Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Parkinson Related Abstracts

4 The Classification of Parkinson Tremor and Essential Tremor Based on Frequency Alteration of Different Activities

Authors: Chusak Thanawattano, Roongroj Bhidayasiri


This paper proposes a novel feature set utilized for classifying the Parkinson tremor and essential tremor. Ten ET and ten PD subjects are asked to perform kinetic, postural and resting tests. The empirical mode decomposition (EMD) is used to decompose collected tremor signal to a set of intrinsic mode functions (IMF). The IMFs are used for reconstructing representative signals. The feature set is composed of peak frequencies of IMFs and reconstructed signals. Hypothesize that the dominant frequency components of subjects with PD and ET change in different directions for different tests, difference of peak frequencies of IMFs and reconstructed signals of pairwise based tests (kinetic-resting, kinetic-postural and postural-resting) are considered as potential features. Sets of features are used to train and test by classifier including the quadratic discriminant classifier (QLC) and the support vector machine (SVM). The best accuracy, the best sensitivity and the best specificity are 90%, 87.5%, and 92.86%, respectively.

Keywords: Parkinson, Tremor, Spectrum Estimation, support vector machine, essential tremor, empirical mode decomposition, quadratic discriminant, peak frequency, auto-regressive

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3 Features Reduction Using Bat Algorithm for Identification and Recognition of Parkinson Disease

Authors: A. Shukla, P. Shrivastava, K. Verma, S. Rungta


Parkinson's disease is a chronic neurological disorder that directly affects human gait. It leads to slowness of movement, causes muscle rigidity and tremors. Gait serve as a primary outcome measure for studies aiming at early recognition of disease. Using gait techniques, this paper implements efficient binary bat algorithm for an early detection of Parkinson's disease by selecting optimal features required for classification of affected patients from others. The data of 166 people, both fit and affected is collected and optimal feature selection is done using PSO and Bat algorithm. The reduced dataset is then classified using neural network. The experiments indicate that binary bat algorithm outperforms traditional PSO and genetic algorithm and gives a fairly good recognition rate even with the reduced dataset.

Keywords: Parkinson, Feature selection, gait, bat algorithm

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2 Positive Effects of Aerobic Exercise after Bone Marrow Stem Cell Transplantation on Recovery of Dopaminergic Neurons and Promotion of Angiogenesis Markers in the Striatum of Parkinsonian Rats

Authors: S. A. Hashemvarzi, A. Heidarianpour, Z. Fallahmohammadi, M. Pourghasem, M. Kaviani


Introduction: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative in the central nervous system characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra resulting in loss of dopamine release in the striatum. Non-drug treatment options such as Stem cell transplantation and exercise have been considered for treatment of Parkinson's disease. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of aerobic exercise after bone marrow stem cells transplantation on recovery of dopaminergic neurons and promotion of angiogenesis markers in the striatum of parkinsonian rats. Materials and Methods: 42 male Wistar rats were divided randomly into six groups: Normal (N), Sham (S), Parkinson’s (P), Stem cells transplanted Parkinson’s (SP), Exercised Parkinson’s (EP) and Stem cells transplanted + Exercised Parkinson’s (SEP). To create a model of Parkinson's, the striatum was destroyed by injection of 6-hydroxy-dopamine into the striatum through stereotaxic apparatus. Stem cells were derived from the bone marrow of femur and tibia of male rats with 6-8 weeks old. After cultivation, approximately 5×105 cells in 5 microliter of medium were injected into the striatum of rats through the channel. Aerobic exercise was included 8 weeks of running on the treadmill with a speed of 15 meters per minute. At the end, all subjects were decapitated and striatum tissues were separately isolated for measurement of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), dopamine (DA) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) levels. Results: VEGF, DA and TH levels in the striatum of parkinsonian rats significantly increased in treatment groups (SP, EP and SEP), especially in SEP group compared to P group after treatment (P<0.05). Conclusion: The findings implicate that the BMSCs transplantation in combination with exercise would have synergistic effects leading to functional recovery, dopaminergic neurons recovery and promotion of angiogenesis marker in the striatum of parkinsonian rats.

Keywords: Stem Cells, Parkinson, treadmill training, neurotrophic factors

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1 A Review of Brain Implant Device: Current Developments and Applications

Authors: Ardiansyah I. Ryan, Ashsholih K. R., Fathurrohman G. R., Kurniadi M. R., Huda P. A


The burden of brain-related disease is very high. There are a lot of brain-related diseases with limited treatment result and thus raise the burden more. The Parkinson Disease (PD), Mental Health Problem, or Paralysis of extremities treatments had risen concern, as the patients for those diseases usually had a low quality of life and low chance to recover fully. There are also many other brain or related neural diseases with the similar condition, mainly the treatments for those conditions are still limited as our understanding of the brain function is insufficient. Brain Implant Technology had given hope to help in treating this condition. In this paper, we examine the current update of the brain implant technology. Neurotechnology is growing very rapidly worldwide. The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved the use of Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) as a brain implant in humans. As for neural implant both the cochlear implant and retinal implant are approved by FDA too. All of them had shown a promising result. DBS worked by stimulating a specific region in the brain with electricity. This device is planted surgically into a very specific region of the brain. This device consists of 3 main parts: Lead (thin wire inserted into the brain), neurostimulator (pacemaker-like device, planted surgically in the chest) and an external controller (to turn on/off the device by patient/programmer). FDA had approved DBS for the treatment of PD, Pain Management, Epilepsy and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD). The target treatment of DBS in PD is to reduce the tremor and dystonia symptoms. DBS has been showing the promising result in animal and limited human trial for other conditions such as Alzheimer, Mental Health Problem (Major Depression, Tourette Syndrome), etc. Every surgery has risks of complications, although in DBS the chance is very low. DBS itself had a very satisfying result as long as the subject criteria to be implanted this device based on indication and strictly selection. Other than DBS, there are several brain implant devices that still under development. It was included (not limited to) implant to treat paralysis (In Spinal Cord Injury/Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis), enhance brain memory, reduce obesity, treat mental health problem and treat epilepsy. The potential of neurotechnology is unlimited. When brain function and brain implant were fully developed, it may be one of the major breakthroughs in human history like when human find ‘fire’ for the first time. Support from every sector for further research is very needed to develop and unveil the true potential of this technology.

Keywords: Parkinson, deep brain stimulation, brain implant, deep brain stimulation (DBS)

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