Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 60

Participation Related Abstracts

60 Gender and Political Participation in Africa

Authors: Ibrahim Baba

Abstract:

The work examines the nature and causes of differential politics in Africa with particular reference to the sub-Saharan region of the continent. It also among other objectives provides alternative panacea to gender discrimination in African politics and offers solutions on how to promote political inclusion of all citizens in respect of gender differences in Africa. The work is conducted using library base documentation analysis.

Keywords: Gender, Political, Participation, Sub-Saharan Africa, differential politics

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59 Direct Democracy: The Best Administrative System for Nigeria

Authors: Inuwa Abdu Ibrahim

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The research assessed representative democracy as an administrative system in Nigeria, by highlighting the failure of the state. It also looked at some components of direct democracy in Switzerland. Therefore, the paper focused on direct democracy, using secondary sources of data. In conclusion, the research offers direct democracy as a solution to the failure of the Nigerian administrative system especially as it affects participation, developmental programmes and institutionalized corruption.

Keywords: Corruption, Participation, Direct Democracy, Nigeria, national development

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58 People Participation as Social Capital Form for Realizing Sustainable Ecotourism

Authors: I. Putu Eka N. Kencana, I. Wayan Mertha

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A variety of research’s evidence suggests that community involvement is one of the vital elements in the development of sustainable tourism. As an entity of the tourism system, local communities are considered have better understanding of their region as well as influenced positively or negatively by the tourism activities in the region. This study elaborates role of community involvement in the development of ecotourism in Kintamani Bali from two perspectives of view, namely participation in the process of initiatives development and participation in the economic benefits of tourism. As one element of social capital form, community participation on the development and management of ecotourism in Kintamani, could be expected maintain its sustainability.

Keywords: Ecotourism, Social Capital, Participation, Community Involvement

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57 Rural Development through Women Participation in Livestock Care and Management in District Faisalabad

Authors: Arfan Riasat, M. Iqbal Zafar, Gulfam Riasat

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Pakistani women actively participate in livestock management activities, along with their normal domestic chores. The study was designed to measure the position and contribution of rural women, their constraints in livestock management activities and mainly how the rural women contribute for development in the district Faisalabad. It was envisioned that women participation in livestock activities have rarely been investigated. A multistage random sampling technique was used to collect the data from Tehsil Summandry of the district selected at random. Two union councils were taken by using simple random sampling technique. Four Chak (village) from each union council were selected at random and fifteen woman were further selected randomly from each selected chak. The results show that a vast majority of women were illiterate, having annual family income of one to two lac. They are living in joint family system. Their main occupation is agriculture and they spend long hours in whole livestock related activities to support their families. A large proportion of the respondents reported that they had to face problems and constraints in livestock activities in the context of decision making, medication, awareness, training along with social and economic issues. Analysis indicated that education level of women, income of household, age were significantly associated with level of participation. Women participation in livestock activities increased production and they were involved in income generating activities for better economic conditions of their families.

Keywords: Management, Women, Livestock, Participation, Rural development

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56 The Study of Personal Participation in Educational Quality Assurance: Case Study of Programs in Graduate School, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University

Authors: Nopadol Burananat, Kedsara Tripaichayonsak

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This research aims to study the level of expectations and participation of personnel in implementing educational quality assurance of programs in Graduate School, Rajabhat Suan Sunandha University. The sample used in this study is 60 participants. The tool used for data collection is a questionnaire constructed by the researcher. The analysis is done by frequency, percentage, mean and standard deviation. It was found that the level of expectations personnel in Graduate School, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University in implementing educational quality assurance is at high level. The category which received the most score is Action, followed by Check, Do and Plan, respectively. For the level of participation of personnel at program level of Graduate School, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University in implementing educational quality assurance, the overall score is at high level. The category which received the most score is Action, followed by Do, Check and Plan, respectively.

Keywords: Participation, implementation of educational quality assurance, educational quality assurance, expectations and participation

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55 Community Participation for Sustainable Development Tourism in Bang Noi Floating Market, Bangkonti District, Samutsongkhram Province

Authors: Phusit Phukamchanoad, Bua Srikos

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The purpose is to study the model and characteristic of participation of the suitable community to lead to develop permanent water marketing in Bang Noi Floating Market, Bangkonti District, Samutsongkhram Province. A total of 342 survey questionnaires were administered to potential respondents. The researchers interviewed the leader of the community. Appreciation Influence Control (AIC) was used to talk with 20 villagers on arena. The findings revealed that overall, most people had the middle level of the participation in developing the durable Bang Noi Floating Market, Bangkonti, Samutsongkhram Province and in aspects of gaining benefits from developing it with atmosphere and a beautiful view for tourism. For example, the landscape is beautiful with public utilities. The participation in preserving and developing Bang Noi Floating Market remains in the former way of life. The basic factor of person affects to the participation of people such as age, level of education, career, and income per month. Most participants are the original hosts that have houses and shops located in the marketing and neighbor. These people involve with the benefits and have the power to make a water marketing strategy, the major role to set the information database. It also found that the leader and the villagers play the important role in setting a five-physical database. Data include level of information such as position of village, territory of village, road, river, and premises. Information of culture consists of a two-level of information, interesting point, and Itinerary. The information occurs from presenting and practicing by the leader and villagers in the community.All of phases are presented for listening and investigating database together in both the leader and villagers in the process of participation.

Keywords: Sustainable Development, Tourism, Community, Participation, encouragement

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54 Participation of Students and Lecturers in Social Networking for Teaching and Learning in Public Universities in Rivers State, Nigeria

Authors: Nkeiruka Queendarline Nwaizugbu

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The use of social media and mobile devices has become acceptable in virtually all areas of today’s world. Hence, this study is a survey that was carried out to find out if students and lecturers in public universities in Rivers State use social networking for educational purposes. The sample of the study comprised of 240 students and 99 lecturers from the University of Port Harcourt and the Rivers State University of science and Technology. The study had five research questions, two hypotheses and the instrument for data collection was a 4-point Likert-type rating scale questionnaire. The data was analysed using mean, standard deviation and z-test. The findings gotten from the analysed data shows that students participate in social networking using different types of web applications but they hardly use them for educational purposes. Some recommendations were also made.

Keywords: Mobile Learning, Social Networking, Social Media, Technology, Participation, Internet Access

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53 The Visually Impaired Jogger: Enhancing Interaction and Fitness through the Fun Run

Authors: Zasha Romero, Joe Paschall

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This poster will detail the importance of physical activity for the Visually Impaired students and how to promote inclusion in fitness through way of social gatherings and jogging. Furthermore, it will demonstrate how a Health & Kinesiology University Club cooperated in the journey of visually impaired students from participating in physical activity to completing their first 10K fun run. Purpose: The poster will detail how a university’s Health & Kinesiology Club developed a program to promote participation in fitness activities for visually impaired individuals. Also, it will detail their journey from participation in physical activity to completing a 10K fun run. Methods: In an effort to promote inclusion of all into physical activity, a university’s Health & Kinesiology Club developed a non-profit program to challenge visually impaired students to train and complete a 10 kilometer fun run in a South Texas town. The idea was to promote physical fitness through way of social interaction. In order to maintain runners interested, Club students developed training plans and strategies to be able to navigate in a race that was attended by over 18,000 runners. The idea was to promote interaction and life-long fitness amongst participants. Implications: This strategy was done in collaboration with different non-profit institutions to create awareness and provide opportunities for physical fitness, social interaction and life-long fitness skills associated with the jogging. The workshop provided collaboration amongst different entities and novel ideas to create opportunities for a typically underserved population.

Keywords: Management, Disability, Inclusion, Participation, Fitness

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52 How Group Education Impacts Female Factory Workers’ Behavior and Readiness to Receive Mammography and Pap Smears

Authors: Memnun Seven, Aygül Akyüz, Mine Bahar, Hatice Erdoğan

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Background: The workplace has been deemed a suitable location for educating many women at once about cancer screening. Objective: To determine how group education about early diagnostic methods for breast and cervical cancer affects women’s behavior and readiness to receive mammography and Pap smears. Methods: This semi-interventional study was conducted at a textile factory in Istanbul, Turkey. Female workers (n = 125) were included in the study. A participant identification form and knowledge evaluation form developed for this study, along with the trans-theoretical model, were used to collect data. A 45-min interactive group education was given to the participants. Results: Upon contacting participants 3 months after group education, 15.4% (n = 11) stated that they had since received a mammogram and 9.8% (n = 7) a Pap smear. As suggested by the trans-theoretical model, group education increased participants’ readiness to receive cancer screening, along with their knowledge of breast and cervical cancer. Conclusions: Group education positively impacted women’s knowledge of cancer and their readiness to receive mammography and Pap smears. Group education can therefore potentially create awareness of cancer screening tests among women and improve their readiness to receive such tests.

Keywords: Women, Cancer Screening, Participation, educational intervention

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51 Drawbacks of Second Generation Urban Re-Development in Addis Ababa

Authors: Ezana Haddis Weldeghebrael

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Addis Ababa City Administration is engaged in a massive facelift of the inner-city. The paper, therefore, aims to analyze the challenges of the current urban regeneration effort by paying special attention to Lideta and Basha Wolde Chilot projects. To this end, the paper has adopted a documentary research strategy to collect the data and Institutionalist perspective as well as the concept of urban regeneration to analyze the data. The sources were selected based on relevance and recency. Academic research outputs were used primarily. However, where much scholastic publications are not available institutional reports, newspaper articles, and expert presentations were used. The major findings of the research revealed that although the second generation of urban redevelopment projects have attempted to involve affected groups and succeeded in designing better neighborhoods, they are riddled with three major drawbacks. The first one is institutional constraints, i.e. absence of urban redevelopment strategy as well as housing policy, broad definition of ‘public purpose’, little regard for informal businesses, limitation on rights groups, negotiation power not devolved at sub-city level and no plan for groups that cannot afford to pay the down payment for low-cost apartments. The second one is planning limitation, i.e. absence of genuine affected group participation as well as consultative level of public engagement. The third one is implementation failure, i.e. no regard to maintaining social bond, non-participatory and ill-informed resettlement, interference from senior government officials, failure to protect the poor from speculators, corruption and disregard to heritage buildings. Based on the findings, the paper concluded that the current inner-city redevelopment has failed to be socially sustainable and calls for enactment of housing policy as well as redevelopment strategy, affected group participation, on-site resettlement, empowering the Sub-city to manage the project and allowing housing rights groups to advocate for the poor slum dwellers.

Keywords: Planning, Implementation, Participation, Redevelopment, Consultation

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50 Local Development and Community Participation in Owo Local Government Area of Ondo State, Nigeria

Authors: Tolu Lawal

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The genuine development of the grassroots particularly in the developing societies depends largely on the participation of the rural populace in policy conception and implementation, especially in the area of development policies, fundamentally, the rural people play a vital and significance role in economic and political development of the nation. This is because the bulk of the economic produce as well as votes come from these areas. However, the much needed development has continued to elude the rural communities inspire of the various development policies carried out by successive governments in the state. The exclusion of rural communities from planning and implementation of facilities meant to benefit them, and the international debate on sustainable rural development led Ondo State government to re-think its rural development policy with a view to establishing more effective strategies for rural development. The 31s initiatives introduced in 2009 emphasizes the important role of communities in their own development. The paper therefore critically assessed the 31s initiative of the present government in Ondo State with a view to knowing its impact on rural people. The study adopted both primary and secondary data to source its information. Interviews were conducted with the key informants, and field survey (visit) was also part of method of collecting data. Documents, reports and records on 31s initiatives in the selected villages and from outside were also consulted. The paper submitted that 31s initiative has not impacted positively on the lives of rural dwellers in Ondo-State, most especially in the areas of infrastructure and integrated development. The findings also suggested that 31s initiatives is not hopeless, but needs a different kind of investment, for example introducing measures of accountability, addressing the politicization of the initiative and exploiting key principles of development and service delivery.

Keywords: Development, Infrastructure, Participation, Rural development

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49 An Appraisal of the Level of Civil Servants Participation in Recreational Activities

Authors: Isyaku Labaran Fagge

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This study investigated on appraisal of civil servants level of participation in recreational activities in North Western States of Nigeria. To achieve this purpose, a descriptive survey was employed for the designed questionnaire which were administered on 300 respondents, who served as subject for this study, in North Western States of Nigeria. Descriptive statistics of simple frequency count, percentage and Chi square (x2) statistical techniques at 0.05 alpha level were used for all statistical tests of significance. The findings of the study revealed that senior civil servants by (gender, status and location) do participate in recreational activities. On the knowledgeable personnels, all the recreational centres (by gender, status and location) had no knowledgeable personnels to handle the centres across North Western States. Many recreational centers should be create. Government should train and employ more knowledgeable personnel to handle the centres. Civil servants in urban areas do participate more than the civil servants in rural areas.

Keywords: Participation, Recreation, civil servants, recreational activities

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48 The Urban Project and the Urban Improvement to the Test of the Participation, Case: Project of Modernization of Constantine

Authors: Mouhoubi Nedjima, Sassi Boudemagh Souad

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In the framework of the modernization of the city of Constantine, and in order to restore its status as a regional metropolis and introduce it into the network of cities international metropolises, a major urban project was launched: project of modernization and of metropolitanization of the city of Constantine (PMMC). Our research project focuses on the management of the project for the modernization of the city of Constantine (PMMC) focusing on the management of some aspects of the urban project whose participation, with the objective assessment of the managerial approach business. Among the cases revealing taken into account in our research work on the question of participation of actors and their organizations, the operation relating to "the urban improvement in the city of the Brothers FERRAD in the district of Zouaghi". This operation with the objective of improving the living conditions of citizens has faced several challenges and obstacles that have been in major part the factors of its failure. Through this study, we examine the management process and the mode of organization of the actors of the project as well as the level of participation of the citizen to finally propose managerial solutions to conflict situations observed.

Keywords: Participation, the urban project, the urban improvement, Constantine

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47 Governance Question and the Participatory Policy Making: Making the Process Functional in Nigeria

Authors: Albert T. Akume, P. D. Dahida

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This paper examines the effect of various epochs of governments on policy making in Nigeria. The character of governance and public policy making of both epochs was exclusive, non-participatory and self-centric. As a consequence the interests of citizenry were not represented, neither protected nor sought to meet fairly the needs of all groups. The introduction of the post-1999 democratic government demand that the hitherto skewed pattern of policy making cease to be a character of governance. Hence, the need for citizen participation in the policy making process. The question then is what mode is most appropriate to engender public participation so as to make the policy making process functional? Given the prevailing social, economic and political dilemmas the utilization of the direct mode of citizen participation to affect policy outcome is doubtful if not unattainable. It is due to these predicament that this paper uses the documentary research design argues for the utilization of the indirect mode of citizen participation in the policy making process so as to affect public policy outcome appropriately and with less cost, acrimony and delays.

Keywords: Governance, Public Policy, Civil Society, Representation, Participation

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46 Full Disclosure Policy: Transparency in Fiscal Administration

Authors: Joyly Jill Apud

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Corruption is an all-encompassing issue worldwide. Many attempts have been done to address such cases especially by the government through increasing transparency. The Philippine government increased the mechanism of transparency by opening to public its financial transactions through Full Disclosure Policy – mandating all local governments to post in their websites all financial transactions (Philippine Public Transparency Reporting Project, 2011). For transparency to be fully realized, the challenge lies in creating a mechanism where the constituents are encouraged to engage as social auditors. In line of the said challenge, the study focused in Davao City, Philippines measuring the respondent’s awareness, access and utilization of Full Disclosure Policy (FDP). Particularly, this study determined the significant difference on the awareness, access and utilization of respondents when grouped according to sector and the significant relationship between respondents’ awareness and in the access and utilization of FDP reports. The study used descriptive-correlation, Mean, Anova and Pearson R as statistical treatment. The 120 respondents are from the different sectors of Davao City. These are the Academe, Youth, LGUs, NGOs, Business, and Church groups. The awareness of the respondents was measured in three main categories: Existence of the Policy, Content of the Policy and the Manner of Publication. Access and Utilization of the FDP reports is divided into three: Budget Reports, Procurement Reports and Special Purpose Fund Reports. Results showed that the respondents are moderately aware of the Policy. Though it manifested that the respondents are aware of the disclosure, they are unaware of the Full Disclosure Policy and Full Disclosure Policy Portal. Moreover, the respondents seldom access and utilize all the FDP reports. Further results revealed that there is a significant difference in the awareness and the access and utilization of FDP when grouped according to sector. Moreover, significant relationship in the awareness and the access and utilization of the FDP is evident. It showed that the higher the awareness on FDP, the higher the level of access and utilization on the FDP reports.

Keywords: Corruption, Participation, e-Governance, Budget Transparency

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45 Social Media as a Means of Participation in Democracies

Authors: C. Arslan, K. Yakar

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Social media is one of the most important and effective means of social interaction among people in which they create, share and exchange their ideas via photos, videos or voice messages. Although there are lots of communication tools. Social media sites are the most prominent ones that allows the users articulate themselves in a matter of seconds all around the world with almost any expenses and thus, they became very popular and widespread after its emergence. As the usage of social media increases, it becomes an effective instrument in social matters. While it is possible to use social media to emphasize basic human rights and protest some failures of any government as in “Arab Spring”, it is also possible to spread propaganda and misinformation just to cause long lasting insurgency, upheaval, turmoil or disorder as an instrument of intervention to internal affairs and state sovereignty by some hostile groups or countries. It is certain that social media has positive effects on participation in democracies allowing people express themselves freely and limitlessly, but obviously, the misuse of it is very common and it is quite possible that even a five-minute-long video record can topple down a government or give a solid reason to a government to review its policies on some certain areas. As one of the most important and effective means of participation, social media presents some opportunities as well as risks. In this study, the place of social media for participation in democracies will be demonstrated under the light of opportunities and risks.

Keywords: Democracy, Social Media, Participation, Opportunities, risks

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44 The Impact of Government Subsidies to Keep Residents Studying at Home

Authors: Melissa James Maceachern

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This study examines a financial aid program that is designed to “keep residents at home” to attend higher education by providing financial aid as an incentive or discount in their first year of university following high school graduation. This study offers insight into financial matters for higher education students that can assist in providing policy direction for student financing. In particular, this study found that students appeared to value the bursary but none of the key metrics related to participation or conversion to the home institution indicated that the bursary impacted enrolment or participation. One key metric, student loans received by direct entry high school students did indicate a decline in the number of recipients. This study also identified accessibility issues to higher education that are of importance when considering the declining youth populations, future labour market needs and the need to sustain higher education institutions. This is undoubtedly a challenging period of time given the changing social and demographic forces within Canada. A comprehensive examination of the policy and programs to address these forces needs to be undertaken. This study highlights the importance of utilizing financial aid in combination with other policy to assist students in accessing higher education.

Keywords: Government, Accessibility, Participation, Financing

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43 Volunteering and Social Integration of Ex-Soviet Immigrants in Israel

Authors: Natalia Khvorostianov, Larissa Remennick

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Recent immigrants seldom join the ranks of volunteers for various social causes. This gap reflects both material reasons (immigrants’ lower income and lack of free time) and cultural differences (value systems, religiosity, language barrier, attitudes towards host society, etc.). Immigrants from the former socialist countries are particularly averse to organized forms of volunteering for a host of reasons rooted in their past, including the memories of false or forced forms of collectivism imposed by the state. In this qualitative study, based on 21 semi-structured interviews, we explored the perceptions and practices of volunteer work among FSU immigrants - participants in one volunteering project run by an Israeli NGO for the benefit of elderly ex-Soviet immigrants. Our goal was to understand the motivations of immigrant volunteers and the role of volunteering in the processes of their own social and economic integration in their adopted country – Israel. The results indicate that most volunteers chose causes targeting fellow immigrants, their resettlement and well-being, and were motivated by the wish to build co-ethnic support network and overcome marginalization in the Israeli society. Other volunteers were driven by the need for self-actualization in the context of underemployment and occupational downgrading.

Keywords: Integration, Social Capital, Participation, volunteering, FSU immigrants

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42 Female’s Involvement in Real Estate Business in Nigeria: A Case Study of Lagos State

Authors: Osaretin Rosemary Uyi, A. O. Ogungbemi

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Female involvement in policy making and partnership in a man-driven-world is fast gaining international recognition. The Nigeria commercial real estate is one of the sectors of the economy that has a significant number of the male in the business. This study was conducted to assess the participation of females in estate management in Lagos state, Nigeria. Lagos is the commercial nerve center of Nigeria having the highest number of real estate practitioners and investors. The population due to the daily influx of people has made real estate business to continue to grow in this part of Nigeria. A structured questionnaire duly pre-tested and validated was used to elicit information from the respondents. The data collected were presented using tables and charts and were analyzed using descriptive statistical tools such as frequency counts, percentages, were used to test the hypothesis. The results also indicated that most females that participated in commercial real estate business are educated (80%), fell within 31-40 years of age (75%) and of high income status (88%) earn above ₦800,000 per year, while 10% are real estate investors and 82% of the female in the sector are employee. The study concluded that the number of female participating in various aspect of commercial real estate business in the study area was moderate while the numbers of female investors are low when compared to male. This might be due to the problems associated with rent collection, land disputes and other issues that are associated with property management in Nigeria. It is therefore recommended that females in real estate should be empowered and encouraged to match with their male counterpart.

Keywords: Female, Participation, Commercial real estate, Empowerment, Property Management

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41 Gender Equality for the Environment: Positioning India

Authors: Nivedita Roy, Aparajita Chattopadhyay

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Gender discrimination is already one of the major factors why India is still in the list of the 3rd World Countries, but, when it comes to gender inclusion in the environmental arena, this umbrella concept is quite unheard of by our countrymen. The main objective was to assess gender equality for the environment through calculating Environment and Gender Index on a country level, India, in this case. 22 states out of 29 were considered for calculation. Also, out of the 72 countries chosen by IUCN to calculate EGI, the lower middle income group of countries was chosen to assess the position of India, also a lower middle income group country, among them. Linear Regression is executed through SPSS and simple graphs and tables are prepared through MS-EXCEL for analysis. India portrays good governance, reporting activities well to the UN but in terms of basic livelihood and gender equality, the performance is comparatively weak.

Keywords: Development, Gender, Environment, Conservation, Participation, rights, livelihood

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40 Assessing the Vulnerability Level in Coastal Communities in the Caribbean: A Case Study of San Pedro, Belize

Authors: Sherry Ann Ganase, Sandra Sookram

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In this paper, the vulnerability level to climate change is analysed using a comprehensive index, consisting of five pillars: human, social, natural, physical, and financial. A structural equation model is also applied to determine the indicators and relationships that exist between the observed environmental changes and the quality of life. Using survey data to model the results, a value of 0.382 is derived as the vulnerability level for San Pedro, where values closer to zero indicates lower vulnerability and values closer to one indicates higher vulnerability. The results showed the social pillar to be most vulnerable, with the indicator ‘participation’ ranked the highest in its cohort. Although, the environmental pillar is ranked as least vulnerable, the indicators ‘hazard’ and ‘biodiversity’ obtained scores closer to 0.4, suggesting that changes in the environment are occurring from natural and anthropogenic activities. These changes can negatively influence the quality of life as illustrated in the structural equation modelling. The study concludes by reporting on the need for collective action and participation by households in lowering vulnerability to ensure sustainable development and livelihood.

Keywords: Climate Change, Participation, structural equation model, vulnerability index, San Pedro

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39 Person-Centered Thinking as a Fundamental Approach to Improve Quality of Life

Authors: Sarah Reker, Christiane H. Kellner

Abstract:

The UN-Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, which Germany also ratified, postulates the necessity of user-centred design, especially when it comes to evaluating the individual needs and wishes of all citizens. Therefore, a multidimensional approach is required. Based on this insight, the structure of the town-like centre in Schönbrunn - a large residential complex and service provider for persons with disabilities in the outskirts of Munich - will be remodelled to open up the community to all people as well as transform social space. This strategy should lead to more equal opportunities and open the way for a much more diverse community. The research project “Index for participation development and quality of life for persons with disabilities” (TeLe-Index, 2014-2016), which is anchored at the Technische Universität München in Munich and at the Franziskuswerk Schönbrunn supports this transformation process called “Vision 2030”. In this context, we have provided academic supervision and support for three projects (the construction of a new school, inclusive housing for children and teenagers with disabilities and the professionalization of employees using person-centred planning). Since we cannot present all the issues of the umbrella-project within the conference framework, we will be focusing on one sub-project more in-depth, namely “The Person-Centred Think Tank” [Arbeitskreis Personenzentriertes Denken; PZD]. In the context of person-centred thinking (PCT), persons with disabilities are encouraged to (re)gain or retain control of their lives through the development of new choice options and the validation of individual lifestyles. PCT should thus foster and support both participation and quality of life. The project aims to establish PCT as a fundamental approach for both employees and persons with disabilities in the institution through in-house training for the staff and, subsequently, training for users. Hence, for the academic support and supervision team, the questions arising from this venture can be summed up as follows: (1) has PCT already gained a foothold at the Franziskuswerk Schönbrunn? And (2) how does it affect the interaction with persons with disabilities and how does it influence the latter’s everyday life? According to the holistic approach described above, the target groups for this study are both the staff and the users of the institution. Initially, we planned to implement the group discussion method for both target-groups. However, in the course of a pretest with persons with intellectual disabilities, it became clear that this type of interview, with hardly any external structuring, provided only limited feedback. In contrast, when the discussions were moderated, there was more interaction and dialogue between the interlocutors. Therefore, for this target-group, we introduced structured group interviews. The insights we have obtained until now will enable us to present the intermediary results of our evaluation. We analysed and evaluated the group interviews and discussions with the help of qualitative content analysis according to Mayring in order to obtain information about users’ quality of life. We sorted out the statements relating to quality of life obtained during the group interviews into three dimensions: subjective wellbeing, self-determination and participation. Nevertheless, the majority of statements were related to subjective wellbeing and self-determination. Thus, especially the limited feedback on participation clearly demonstrates that the lives of most users do not take place beyond the confines of the institution. A number of statements highlighted the fact that PCT is anchored in the everyday interactions within the groups. However, the implementation and fostering of PCT on a broader level could not be detected and thus remain further aims of the project. The additional interviews we have planned should validate the results obtained until now and open up new perspectives.

Keywords: Participation, Self-Determination, person-centered thinking, research with persons with disabilities, residential complex and service provider

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38 Constraints Women Academician's Participation at Administrative Positions in Higher Education of Developing Countries

Authors: Mahani Mokhtar, Bahieh Mohajeri, Mohamad Sharif Mustaf

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Purpose: This paper attempts to set the stage for the exploration of female participation in administrative positions within non-western countries by reviewing the studies on female in administrative positions within non-western countries and suggesting guidelines for future studies in this area in developing countries. Methodology: The paper is based on a systematic review of papers that have been published in journals. Findings: The review focuses on constraints to female’s participation in higher education of developing countries (e.g. strong family responsibility, low levels of women faculty members, social values and gendered cultural factors). Practical Implications: Further guidelines for future examination of this field of study are suggested (e.g. adopting a different theoretical view).Value: The article is an initial attempt to gather knowledge about constraints of female administrators in higher education of developing countries. The subject has received less attention in studies on administration and gender. In addition, the article provides suggestions for future studies in order to understand women administrators’ experiences in different educational and cultural settings.

Keywords: Participation, developing countries, administrative position, female administrator

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37 The Study of Public Consciousness of Undergraduate Students, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University

Authors: Nantida Otakum

Abstract:

The purpose of the study is to study the level of public consciousness of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University undergraduate students. This study also compares differences in the level of public consciousness among undergraduate students who are different in sex and year of study. The research methodology employed a questionnaire as a quantitative method. The respondents were undergraduate students at Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University. Totally, 400 usable questionnaires were received. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used in data analysis. The results showed that the level of public consciousness of undergraduate students was at a good level in all aspects. The aspect of social participation was at the highest level, while the aspect of shared vision was at the lowest level. The results also indicated that undergraduate students with differences in sex and year of study were not significantly different in public consciousness level.

Keywords: Participation, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, undergraduate students, public consciousness

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36 What Children Do and Do Not Like about Taking Part in Sport: Using Focus Groups to Investigate Thoughts and Feelings of Children with Hearing Loss

Authors: S. Somerset, D. J. Hoare, P. Leighton

Abstract:

Limited participation in physical activity and sport has been linked to poorer mental and physical health in children. Studies have shown that children who participate in sports benefit from improved social skills, self-confidence, communication skills and a better quality of life. Children who participate in sport are also more likely to continue their participation into their adult life. Deaf or hard of hearing children should have the same opportunities to participate in sport and receive the benefits as their hearing peers. Anecdotal evidence suggests this isn’t always the case. This is concerning given there are 45,000 children in the UK with permanent hearing loss. The aim of this study was to understand what encourages or discourages deaf or hard of hearing children to take part in sports. Ethical approval for the study was obtained from the University of Nottingham School of Medicine ethics committee. We conducted eight focus groups with deaf or hard of hearing children aged 10 to 15 years. A total of 45 children (19 male, 26 female) recruited from local schools and sports clubs took part. Information was gathered on the children’s thoughts and feelings about participation in sport. This included whether they played sports and who with, whether they did or did not like sport, and why they got involved in sport. Focus groups were audio recorded and transcribed. Transcripts were analysed using thematic analysis. Several key themes were identified as being associated with levels of sports participation. These included friendships, family and communication. Deaf or hard of hearing children with active siblings had participated in more sports. Communication was a common theme throughout regardless of the type of hearing-assistive technology a child used. Children found communication easier during sport if they were allowed to use their technology and had particular difficulty during sports such as swimming. Children expressed a desire not to have to identify themselves at a club as having a hearing loss. This affected their confidence when participating in sport. Not surprisingly, children who are deaf or hard of hearing are more likely to participate in sport if they have a good support network of parents, coaches and friends. The key barriers to participation for these children are communication, lack of visual information, lack of opportunity and a lack of awareness. By addressing these issues more deaf and hard of hearing children will take part in sport and will continue their participation.

Keywords: Sport, barrier, Children, Participation, Deaf, hard of hearing

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35 Barriers to Participation in Sport for Children without Disability: A Systematic Review

Authors: S. Somerset, D. J. Hoare

Abstract:

Participation in sport is linked to better mental and physical health in children and adults. Studies have shown children who participate in sports benefit from improved social skills, self-confidence, communication skills and a better quality of life. Children who participate in sports from a young age are also more likely to continue to have active lifestyles during adulthood. This is an important consideration with a nation where physical activity levels are declining and the incidences of obesity are rising. Getting children active and keeping them active can provide long term health benefits to the individual but also a potential reduction in health costs in the future. This systematic review aims to identify the barriers to participation in sport for children aged up to 18 years and encompasses both qualitative and quantitative studies. The bibliographic databases, EMBASE, Medline, CINAHL and SportDiscus were searched. Additional hand searches were carried out on review articles found in the searches to identify any studies that may have been missed. Studies involving children up to 18 years without additional needs focusing on barriers to participation in sport were included. Randomised control trials, policy guidelines, studies with sport as an intervention, studies focusing on the female athlete triad, tobacco abuse, alcohol abuse, drug abuse, pre exercise testing, and cardiovascular disease were excluded. Abstract review, full paper review and quality appraisal were conducted by two researchers. A consensus meeting took place to resolve any differences at the abstract, full text and data extraction / quality appraisal stages. The CASP qualitative studies appraisal tool and the CASP cohort studies tool (excluding question 3 and 4 which refer to interventions) were used for quality appraisal in this review. The review identified several salient barriers to participation in sport for children. These barriers ranged from the uniform worn during school physical education lessons to the weather during participation in sport. The most commonly identified barriers in the review include parental support, time allocation, location of the activity and the cost of the activity. Therefore, it would be beneficial for a greater provision to be made within the school environment for children to participate sport. This can reduce the cost and time commitment required from parents to encourage participation. This would help to increase activity levels of children, which ultimately can only be a good thing.

Keywords: Sport, barrier, Children, Participation

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34 The Food and Nutritional Effects of Smallholders’ Participation in Milk Value Chain in Ethiopia

Authors: Geday Elias, Montaigne Etienne, Padilla Martine, Tollossa Degefa

Abstract:

Smallholder farmers’ participation in agricultural value chain identified as a pathway to get out of poverty trap in Ethiopia. The smallholder dairy activities have a huge potential in poverty reduction through enhancing income, achieving food and nutritional security in the country. However, much less is known about the effects of smallholder’s participation in milk value chain on household food security and nutrition. This paper therefore, aims at evaluating the effects of smallholders’ participation in milk value chain on household food security taking in to account the four pillars of food security measurements (availability, access, utilization and stability). Using a semi-structured interview, a cross sectional farm household data collected from a randomly selected sample of 333 households (170 in Amhara and 163 in Oromia regions).Binary logit and propensity score matching( PSM) models are employed to examine the mechanisms through which smallholder’s participation in the milk value chain affects household food security where crop production, per capita calorie intakes, diet diversity score, and food insecurity access scale are used to measure food availability, access, utilization and stability respectively. Our findings reveal from 333 households, only 34.5% of smallholder farmers are participated in the milk value chain. Limited access to inputs and services, limited access to inputs markets and high transaction costs are key constraints for smallholders’ limited access to the milk value chain. To estimate the true average participation effects of milk value chain for participated households, the outcome variables (food security) of farm households who participated in milk value chain are compared with the outcome variables if the farm households had not participated. The PSM analysis reveals smallholder’s participation in milk value chain has a significant positive effect on household income, food security and nutrition. Smallholder farmers who are participated in milk chain are better by 15 quintals crops production and 73 percent of per capita calorie intakes in food availability and access respectively than smallholder farmers who are not participated in the market. Similarly, the participated households are better in dietary quality by 112 percents than non-participated households. Finally, smallholders’ who are participated in milk value chain are better in reducing household vulnerability to food insecurity by an average of 130 percent than non participated households. The results also shows income earned from milk value chain participation contributed to reduce capital’s constraints of the participated households’ by higher farm income and total household income by 5164 ETB and 14265 ETB respectively. This study therefore, confirms the potential role of smallholders’ participation in food value chain to get out of poverty trap through improving rural household income, food security and nutrition. Therefore, identified the determinants of smallholder participation in milk value chain and the participation effects on food security in the study areas are worth considering as a positive knock for policymakers and development agents to tackle the poverty trap in the study area in particular and in the country in general.

Keywords: Participation, Milk, Value Chain, effects, smallholders, food security and nutrition

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33 Media Usage, Citizenship Norms, and Political Participation of Transition to Democracy in Indonesia

Authors: Najmuddin Najmuddin

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to determine whether media usage and change of citizenship norms influence political participation. The focus of this study is to examine citizenship norms in the context of the development of information, and communication technology and how it will impact political participation in the context of Indonesia's transition to democracy. The study use survey method. The main theoretical framework is media and political participation. The results of this study reveal that gender, age and educational background of the respondents did not influence significantly media usage and citizenship norms. The Results also show that educational background is not a factor that distinguishes media usage but it becomes differentiating factor in citizenship norms. The results further show that the media usage has a significant correlation with citizenship norms and citizenship norms has a significant relationship with political participation. In addition, media usage and citizenship norms impact significantly to political participation. The sub-dimensions of citizenship norms (compliance, duty, and engaged citizen) provides a significant contribution to the sub-dimensions of political participation (traditional political participation, modern political participation, civic political participation). Based on the findings it can be concluded that the political euphoria in the era of transition to democracy has changed pattern media usage and citizenship norms of among the young generation.

Keywords: Democracy, Media, Political, Participation, Citizenship, norms

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32 Perception and Participation Quality Assurance in Higher Education: A Case Study of Phranakhon Rajabhat University, Thailand

Authors: O. Vanijajiva, K. Oumaree, N. Ngampak

Abstract:

This research aims to study the level of perception and participation of Phranakhon Rajabhat University staff and to study the relationship between the levels of perception and participation with the score of University evaluation of quality assurance in education. The respondents were composed of 479 staffs. The tool used in this research is perceived and participation questionnaire of quality assurance in education of Phranakhon Rajabhat University. The results found that the most staffs are female with undergraduate education. Most 2 respondents are revealing educational staffs without academic position. The fact of times to gain knowledge of quality assurance in education is 1-3 times. The perception of knowledge about quality assurance in education is moderate (3.74 ± 0.65) with most respondent are more focus on university activity than quality assurance in education activity. The participation of quality assurance in education activities involved in moderate (3.17 ± 0.88), with most respondents more involved in student affair than quality assurance in education motion. For assessment of the relationship of perception and participation of quality assurance in education are average score (4.31 ± 0.16) showed that the level of perception and participation was associated with university evaluation in very low level (r = -0.103 and -0.121, respectively), while perception and participation are correlated with the moderate level (r = 0.691).

Keywords: Higher Education, Participation, awareness, Thailand, quality assurance education

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31 Nigeria Rural Water Supply Management: Participatory Process as the Best Option

Authors: E. O. Aluta, C. A. Booth, D. G. Proverbs, T. Appleby

Abstract:

Challenges in the effective management of potable water have attracted global attention in recent years and remain many world regions’ major priorities. Scarcity and unavailability of potable water may potentially escalate poverty, obviate democratic expression of views and militate against inter-sectoral development. These challenges contra-indicate the inherent potentials of the resource. Thus, while creation of poverty may be regarded as a broad-based problem, it is capable of reflecting life-span reduction diseases, the friction of interests manifesting in threats and warfare, the relegation of democratic principles for authoritarian definitions and Human Rights abuse. The challenges may be identified as manifestations of ineffective management of potable water resource and therefore, regarded as major problems in environmental protection. In reaction, some nations have re-examined their laws and policies, while others have developed innovative projects, which seek to ameliorate difficulties of providing sustainable potable water. The problems resonate in Nigeria, where the legal framework supporting the supply and management of potable water has been criticized as ineffective. This has impacted more on rural community members, often regarded as ‘voiceless’. At that level, the participation of non-state actors has been identified as an effective strategy, which can improve water supply. However, there are indications that there is no pragmatic application of this, resulting in over-centralization and top-down management. Thus, this study focuses on how the participatory process may enable the development of participatory water governance framework, for use in Nigeria rural communities. The Rural Advisory Board (RAB) is proposed as a governing body to promote proximal relationships, institute democratisation borne out of participation, while enabling effective accountability and information. The RAB establishes mechanisms for effectiveness, taking into consideration Transparency, Accountability and Participation (TAP), advocated as guiding principles of decision-makers. Other tools, which may be explored in achieving these are, Laws and Policies supporting the water sector, under the direction of the Ministries and Law Courts, which ensure non-violation of laws. Community norms and values, consisting of Nigerian traditional belief system, perceptions, attitude and reality (often undermined in favour of legislations), are relied on to pave the way for enforcement. While the Task Forces consist of community members with specific designation of duties, which ensure compliance and enforceability, a cross-section of community members are assigned duties. Thus, the principle of participation is pragmatically reflected. A review of the literature provided information on the potentials of the participatory process, in potable water governance. Qualitative methodology was explored by using the semi-structured interview as strategy for inquiry. The purposive sampling strategy, consisting of homogeneous, heterogeneous and criterion techniques was applied to enable sampling. The samples, sourced from diverse positions of life, were from the study area of Delta State of Nigeria, involving three local governments of Oshimili South, Uvwie and Warri South. From the findings, there are indications that the application of the participatory process is inhered with empowerment of the rural community members to make legitimate demands for TAP. This includes the obviation of mono-decision making for the supply and management of potable water. This is capable of restructuring the top-down management to a top-down/bottom-up system.

Keywords: Participation, participatory process, participatory water governance, rural advisory board

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