with an adequate amount of polymeric compounds and molded as standard tensile bars. Solvent and thermal debinding was carried out followed by sintering in ultra pure hydrogen atmosphere based on the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) cycle. Mechanical property evaluation and microstructural characterization of the sintered specimens was performed using universal Instron tensile testing machine, Vicker’s microhardness tester, optical (OM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and X-ray diffraction were used. The results are compared and analyzed to predict the strength and weakness of the test conditions.

Keywords: sintering, Stainless Steels, particle size, powder injection molding

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10 Evaluation of Pozzolanic Properties of Micro and Nanofillers Origin from Waste Products

Authors: Girts Bumanis, Diana Bajare, Laura Vitola, Genadijs Sahmenko


About 8 % of CO2 emission in the world is produced by concrete industry therefore replacement of cement in concrete composition by additives with pozzolanic activity would give a significant impact on the environment. Material which contains silica SiO2 or amorphous silica SiO2 together with aluminum dioxide Al2O3 is called pozzolana type additives in the concrete industry. Pozzolana additives are possible to obtain from recycling industry and different production by-products such as processed bulb boric silicate (DRL type) and lead (LB type) glass, coal combustion bottom ash, utilized brick pieces and biomass ash, thus solving utilization problem which is so important in the world, as well as practically using materials which previously were considered as unusable. In the literature, there is no summarized method which could be used for quick waste-product pozzolana activity evaluation without the performance of wide researches related to the production of innumerable concrete contents and samples in the literature. Besides it is important to understand which parameters should be predicted to characterize the efficiency of waste-products. Simple methods of pozzolana activity increase for different types of waste-products are also determined. The aim of this study is to evaluate effectiveness of the different types of waste materials and industrial by-products (coal combustion bottom ash, biomass ash, waste glass, waste kaolin and calcined illite clays), and determine which parameters have the greatest impact on pozzolanic activity. By using materials, which previously were considered as unusable and landfilled, in concrete industry basic utilization problems will be partially solved. The optimal methods for treatment of waste materials and industrial by–products were detected with the purpose to increase their pozzolanic activity and produce substitutes for cement in the concrete industry. Usage of mentioned pozzolanic allows us to replace of necessary cement amount till 20% without reducing the compressive strength of concrete.

Keywords: particle size, cement substitutes, micro and nano fillers, pozzolanic properties, specific surface area, waste products

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9 Rapid Expansion Supercritical Solution (RESS) Carbon Dioxide as an Environmental Friendly Method for Ginger Rhizome Solid Oil Particles Formation

Authors: I. Norhuda, N. A. Zainuddin, I. S. Adeib, A. N. Mustapa, S. H. Sarijo


Recently, RESS (Rapid Expansion Supercritical Solution) method has been used by researchers to produce fine particles for pharmaceutical drug substances. Since RESS technology acknowledges a lot of benefits compare to conventional method of ginger extraction, it is suggested to use this method to explore particle formation of bioactive compound from powder ginger. The objective of this research is to produce direct solid oil particles formation from ginger rhizome which contains valuable compounds by using RESS-CO2 process. RESS experiments were carried using extraction pressure of 3000, 4000, 5000, 6000 and 7000psi and at different extraction temperature of 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65 and 70°C for 40 minutes extraction time and contant flowrate (24ml/min). From the studies conducted, it was found that at extraction pressure 5000psi and temperature 40°C, the smallest particle size obtained was 2.22μm on 99 % reduction from the original size of 370μm.

Keywords: particle size, supercritical carbon dioxide, RESS, solid oil particle

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8 Effects of Spray Dryer Atomizer Speed on Casein Micelle Size in Whole Fat Milk Powder and Physicochemical Properties of White Cheese

Authors: Mohammad Goli, Akram Sharifi, Mohammad Yousefi Jozdani, Seyed Ali Mortazavi


An industrial spray dryer was used, and the effects of atomizer speed on the physicochemical properties of milk powder, the textural and sensory characteristics of white cheese made from this milk powder, were evaluated. For this purpose, whole milk was converted into powder by using three different speeds (10,000, 11,000, and 12,000 rpm). Results showed that with increasing atomizer speed in the spray dryer, the average size of casein micelle is significantly decreased (p < 0.05), whereas no significant effect is observed on the chemical properties of milk powder. White cheese characteristics indicated that with increasing atomizer speed, texture parameters, such as hardness, mastication, and gumminess, were significantly reduced (p < 0.05). Sensory evaluation also revealed that cheese samples prepared with dried milk produced at 12,000 rpm were highly accepted by panelists. Overall, the findings suggested that 12,000 rpm is the optimal atomizer speed for milk powder production.

Keywords: Powder Technology, particle size, spray drying, atomizer speed, white cheese physical properties

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7 The Method for Synthesis of Chromium Oxide Nano Particles as Increasing Color Intensity on Industrial Ceramics

Authors: Bagher Aziz Kalantari, Javad Rafiei, Mohamad Reza Talei Bavil Olyai


Disclosed is a method of preparing a pigmentary chromium oxide nano particles having 50 percent particle size less than about 100nm. According to the disclosed method, a substantially dry solid composition of potassium dichromate and carbon active is heated in CO2 atmosphere to a temperature of about 600ºc for 1hr. Thereafter, the solid Cr2O3 product was washed twice with distilled water. The other aim of this study is to assess both the colouring performance and the potential of nano-pigments in the ceramic tile decoration. The rationable consists in nano-pigment application in several ceramics, including a comparison of colour performance with conventional micro-pigments.

Keywords: particle size, nano particles, green chromium oxide, colour performances

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6 Physicochemical Properties of Soy Protein Isolate (SPI): Starch Conjugates Treated by Sonication

Authors: Gulcin Yildiz, Hao Feng


In recent years there is growing interested in using soy protein because of several advantages compared to other protein sources, such as high nutritional value, steady supply, and low cost. Soy protein isolate (SPI) is the most refined soy protein product. It contains 90% protein in a moisture-free form and has some desirable functionalities. Creating a protein-polysaccharide conjugate to be the emulsifying agent rather than the protein alone can markedly enhance its stability. This study was undertaken to examine the effects of ultrasound treatments on the physicochemical properties of SPI-starch conjugates. The soy protein isolate (SPI, Pro-Fam® 955) samples were obtained from the Archer Daniels Midland Company. Protein concentrations were analyzed by the Bardford method using BSA as the standard. The volume-weighted mean diameters D [4,3] of protein–polysaccharide conjugates were measured by dynamic light scattering (DLS). Surface hydrophobicity of the conjugates was measured by using 1-anilino-8-naphthalenesulfonate (ANS) (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA). Increasing the pH from 2 to 12 resulted in increased protein solubility. The highest solubility was 69.2% for the sample treated with ultrasonication at pH 12, while the lowest (9.13%) was observed in the Control. For the other pH conditions, the protein solubility values ranged from 40.53 to 49.65%. The ultrasound treatment significantly decreased the particle sizes of the SPI-modified starch conjugates. While the D [4,3] for the Control was 731.6 nm, it was 293.7 nm for the samples treated by sonication at pH 12. The surface hydrophobicity (H0) of SPI-starch at all pH conditions were significantly higher than those in the Control. Ultrasonication was proven to be effective in improving the solubility and emulsifying properties of soy protein isolate-starch conjugates.

Keywords: solubility, particle size, ultrasonication, soy protein isolate

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5 Characteristics of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) Flour on the Soaking Time of Peeled Grains and Particle Size Treatment

Authors: Harijono, Sri Satya Antarlina, Elok Zubaidah, Teti Istiana


Sorghum bicolor (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) has the potential as a flour for gluten-free food products. Sorghum flour production needs grain soaking treatment. Soaking can reduce the tannin content which is an anti-nutrient, so it can increase the protein digestibility. Fine particle size decreases the yield of flour, so it is necessary to study various particle sizes to increase the yield. This study aims to determine the characteristics of sorghum flour in the treatment of soaking peeled grain and particle size. The material of white sorghum varieties KD-4 from farmers in East Java, Indonesia. Factorial randomized factorial design (two factors), repeated three times, factor I were the time of grain soaking (five levels) that were 0, 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours, factor II was the size of the starch particles sifted with a fineness level of 40, 60, 80, and 100 mesh. The method of making sorghum flour is grain peeling, soaking peeled grain, drying using the oven at 60ᵒC, milling, and sieving. Physico-chemical analysis of sorghum flour. The results show that there is an interaction between soaking time of grain with the size of sorghum flour particles. Interaction in yield of flour, L* color (brightness level), whiteness index, paste properties, amylose content, protein content, bulk density, and protein digestibility. The method of making sorghum flour through the soaking of peeled grain and the difference in particle size has an important role in producing the physicochemical properties of the specific flour. Based on the characteristics of sorghum flour produced, it is determined the method of making sorghum flour through sorghum grain soaking for 24 hours, the particle size of flour 80 mesh. The sorghum flour with characteristic were 24.88% yield of flour, 88.60 color L* (brightness level), 69.95 whiteness index, 3615 Cp viscosity, 584.10 g/l of bulk density, 24.27% db protein digestibility, 90.02% db starch content, 23.4% db amylose content, 67.45% db amylopectin content, 0.22% db crude fiber content, 0.037% db tannin content, 5.30% db protein content, ash content 0.18% db, carbohydrate content 92.88 % db, and 1.94% db fat content. The sorghum flour is recommended for cookies products.

Keywords: Physicochemical properties, particle size, characteristic, sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) flour, grain soaking

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4 Impact of Microwave Heating Temperatures on the Pharmaceutical Powder Characteristics

Authors: Maha Al-Ali, Selvakannan Periasamy, Rajarathinam Parthasarathy


Drying temperature is an important factor impacting the physicochemical properties of the dried materials, particularly the pharmaceutical powders. Drying of pharmaceuticals by using microwave radiation is very limited, and the available information about the interaction between the electromagnetic radiations and the pharmaceutical material is still scarce. Therefore, microwave drying process is employed in this work to dry the wet (moisturised) granules of the formulated naproxen-sodium drug. This study aims to investigate the influences of the microwave radiation temperatures on the moisture removal, the crystalline structure, the size and morphology of the dried naproxen-sodium particles, and identify any potential changes in the chemical groups of the drug. In this work, newly formulated naproxen-sodium is prepared and moisturized by wet granulation process and hence dried by using microwave radiation at different temperatures. Moisture analyzer, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscope are used to characterise the non-moisturised powder (reference powder), the moisturised granules, and the dried particles. The results show that microwave drying of naproxen-sodium at high drying temperature is more efficient than that at low temperatures in terms of the moisture removal. Although there is no significant change in the chemical structure of the dried particles, the particle size, crystallinity and morphology are relatively changed with changing of heating temperature.

Keywords: particle size, microwave drying, heating temperature, naproxen-sodium

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3 A Discrete Element Method-Based Simulation of Toppling Failure Considering Block Interaction

Authors: Hooman Dabirmanesh, Attila M. Zsaki


The toppling failure mode in a rock mass is considerably different from the most common sliding failure type along an existing or an induced slip plane. Block toppling is observed in a rock mass which consists of both a widely-spaced basal cross-joint set and a closely-spaced discontinuity set dipping into the slope. For this case, failure occurs when the structure cannot bear the tensile portion of bending stress, and the columns or blocks overturn by their own weight. This paper presents a particle-based discrete element model of rock blocks subjected to a toppling failure where geometric conditions and interaction among blocks are investigated. A series of parametric studies have been conducted on particles’ size, arrangement and bond contact among of particles which are made the blocks. Firstly, a numerical investigation on a one-block system was verified. Afterward, a slope consisting of multi-blocks was developed to study toppling failure and interaction forces between blocks. The results show that the formation of blocks, especially between the block and basal plane surface, can change the process of failure. The results also demonstrate that the initial configuration of particles used to form the blocks has a significant role in achieving accurate simulation results. The size of particles and bond contacts have a considerable influence to change the progress of toppling failure.

Keywords: particle size, discrete element, block toppling failure, contact interaction, random generation

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2 Diversity, Biochemical and Genomic Assessment of Selected Benthic Species of Two Tropical Lagoons, Southwest Nigeria

Authors: G. F. Okunade, M. O. Lawal, R. E. Uwadiae, D. Portnoy


The diversity, physico-chemical, biochemical and genomics assessment of Macrofauna species of Ologe and Badagry Lagoons were carried out between August 2016 and July 2018. The concentrations of Fe, Zn, Mn, Cd, Cr, and Pb in water were determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). Particle size distribution was determined with wet-sieving and sedimentation using hydrometer method. Genomics analyses were carried using 25 P. fusca (quadriseriata) and 25 P.fusca from each lagoon due to abundance in both lagoons all through the two years of collection. DNA was isolated from each sample using the Mag-Bind Blood and Tissue DNA HD 96 kit; a method designed to isolate high quality. The biochemical characteristics were analysed in the dominanat species (P.aurita and T. fuscatus) using ELISA kits. Physico-chemical parameters such as pH, total dissolved solids, dissolved oxygen, conductivity and TDS were analysed using APHA standard protocols. The Physico-chemical parameters of the water quality recorded with mean values of 32.46 ± 0.66mg/L and 41.93 ± 0.65 for COD, 27.28 ± 0.97 and 34.82 ± 0.1 mg/L for BOD, 0.04 ± 4.71 mg/L for DO, 6.65 and 6.58 for pH in Ologe and Badagry lagoons with significant variations (p ≤ 0.05) across seasons. The mean and standard deviation of salinity for Ologe and Badagry Lagoons ranged from 0.43 ± 0.30 to 0.27 ± 0.09. A total of 4210 species belonging to a phylum, two classes, four families and a total of 2008 species in Ologe lagoon while a phylum, two classes, 5 families and a total of 2202 species in Badagry lagoon. The percentage composition of the classes at Ologe lagoon had 99% gastropod and 1% bivalve, while Gastropod contributed 98.91% and bivalve 1.09% in Badagry lagoon. Particle size was distributed in 0.002mm to 2.00mm, particle size distribution in Ologe lagoon recorded 0.83% gravels, 97.83% sand, and 1.33% silt particles while Badagry lagoon recorded 7.43% sand, 24.71% silt, and 67.86% clay particles hence, the excessive dredging activities going on in the lagoon. Maximum percentage of sand (100%) was seen in station 6 in Ologe lagoon while the minimum (96%) was found in station 1. P. aurita (Ologe Lagoon) and T. fuscastus (Badagry Lagoon) were the most abundant benthic species in which both contributed 61.05% and 64.35%, respectively. The enzymatic activities of P. aurita observed with mean values of 21.03 mg/dl for AST, 10.33 mg/dl for ALP, 82.16 mg/dl for ALT and 73.06 mg/dl for CHO in Ologe Lagoon While T. fuscatus observed mean values of Badagry Lagoon) recorded mean values 29.76 mg/dl, ALP with 11.69mg/L, ALT with 140.58 mg/dl and CHO with 45.98 mg/dl. There were significant variations (P < 0.05) in AST and CHO levels of activities in the muscles of the species.

Keywords: Genomics, Metals, particle size, benthos, biochemical responses

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1 An Evaluation of the Feasibility of Several Industrial Wastes and Natural Materials as Precursors for the Production of Alkali Activated Materials

Authors: O. Alelweet, S. Pavia


In order to face current compelling environmental problems affecting the planet, the construction industry needs to adapt. It is widely acknowledged that there is a need for durable, high-performance, low-greenhouse gas emission binders that can be used as an alternative to Portland cement (PC) to lower the environmental impact of construction. Alkali activated materials (AAMs) are considered a more sustainable alternative to PC materials. The binders of AAMs result from the reaction of an alkali metal source and a silicate powder or precursor which can be a calcium silicate or an aluminosilicate-rich material. This paper evaluates the particle size, specific surface area, chemical and mineral composition and amorphousness of silicate materials (most industrial waste locally produced in Ireland and Saudi Arabia) to develop alkali-activated binders that can replace PC resources in specific applications. These include recycled ceramic brick, bauxite, illitic clay, fly ash and metallurgical slag. According to the results, the wastes are reactive and comply with building standards requirements. The study also evidenced that the reactivity of the Saudi bauxite (with significant kaolinite) can be enhanced on thermal activation; and high calcium in the slag will promote reaction; which should be possible with low alkalinity activators. The wastes evidenced variable water demands that will be taken into account for mixing with the activators. Finally, further research is proposed to further determine the reactive fraction of the clay-based precursors.

Keywords: fly ash, Sustainable Building Materials, Clay, particle size, red mud, water demand, alkali activated materials, bauxite, Alkali-activated binders, recycled ceramic brick, metallurgical slags, chemical and mineral composition and amorphousness, particle density

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