Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31

Parents Related Abstracts

31 Maternal Smoking and Risk of Childhood Overweight and Obesity: A Meta-Analysis

Authors: Martina Kanciruk, Tyrone Donnon, Jac J. W. Andrews

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The purpose of this study was to determine the significance of maternal smoking for the development of childhood overweight and/or obesity. Accordingly, a systematic literature review of English-language studies published from 1980 to 2012 using the following data bases: MEDLINE, PsychINFO, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Dissertation Abstracts International was conducted. The following terms were used in the search: pregnancy, overweight, obesity, smoking, parents, childhood, risk factors. Eighteen studies of maternal smoking during pregnancy and obesity conducted in Europe, Asia, North America, and South America met the inclusion criteria. A meta-analysis of these studies indicated that maternal smoking during pregnancy is a significant risk factor for overweight and obesity; mothers who smoke during pregnancy are at a greater risk for developing obesity or overweight; the quantity of cigarettes consumed by the mother during pregnancy influenced the odds of offspring overweight and/or obesity. In addition, the results from moderator analyses suggest that part of the heterogeneity discovered between the studies can be explained by the region of world that the study occurred in and the age of the child at the time of weight assessment.

Keywords: Overweight, Childhood Obesity, Risk Factors, Smoking, Parents

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30 Lived Experiences of Parents in Disciplining Their Children

Authors: Bernardino Vinoya, Cassandra D. Batton, Samantha Gayle M. Bonavente, Johnson O. Canoza, Lhea Flynn B. Capones, Camille S. Dispo, Johanna Neilvin T. Dontogan, Louise Angelica C. Lipana, Charlene Pearl P. Navalta, Rechelle Vhen W. Payo-os, Mary Reyna D. Ridao, Rushnol Jade P. Tupac, Pauline B. Sol

Abstract:

Parenting is preparing children for life as productive adults and discipline strategies are needed to achieve it like non-aggressive, psychologically aggressive and physical discipline. The effects of disciplinary strategies on children are well explored as evidenced by existing studies, local and international laws and active international organizations which are all brimmed towards child protection but status quo shows a profound scarcity of studies engaged in the effects of disciplining the child on the parent. To know the deeper unexplored reasons and untold stories of the parent, mainly the lived experiences of parents in disciplining their children. Design is descriptive phenomelogical. Participants were chosen using snowball purposive sampling. Data were collected through interview with the general question, “Ano ang mga karanasan ninyo sa pagdidisiplina ng inyong anak (What are your experiences when disciplining your child?)”, followed with unstructured questions. Collaizi method was used in analyzing data. Data collected was verified through focused group discussion. Results show three main themes: Reason, Disciplinary Strategy, and Aftermath. The use of disciplinary strategy is influenced by the experiences of the parent, the triggers like the child’s misbehavior and parental desires or wishes for the child. Disciplinary strategy can either be physical punishment or verbal. Parent’s generally used both when children disrespects or disobeys. Parents also experience both positive and negative effects on their physical, social, emotional aspects after disciplining their children. As a result, parents use coping mechanisms to maintain ego stability. Disciplining a child is a cyclical process. Parents, just like the child will also experience both positive and negative outcomes after using different disciplinary strategies. Future researchers can replicate study or use triangulation in multi-site qualitative and quantitative studies, professors can teach findings on parents in the concepts of pediatric nursing and apply the findings in the clinical area particularly when dealing with families.

Keywords: Pediatric Nursing, Parents, disciplinary strategy, parental effects

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29 Influence of Parent’s Food Habits on Nutrition Behaviours of Children under 7 Years in Tehran, Iran

Authors: Katayoun Bagheri, Farzad Berahmandpour

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Several studies about food habits in diverse population show, early living years play significant role in building of current food habits. Suitable nutrition in children is also influenced by parent’s food habits. The aim of study is to survey the role of parent’s food habits to form of nutrition behaviours in children under 7 years in Tehran - Iran. The study is a Descriptive study. The participants were 19 children under 7 years with their mothers from a kindergarten in the central Tehran. The sampling method was random sampling. The data was collected by food habits questionnaires and implementation of consultation meetings with the mothers. The data analysis was qualitative analysis. The findings show that 79% children and their parents have eaten enough and variety breakfast, but food choices of children were depended on food choices of parents. In the other meals, the majority of children enjoyed to eat dinner (58%), because the more families could eat dinner together. According to mother opinions, the children enjoy eating macaroni, chicken, fried potatoes, chips and fruit juices. The researchers argue that mother’s role is unavoidable in the food preferences among children. Fortunately, the results believe that children tend to drink simple milk (79%). Moreover, their parents lead them to chocolate milk consumption (42%) instead of other flavored milk. Finally, despite popular belief claim that mothers influence on nutrition behavior of children, but the study argues that the fathers have more effects on children’s nutrition behaviours. In conclusion, it seems that the general trainings about promoting healthy nutrition behavior for parents by mass media can improve nutrition habits and behaviours of pre school children.

Keywords: Children, Parents, food habits, nutrition behaviours, promoting nutrition

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28 Parent’s Evaluation of the Services Offered to Their Children with Autism in UAE Centres

Authors: Mohammad Ali Fteiha, Ghanem Al Bustami

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The study aimed to identify the assessment of parents of children with Autism for services provided by the Center for special care in the United Arab Emirates, in terms of quality, comprehensive and the impact of some factors related to the diagnosis and place of service provision and efficient working procedures of service and the child age. In order to achieve the objective of the study, researchers used Parent’s Satisfaction Scale, and Parents Evaluation of Services Effectiveness, both the scale and the parents reports provided with accepted level of validity and reliability. Sample includes 300 families of children with Autism receiving educational and rehabilitation services, treatment and support services in both governmental and private centers in United Arab Emirates. ANOVA test was used through SPSS program to analyze the collected data. The results of the study have indicated that there are significant differences in the assessment of services provided by centers due to a place of service, the nature of the diagnosis, child's age at the time of the study, as well as statistically significance differences due to age when first diagnosed. The results also showed positive evaluation for the good level of services as international standard, and the quality of these services provided by autism centers in the United Arab Emirates, especially in governmental centers. At the same time, the results showed the presence of many needs problems faced by the parents do not have appropriate solutions. Based on the results the recommendations were stated.

Keywords: Diagnosis, autism, Evaluation, Parents, autism programs, supportive services, government centers, private centers

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27 The Connection between Social Support, Caregiver Burden, and Life Satisfaction of the Parents Whose Children Have Congenital Heart Disease

Authors: A. Uludağ, F. G. Tufekci, N. Ceviz

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Aim: The research has been carried out in order to evaluate caregiver burden, life satisfaction and received social support level of the parents whose children have congenital heart disease; to examine the relationship between the social supports received by them and caregiver burden and life satisfaction. Material and Method: The research which is descriptive and which is searching a relationship has been carried out between the dates June 7, 2012- June 30, 2014, in Erzurum Ataturk University Research and Application Hospital, Department of Pediatrics and Children Cardiology Polyclinic. In the research, it was collaborated with the parents (N = 157) who accepted to participate in, of children who were between the ages of 3 months- 12 years. While gathering the data, a questionnaire, Zarit Caregiver Burden, Life Satisfaction and Social Support Scales have been used. The statistics of the data acquired has been produced by using percentage distribution, mean, and variance and correlation analysis. Ethical principles are followed in the research. Results: In the research, caregiver burden, life satisfaction and social support level received from family (p < 0.05), have been determined higher in the parents whose children have serious congenital heart disease than that of parents whose children have slight disease and social support received from friends has been found lower. It has been determined that there is a strong relation (p < 0.001) through negative direction between both social support levels and caregiver burden of parents; and that there is a strong relation (p < 0.001) through positive direction between both support levels and life satisfaction. Conclusion: That Social Support is in a strong relation with Caregiver Burden through a negative direction and a strong relation with Life Satisfaction through positive direction in parents of all the children who have congenital heart disease requires social support systems to be reinforced. Parents can be led or guided so as to prompt social support systems more.

Keywords: Child, Social Support, Congenital Heart Disease, Parents, Life Satisfaction, caregiver burden

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26 What are Parents of Teacher Candidates’ Belief Towards Teaching as a Profession?

Authors: Chua Lee Chuan

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This study was conducted to explore parents’ beliefs towards the teaching profession. This survey was conducted on 51 parents of teacher candidates in a teacher training institute. A research instrument, using questionnaires, adapted from FIT-Choice scale developed by Richardson and Watt (2006) was used to collect data from the population. The findings showed that parents, in general, have positive attitudes towards the teaching profession. They perceived teaching as a career highly valued by the society. Though the teaching job was viewed as difficult and requiring high expertise, the salary received commensurate their hard work and heavy workload. In terms of gender, male and female parents did not differ in their beliefs about the teaching profession. However, results indicated that educational attainment and income level had significant effect on parents’ beliefs on teaching as a profession. Implications and recommendations in relation to the findings are also included.

Keywords: beliefs, Parents, teaching profession, teacher candidates

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25 Functioning of a Temporarily Single Parent Family System Due to Migration from the Perspective of Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy

Authors: A. Gagat-Matuła

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There is a definite lack – in Poland, as well as around the world – of empirical studies of families raising handicapped child, in which one parent migrates. In diagnostics of the functioning of such families emphasis should be placed not only on the difficulties, but most of all it should be indicated what possibilities are there for the family and how it overcomes the difficulties. Migration of a parent on the one hand is a chance to improve the family’s material situation. In certain circumstances this may only be an “escape” into work from the issues associated with the upbringing and rehabilitation of a handicapped child. The aim of the study was to learn the functioning of a temporarily single parent family system as a result of migration of a parent from the perspective of adolescents with cerebral palsy. The study was conducted in the year 2013 in the area of Eastern Poland. It involved an analysis of 70 persons (with cerebral palsy in an intellectual capacity) from families in which at least one of the parents migrates. The study incorporated the diagnostic survey method. These tools were used: Family Evaluation Scales (SOR) adapted for Poland by Andrzej Margasiński. The explorations in this study indicate, that 47% of studied temporarily single parent families are balanced models. This is evidence of the resources at the disposal of the family which, despite the disability of the child and temporary separation, is able to function properly. The conducted studies show, that 37% of temporarily single parent families are imbalanced models in the perception of adolescents with cerebral palsy. These families experience functional difficulties and require psychological and pedagogical support. There is a need for building skills related to effective coping with family stress. Especially considering, that families of an imbalanced type do not use the internal and external resources of the family system. Such a situation may deepen the disarrangement of family life. In intermediate families (16%) there are also temporary difficulties in functioning. Separation anxiety experienced by mothers may disrupt relations and introduce additional stress factors. For that reason it is important to provide support for women with difficulties coping with the emotions associated with raising handicapped adolescents and migratory separation.

Keywords: Migration, Family, Parents, child with cerebral palsy

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24 Hematological Malignancies in Children and Parental Occupational Exposure

Authors: H. Kalboussi, A. Aloui, W. Boughattas, M. Maoua, A. Brahem, S. Chatti, O. El Maalel, F. Debbabi, N. Mrizak, Y. Ben Youssef, A. Khlif, I. Bougmiza

Abstract:

Background: In recent decades, the incidence of children's hematological malignancies has been increasing worldwide including Tunisia. Their severity is reflected in the importance of the medical, social and economic impact. This increase remains fully unexplained, and the involvement of genetic, environmental and occupational factors is strongly suspected. Materials and Methods: Our study is a cross-sectional survey of the type case-control conducted in the University Hospital of Farhat Hached of Sousse during the period ranging between 1 July 2011 and 30 June 2012,and which included children with acute leukemia compared to children unharmed by neoplastic disease . Cases and controls were matched by age and gender. Our objective was to: - Describe the socio-occupational characteristics of the parents of children with acute leukemia. - Identify potential occupational factors implicated in the genesis of acute leukemia. Result: The number of acute leukemia cases in the Hematology Service and day hospital of the University Hospital of Farhat Hached during the study period was 66 cases divided into in 40 boys and 26 girls with a sex ratio of 1.53. Our cases and controls were matched by age and gender. The risk of incidence of leukemia in children from smoking fathers was higher (p = 0.02, OR = 2.24, IC = [1.11 - 4.52]). The risk of incidence of leukemia in children from alcoholic fathers was higher with p = 0,009, OR = 3.9; CI = [1.33 - 11.39]. After adjusting different variables, the difference persisted significantly with pa = 0.03 and ORa = 3.5; ICa = [1.09 -11.6]. 25.7 % of cases had a family history of blood disease and neoplasia, whereas no control presented that. The difference was statistically significant (p = 0.006), OR = 1.46, IC = [1.38 - 1.56]. The parental occupational exposures associated to the occurrence of acute leukemia in children were: - Pesticides with a statistically significant difference (p = 0.03), OR = 2.94, IC = [1.06 - 8.13]. This difference persisted after adjustment with different variables pa = 0.01, ORa 3.75; ICa = [1.27 - 11.03]. - Cement without a statistically non-significant difference (p = 0.2). This difference has become significant after adjustment with the different variables pa = 0.03; ORa = 2.67; ICa = [1.06 - 6.7]. Conclusion: Parental exposure to occupational risk factors may play a role in the pathogenesis of acute leukemia in children.

Keywords: Children, Parents, occupational exposure, hematological malignancies

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23 Parental Perceptions and Practices toward Childhood Asthma

Authors: Amani K. Abu-Shaheen, Abdullah Nofal, Humariya Heena

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Introduction: Parental perceptions and practices are important for improving the asthma outcomes in children; indeed, evidence shows that parents of asthmatic children harbor considerable misperceptions of the disease. Objective: To identify the prevalence of asthma and to investigate the perceptions and practices of parents toward asthma and its management in Saudi children. Methods: A two-stage cross-sectional survey of 2000 parents of children aged 3–15 years from schools located in all five districts of Riyadh province located in central Saudi Arabia, was conducted. Data collection was accomplished using a self-administered questionnaire based on information obtained from the literature. Results: Of 1450 children whose parents participated in the study, 600 had asthma, dyspnea, or chest allergy. The overall number of children with parental reports of ever having been diagnosed with asthma was 478 (32.9%). The majority of parents (321, 53.5%) believed that asthma was a hereditary disease. Of these parents, 361 (60.3%) were concerned about side effects of inhaled steroids, and 192 (32%) about development of dependency on asthma medications. Three hundred sixty seven (61.2%) parents reported that they could treat the asthma attack at home and almost 76% of parents went to pediatric emergency department during asthma attack. Conclusions: In this study, the overall prevalence of children whose parents reported that they were diagnosed with asthma was high (32.9%). Furthermore, parents of children with asthma had misperceptions regarding asthma and exhibited ineffective practices in its management. To improve asthma care and compliance, adequate education should be provided to parents.

Keywords: Management, Asthma, Quality of Life, Parents

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22 Stress and Marital Satisfaction of Parents to Children Diagnosed with Autism

Authors: Oren Shtayermman

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The current investigation expended on research among parents caring for a child who is diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). An online web survey was used to collect data from 253 parents caring for a child with a diagnosis of ASD. Both parents reported on elevated levels of parental stress associated with caring for the child on the spectrum. In addition, lower levels of marital satisfaction were found in both parents. About 13% of the parents in the sample met the diagnostic criteria for Major Depressive Disorder and About 15% of the parents met the diagnostic criteria for Generalized Anxiety Disorder. Although the majority of the sample was females (94%) significant differences were found between males and females in relation to meeting the diagnostic criteria for Major Depressive Disorder and for Generalized Anxiety Disorder. Higher levels of stress were associated with higher number of Generalized Anxiety Disorder symptoms and higher number of Major Depressive Disorder symptoms. Findings from this study indicate how vulnerable parents and especially females are in relation to caring to a child diagnosed with ASD. Educational Objectives: At the conclusion of the paper, the readers should be able to: -Identify levels of stress and marital satisfaction among parents caring for a child diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder, -Recognize the impact of stress on the development of mental health issues, -Name the two most common mood and anxiety related disorders associated with caring for a child diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder.

Keywords: Children, autism, stress, Parents

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21 Descriptive Analysis of Alcohol Abuse and Sexual Behaviour of Adolescent Males in Eastern Cape

Authors: Jabulani Gilford Kheswa, Sinovuyo Takatshana

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Literature documented that the combination of permissive attitudes, sexual experimentation and lack of accurate information from parents to educate male adolescents, poses a threat to the sexual health of adolescent males and exposes them to risky sexual behaviours. Grounded in problem behaviour theory as a theoretical framework for this study in understanding health-related behaviours of adolescent males, the weaker one’s perceived self-efficacy, the more social and affective factors increase the likelihood of risky sexual behaviour, such as alcohol abuse and intimate partner violence. The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between alcohol use and sexual behaviour among 176 purposively selected Xhosa- speaking adolescent males, from one school in the Nkonkobe Municipality, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. These learners were in grade ten, eleven and twelve with an age range from a low of 14 to a high of 25 years. The mean age was 18.06 years while the standard deviation was .144. To be ethically bound, the researchers sought permission from the school principal to distribute self-administered questionnaires and assured the participants of confidentiality and anonymity. A survey was conducted by means of self-administered questionnaires. A cross-sectional study was carried out within the quantitative paradigm using the SPSS version 18 and the Chronbach’s alpha of 0.79 were found for alcohol and sexual behaviour of adolescent males. Findings showed that 59.6% (N=105) of the learners indicated that their caregivers talk about safe sex practice as compared to only 40.4% (N=71) who indicated that their caregivers do not talk to them about safe sex practice. A statistically significant association between alcohol and negotiation of safe sex at p-value of 0.05 (chi-square of 34.529, degree of freedom of 16) was reported. In conclusion, as young people in South Africa become sexually active at an early age, schools should initiate psycho-educational programmes to equip adolescents against risk- behaviours (such as HIV/AIDS, substance abuse, crime).

Keywords: Sex, Alcohol, Parents, adolescent males

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20 Islam, Forced Marriages and Pakistani Culture: An Analytical Overview

Authors: Arshad Munir, Naseem Akhter, Rozina Khattak

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The Islamic social and family system is very clear concerning will, choice, consent and negation of compulsion and force in human life. Marriage is not only a civil contract but also a religious and spiritual contract between spouse (man and woman), which allows them for each other to live gladly, joyfully and legally in the society. It is an immortal and perpetual association between man and woman, which is filled with sympathetic affection, kindness, compassion and security. Islam gives specific rights to parents and guardians to set up the marriage ceremony and get done it as a respectful family occasion, confer their blessing and advice for a life partner of their children. The rights of parents and guardians are summed up in the term of "Willayah”. Islam does not permit parents, guardians and other relatives to compel their children regarding the marriage of their choice, because the groom and the bride are the real parties of the contract. Therefore, their willingness is of prime importance in order to spend whole life with each other. The Holy Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) prohibits forcing a virgin to marriage without her permission, whether this is her father or someone else. The right of free consent to choose a life partner is the basic right for the human which is God (Allah) gifted. Unfortunately, forced marriage is a common practice in Pakistani society that has no link with Islam. This article is being written in the same context.

Keywords: Islam, Choice, Consent, Forced Marriage, Parents, spouse

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19 Emotional, Behavioural and Social Development: Modality of Hierarchy of Needs in Supporting Parents with Special Needs

Authors: Fadzilah Abdul Rahman

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Emotional development is developed between the parents and their child. Behavioural development is also developed between the parents and their child. Social Development is how parents can help their special needs child to adapt to society and to face challenges. In promoting a lifelong learning mindset, enhancing skill sets and readiness to face challenges, parents would be able to counter balance these challenges during their care giving process and better manage their expectations through understanding the hierarchy of needs modality towards a positive attitude, and in turn, improve their quality of life and participation in society. This paper aims to demonstrate how the hierarchy of needs can be applied in various situations of caregiving for parents with a special needs child.

Keywords: hierarchy of needs, Parents, special needs, care-giving

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18 Health Satisfaction and Family Impact of Parents of Children with Cancer

Authors: Ekhlas Al Gamal, Tony Long

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The impact on the parents of caring for a child with cancer was intense and wide-ranging. A high level of distress and low level or resilience remains during treatment. Even completion of treatment can be a time of increased anxiety and stress for parents particularly with worries about recurrence or relapse. The purpose of this study to examine the associations between parental satisfactions with healthcare provided for their child and the impact of being a caregiver for a child with cancer. Methodology: A descriptive, correlational and cross-sectional design was employed using data from Arabic versions of self-report questionnaires which were administered to 113 parents with children with cancer in Jordan during 2015. Findings: the result indicated that Family relationship functioning was ranked as the highest (better functioning) domain while daily activities were ranked as the lowest (poorer functioning) domain. Parents were generally satisfied with the health care provided, but their emotional needs were not met adequately. Parents with better social functioning were more satisfied in all areas of healthcare satisfaction other than emotional needs and communication. Parents who had a child with more emotional and behavioural problems were more likely to experience a negative impact on the family and a poor level of family functioning. Conclusion and Significance: Nurses and other health care providers should emphasis on family centred approach rather than child centred approach.

Keywords: Cancer, Children, Parents, jordan

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17 Parents' Attitudes towards a School-Based Family Program in Early Literacy in Qatari Preschool Settings

Authors: Fathi Ihmeideh

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The study aimed at investigating parents’ attitudes towards a school-based family program in developing kindergarten children’s literacy skills. The study surveyed 160 parents of preschool children, gathering information about their attitudes toward the development of children’s early literacy. Results indicated that parents hold positive attitudes towards the school-based family literacy program. The results also revealed statistically significant differences among parents due to a number of study variables. The study concludes with putting forward a number of practical and theoretical recommendations for the field of study. Acknowledgment: This paper was made possible by NPRP grant # (NPRP 8-921-5-122) from the Qatar national research fund (a member of Qatar foundation). The statements made herein are solely the responsibility of the authors.

Keywords: literacy development, Parents, preschool children, family involvement

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16 A Study on How Newlyweds Handle the Difference with Parents on Wedding Arrangements and Its Implication for Services in Hong Kong

Authors: K. M. Yuen

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This research examined the literature review of wedding preparation’s challenges and its developmental tasks of family transition under family life cycle. Five interviewees were invited to share their experiences on the differences with their parents in regard to wedding preparations and coping strategies. Some coping strategies and processes were highlighted for facilitating the family to achieve the developmental tasks during the wedding preparation. However, those coping strategies and processes may only act as the step and the behavior, while “concern towards parents” was found to be the essential element behind these behaviors. In addition to pre-marital counseling, a developmental group was suggested to develop under the framework of family life cycle and its related coping strategies on working with the newlyweds who encountered intergenerational differences in regard to their wedding preparations.

Keywords: Process, difference, Parents, coping strategies, wedding preparation, family life cycle, developmental tasks

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15 Impact of Forgiveness Therapy on Quality of Life of Parents of Children with Intellectual Disability

Authors: Prajakta Bhadgaonkar

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Forgiveness is taught since birth in Indian tradition. However, delivering a disabled child is a trauma for the parents. They keep on blaming themselves for the fault, which they are not responsible. Hence, due to lack of forgiving oneself the quality of life of both parent and child gets affected. In forgiveness, person tries to relieve oneself from the feeling of hatred towards oneself or other person. Forgiveness helps move ahead in the life. Hence, one can handle problem more efficiently resulting into better quality of life. In this study, the 30 parents of children with intellectual disability were contacted to find out quality of life. They were administered standardized measure of quality of life (QOL). The children were between 6 to 8 years of age. Out of these 30 parents, 12 parents (7 females and 5 males) were given forgiveness therapy for three months span. After every one month, the QOL scale was administered. At the end of three months, the significant difference was observed in quality of life of parents of children with intellectual disability. Genderwise there was no significant difference between male and female on quality of life.

Keywords: Quality of Life, Parents, forgiveness, children with intellectual disability

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14 An Analysis of Preliminary Intervention for Developing to Promote Resiliency of Children Whose Parents Suffer Mental Illness

Authors: Sookbin Im, Myounglyun Heo

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This study aims at analyzing composition and effects of the preliminary intervention to promote resiliency of children whose parents suffer mental illness, and considerations according to the program, and developing the resiliency promotion program for children of psychiatric patients. For participants of preliminary intervention, they were recruited through a community mental health and social welfare center in a city, and there were 10 children (eight girls and two boys) who are from second to five graders in elementary school, and whose parents suffer schizophrenia, depression, or alcoholism, etc. The program was conducted in the seminar room of the community mental illness and social welfare center from October to December 2015 and from July to September 2016. The elements of resiliency were figured out by reviewing the literature. And therapeutic activities to promote resiliency was composed, and total twice, 8 sessions(two hours, once a week) were applied. Each session consisted of playgroup activities, art activities, and role-playing with feedback for achieving goals to promote self-awareness, self-efficacy, positive outlook, ability to solve problems, empathy for others, peer group acceptance, having goals and aspirations, and assertiveness. In addition, auxiliary managers as many as children played a role as mentor and role model, and children's behaviors were collected by participatory observation. As a result of the study, four children quit the program because the schedules of their own school programs were overlapped with it. Therefore, six children completed the program. Children who completed it became active, positive, decreased compulsive actions, and increased self-expressions. The participants reacted the 8-session program is too short and regretted about it. However, recruiting the participants were difficult, and too distracting children caused negative influences in the group activities. Based on the results, the program was developed as follows: The program would consist of total 11 sessions, and the first eight sessions would be made of plays, art activities, role-plays, and presentations for promoting self-understanding, improving positiveness, providing meaning for experiences, emotional control, and interpersonal relations. In order to balance various contents, methods such as structuring environments, storytelling, emotional coaching, and group feedback would be applied, and the ninth to eleventh sessions would be booster sessions consisting of optional activities for children. This program is for children who attend school with active linguistic communications and interactions with peers. Especially, considering that effective development starts at around 10 years old, it would be for children who are third and fourth graders in elementary school. These result showed that this program was useful for improving the key elements of resiliency such as positive thinking or impulse control. It is suggested the necessary of resiliency promoting program model and practical guidance with comprehensive measuring methods(narratives, drawing, self-reported questionnaire, behavioral observation). Also, it is necessary to make a training program for the coaches or leaders to operate this program to spread out for child health.

Keywords: Children, Resilience, Parents, mental

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13 A Qualitative Study on Exploring How the Home Environment Influences Eating and Physical Activity Habits of Low-Income Latino Children of Predominantly Immigrant Families

Authors: Ana Cristina Lindsay, Sherrie Wallington, Faith Lees, Mary Greaney

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Purpose: Latino children in low-income families are at elevated risk of becoming overweight or obese. The purpose of this study was to examine low-income Latino parents’ beliefs, parenting styles and practices related to their children’s eating and physical activity behaviors while at home. Design and Methods: Qualitative study using focus group discussions with 33 low-income Latino parents of preschool children 2 to 5 years of age. Transcripts were analyzed using thematic analysis. Results: Data analyses revealed that most parents recognize the importance of healthy eating and physical activity for their children and themselves. However, daily life demands including conflicting schedules, long working hours, financial constraints, and neighborhood safety concerns, etc., impact parents’ ability to create a home environment supportive of these behaviors. Conclusions: This study provides information about how the home environment influences low-income Latino preschool children’s eating and physical activity habits. This information is useful for pediatric nurses in their health promotion and disease prevention efforts with low-income Latino families with young children, and for the development of home-based and parenting interventions to prevent and control childhood obesity among this population group. Practice Implications: Pediatric nurses can facilitate communication, provide education, and offer guidance to low-income Latino parents that support their children’s development of early healthy eating and physical activity habits, while taking into account daily life barriers faced by families. Moreover, nurses can play an important role in the integration and coordination of home-visitation to complement office-based visits and provide a continuum of care to low-income Latino families.

Keywords: Physical Activity, Obesity, Healthy eating, Parents, home environment, Latino

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12 Parents of Kids with Type 1 Diabetes Sleep with Open Eyes

Authors: Samereh Abdoli, Amit Vora, Anusha Vora

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Aim: To qualitatively investigate diabetes burnout in parents of children with Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) who shared their experiences through YouTube videos in order to inform future interventions and improve diabetes practice. Methods: A qualitative descriptive approach was used to explore YouTube videos. Of the 568 videos that were identified, only 9 videos met the inclusion criteria of the study. Results: After the videos were transcribed and analyzed using qualitative content analysis, it was revealed that parents shared common concerns and experiences and they translated into three main themes: I do not ever get a break, I am exhausted, I can’t burn out, and I just need a break Conclusion: All in all, the literature revealed that there are negative psychosocial outcomes associated with caring for a child with T1D, but there is a lack of information on diabetes burnout and how parents’ well-being are affected. Reports of self-neglect and sleep deprivation only confirm the need for intervention for parents of children with T1D. The hope with this study is that burnout can be recognized early on and appropriate interventions put in place to help parents cope with the stressors of caring for a child with a chronic disease.

Keywords: Qualitative Research, Parents, type 1 diabetes, Diabetes burnout

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11 Parents and Stakeholders’ Perspectives on Early Reading Intervention Implemented as a Curriculum for Children with Learning Disabilities

Authors: Bander Mohayya Alotaibi

Abstract:

The valuable partnerships between parents and teachers may develop positive and effective interactions between home and school. This will help these stakeholders share information and resources regarding student academics during ongoing interactions. Thus, partnerships will build a solid foundation for both families and schools to help children succeed in school. Parental involvement can be seen as an effective tool that can change homes and communities and not just schools’ systems. Seeking parents and stakeholders’ attitudes toward learning and learners can help schools design a curriculum. Subsequently, this information can be used to find ways to help improve the academic performance of students, especially in low performing schools. There may be some conflicts when designing curriculum. In addition, designing curriculum might bring more educational expectations to all the sides. There is a lack of research that targets the specific attitude of parents toward specific concepts on curriculum contents. More research is needed to study the perspective that parents of children with learning disabilities (LD) have regarding early reading curriculum. Parents and stakeholders’ perspectives on early reading intervention implemented as a curriculum for children with LD was studied through an advanced quantitative research. The purpose of this study seeks to understand stakeholders and parents’ perspectives of key concepts and essential early reading skills that impact the design of curriculum that will serve as an intervention for early struggler readers who have LD. Those concepts or stages include phonics, phonological awareness, and reading fluency as well as strategies used in house by parents. A survey instrument was used to gather the data. Participants were recruited through 29 schools and districts of the metropolitan area of the northern part of Saudi Arabia. Participants were stakeholders including parents of children with learning disability. Data were collected using distribution of paper and pen survey to schools. Psychometric properties of the instrument were evaluated for the validity and reliability of the survey; face validity, content validity, and construct validity including an Exploratory Factor Analysis were used to shape and reevaluate the structure of the instrument. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) used to find differences between the variables. The study reported the results of the perspectives of stakeholders toward reading strategies, phonics, phonological awareness, and reading fluency. Also, suggestions and limitations are discussed.

Keywords: Curriculum, Intervention, Perspectives, Learning disability, Stakeholders, Parents, early reading

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10 The Interventions to Parents Caring Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Hong Kong

Authors: Wing Chi Wong

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Globally, studying parents caring for children with attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is valuable in order to design measures in supporting those parents by health care providers and government. Such parents in Hong Kong seem to encounter detrimental stress and enormous difficulties which are exacerbated by the traditional Chinese culture, exclusion from social members and fiercely competitive educational system. However, seldom studies scrutinize this issue in Hong Kong. This article aims to review the literature regarding parents caring offsprings with ADHD in Hong Kong. Criteria were set for searching among published studies listed in various databases, including MEDLINE, CINCAHL, PsycINFO, ProQuest, Embase, Cochrane Library and Springer Link. Articles with words 'Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder', 'parenting', 'parent', 'family', 'father', 'mother', 'care' in titles and abstracts were identified. Articles with all types of research designs and methods, regardless in English or Chinese, were included. They were limited to years between January 2008 and September 2018. Four relevant studies have resulted. Of them, two were exploratory studies, one was a qualitative study, and one was a survey. Samples were recruited from child psychiatric clinic, Child and Adolescent Mental Health Unit, or multiple family group therapy centres. Authors proclaimed that quality of life of those parents was usually low; particularly mothers perceived a higher stress than fathers; parenting barriers existed; conflicts were commonly raised in parent-child relationship resulting in probable maltreatment to children. Previous studies generally suggested the potential negative outcomes of parents caring children with ADHD. The types and effectiveness of interventions to those parents on relieving their tortures under Hong Kong context had not been explored and systematically evaluated. The scanty studies and existing understanding could not give a promising conclusion pertaining to the appropriate family intervention to parents living with children with ADHD. A stringent research design is necessary to establish evidence on the effectiveness of interventions for those families.

Keywords: Parents, Interventions, Hong Kong, attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder

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9 An Explorative Study: Awareness and Understanding of Dyspraxia amongst Parents of Preschool Children Presenting with Dyspraxia

Authors: A. Pedro, T. Goldschmidt

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Dyspraxia affects approximately 5-6% of school aged children. Utilising an ecological framework, this study aimed to (1) explore the awareness and understanding of dyspraxia or similar disorders among preschool parents and (2) to explore what skills are required or sought after by parents of children presenting with dyspraxia. A qualitative methodological approach with an exploratory design was employed in this study. A total of 15 parents were purposively selected from urban mainstream preschools in the Cape Town metropole region. Data were collected by means of semi-structured interviews and analysed thematically according to Braun and Clarke (2006). Participants were knowledgeable of their rights throughout the research process. The findings reveal that parents understanding of dyspraxia hinges on observable characteristics of their children’s abilities in comparison to typically developing children. Although parents are aware of ways to explore various avenues to better assist their child, they desire more social support and skills in terms of resources to inform them about their child’s difficulties as well as different techniques to better manage their child’s condition. Findings indicate that regular contact between preschool teachers and parents of children presenting with dyspraxia is an important factor in children’s academic success. The implications of the findings are related to the awareness of dyspraxia and similar learning disorders among both parents and teachers.

Keywords: Dyspraxia, Parents, preschool, awareness and understanding

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8 The Effects of Parent Psycho-Education Program on Problem-Solving Skills of Parents

Authors: Tuba Bagatarhan, Digdem Muge Siyez

Abstract:

The aim of this research is to examine the effects of the psycho-education program on problem-solving skills of parents of high school students in the risk group for Internet addiction. A quasi-experimental design based on the pre-test, post-test and follow up test including experimental and control groups was used in the research. The independent variable of the study was the parent psycho-education program on problem-solving skills; the dependent variable was the problem-solving skills of parents. The research was conducted with the parents of 52 tenth-grade students in the risk group for Internet addiction from two high schools and volunteer to participate research on evaluation of the effectiveness of internet addiction prevention psycho-education program within the scope of another study. In this study, as 26 students were in the experimental groups in the first-high school, the parents of these 26 students were asked if they would like to participate in the parent psycho-education program on parental problem-solving skills. The parents were volunteer to participate in parent psycho-education program assigned experimental group (n=13), the other parents assigned control group 1 (n=13) in the first high school. The parents of the 26 students were randomly assigned to the control group 2 (n=13) and control group 3 (n=13) in the second high school. The data of the research was obtained via the problem behavior scale - coping - parents form and demographic questionnaire. Four-session parent psycho-education program to cope with Internet addiction and other problem behaviors in their children was applied to the experimental group. No program was applied to the control group 1, control group 2 and control group 3. In addition, an internet addiction prevention psycho-education program was applied to the children of the parents in experimental group and control group 1 within the scope of another study. In the analysis of the obtained data, two-factor variance analysis for repeated measures on one factor was used. Bonferroni post-hoc test was used to find the source of intergroup difference. According to the findings, the psycho-education program significantly increases parents’ problem-solving abilities, and the increase has continued throughout the follow-up test.

Keywords: Prevention, Internet Addiction, Parents, psyho-education

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7 Teachers’ and Parents’ Perceptions of School and Family Partnership Practices of Schools in Mogadishu

Authors: Mohamed Abdullahi Gure, Farhia Ali Abdi

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There is almost a complete certainty among educators that parental involvement is the remedy for many of the problems facing schools. It is also widely acknowledged that school administrators and teachers have important roles in promoting parental involvement in children’s education. This work aims at examining the views of parents and teachers on school-partnership practices for promoting parental involvement in education in selected primary schools in Mogadishu-Somalia. The method, which has been employed in this study, is a mixed-method approach; data were collected from parents as well as from teachers of the selected schools using survey questionnaires and interviews. A sample size of 377 parents and 214 teachers participated in this study. This study used an instrument that has been developed by Epstein and Salinas (1993) to assess the perceptions of parents and teachers about parental involvement. Furthermore, data was collected qualitatively through interviews with parents and teachers of the selected schools. The findings of this study show that parents and teachers had similar positive perceptions towards school practices for parental involvement. This study is significant for several reasons. It contributes to the limited information on parental involvement in Somalia and therefore, filling a gap in the existing empirical literature. It offers information to educators as well as to parents, which will help them understand the issues that relate to parental involvement in education. It is hoped that information from this study will facilitate parents and teachers to understand each other’s ideas on parental involvement and develop positive working relations to support children to become successful in their education.

Keywords: Practices, Teachers, Parents, Mogadishu, school-partnership

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6 Violence of Tyrant Children to Their Parents: An Interdisciplinary Approach

Authors: Marta Maria Aguilar Carceles, Ginesa Torrente Hernandez

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The goal of the current study is focused on giving an interdisciplinary comprehension of an increased phenomenon in recent years: violence against parents. Violence can take different forms depending on the context and the vulnerability of the victims, but in this kind of situations, the relationship between parents and young people can become abusive and uncontrollable. Taking a sample from the Spanish Criminal Courts, this study explores those psychological and sociological factors that can contribute to the appearance and continuity of this kind of behaviors in minors. It is considered factors like the type of offence, presence or absence of psychopathology in the subjects, family aspects, or sociodemographic factors, getting a criminal profile of the minor and evaluating which measures are more efficient or adequate in each particular case. Finally, it will be discussed on how getting effective interventions and restorative responses to address teen violence against their parents within the Spanish Legal System.

Keywords: Violence, Legal System, Parents, Criminality, tyrant sons

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5 Healthcare Seeking Behaviors of Parents Who Have Children with Disabilities: A Case Study at the Effutu Municipality, Winneba-Central Region, Ghana-West Africa

Authors: Priscilla Deede Hammond

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Healthcare seeking behaviour has emerged as a tool to tackle perceived ill-health by taking remedial actions. And currently, efforts are being directed towards encouraging people (especially parents) to learn and use health-promoting behaviours in seeking their children’s healthcare. Regardless of these efforts, most parents encounter challenges with raising a child with a disability. The purpose of the study was to explore the healthcare-seeking behaviours of parents of children with disabilities. In order to achieve the purpose of the study, a case study design was employed where the researcher used a qualitative approach such as semi-structured interview to gather the required data. Data from participants were analysed using a thematic analysis approach. It was revealed from the findings of the study that, some of the parents after the first diagnosis by health professionals consulted a spiritualist or a herbalist for help. Also, some parents stated that their response to their children’s healthcare depended on the severity of the sickness. The study recommends the Ministry of Gender, Children and Social Protection and other social agencies such as the Social Welfare Department to provide health assessment and financial support to families of children with disabilities.

Keywords: Healthcare, Health, Disabilities, Parents

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4 The Effectiveness of Homeschooling: A Stakeholder's Perception in East London Education District

Authors: N. M. Zukani, E. O. Adu

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Homeschooling has been a primary method for parents to educate their children. It has become a growing educational phenomenon across the globe. However, homeschooling is, therefore, an alternative form of education in which children are instructed at home rather than in mainstream schools. This study evaluated the effectiveness of homeschooling in East London Education District, looking at the stakeholder’s perceptions, reviewing issues that impact on this as reflected in literature. This is a qualitative study done in selected homeschools. Semi structured interviews were used as a form of collecting data. Data was scrutinized and grouped into themes. The study revealed the importance of differentiation of instruction, and the need for flexibility in the process of homeschooling for children who faced difficulties, special needs in learning in mainstream schooling. It is therefore concluded that the participants in the study clearly showed that homeschooling is an educational choice for parents who have concerns about the quality of education of their children. Furthermore, homeschooling has the potential to be the most learner centered, nurturing educational approach. It was recommended that an effective homeschooling practice mainly, the practice should consider attention to children-parent’s goals and learning structure. Although homeschooling looks at how to overcome the drawbacks of mainstream schooling, there are also cases that reflected, the incompetency of parents or tutors conducting the homeschooling and also a need for the support material and other educational supports from the government.

Keywords: Perception, Effectiveness, Stakeholders, Homeschooling, Parents

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3 Psychosocial Experience of Parents of Children with Conduct Disorder in Thulamela, South Africa

Authors: Constance Singo, Choja Oduaran

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Child mental disorders are strongly associated with different forms of challenges, including behavioural problems. The burden of care for children with a mental disorder is high and put primary caregivers, parents in particular, at risk of poor mental wellbeing. Understanding the experience of parents of children with mental disorders is crucial to developing a relevant intervention to assist them to attain optimal mental wellbeing. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of parents of children with conduct disorder by focussing on the psychological and social stress experience of the parents in raising and caring for their children with conduct disorder. A qualitative research approach, using in-depth interview was utilized in this study. Purposive and snowballing sampling techniques were used to select 9 parents of children with conduct disorder in Thulamela Municipality, Limpopo Province of South Africa. Participants comprising of 2 males and 7 females aged between 30 years and 49 years were interviewed individually at scheduled appointment in-home setting. Interviews were conducted in both English and Setswana language. Data collected in Setswana language were translated to English by 'expert in language translation'. Ethical approval was obtained from appropriate authority before data collection. Thematic analysis was conducted to analyse the collected data. The findings identified anger, fear, depressive symptoms, denial, and suicidal ideation as predominant psychological experiences of the parents. Furthermore, deteriorated interpersonal relationships with family and community members, financial stress, and stigma emerged as social problems being the experience of the parents. It was concluded that parents of children with conduct disorder are highly traumatized by the challenges of caring for their children. We recommend professional engagement in terms of counselling service to support the parents. There is also a need for massive enlightenment programmes for members of the community in order to support the parents of children with child mental disorders.

Keywords: Parents, South Africa, conduct disorder, psychosocial experiences

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2 The Examination of Parents’ Perceptions and Motivations Regarding Type 1 Diabetes Management Technologies

Authors: Maria Dora Horvath, Norbert Buzas, Zsanett Tesch

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Diabetes management poses many unique challenges for children and their parents. The use of a diabetes management device should not be one of these challenges as the purpose of these devices is to make the management more convenient. The objective of our study was to examine how demographical, psychological and diabetes-related factors determine the choices parents make regarding their child’s diabetes management technologies and how they perceive advanced devices. We conducted the study using an online questionnaire with 318 parents (mostly mothers). The questions of the survey were about demographical, diabetes-related and psychological factors (diabetes management problems, diabetes management competence). In addition, we asked the parents opinions about advanced diabetes management devices. We expanded our data with semi-structured in-depth interviews. 61 % of the participants Self-Monitored Blood Glucose (SMBG), and 39 % used a Continuous Glucose Monitoring System (CGM). Considering insulin administration, 58 % used Multiple Daily Insulin Injections (MDII) and 42 % used Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion (CSII). Parents who used diverse combinations of diabetes management devices showed significant differences in age (parents’ and child’s), the monthly cost of diabetes, the duration of diabetes, the highest level of education and average monthly household income. CGM users perceived diabetes management problems significantly more severe than SMBG users and CSII users felt significantly more competent in diabetes management than MDII users. Avoiding CGM use due to lack of financial resources was determined by diagnosis duration. While avoiding its use by the cause of the child rejecting, it was determined by the child’s age and diabetes competence. Using MDII instead of CSII because of the child’s rejection was determined by the monthly cost of diabetes and child’s age. We conducted a complex empirical study in which we examined perceptions and experiences of advanced and less advanced diabetes management technologies comprehensively. Our study highlights the factors that fundamentally influence parents’ motivations and choices about diabetes management technologies. These results could contribute to developing diabetes management technologies more suitable for children living with type 1 diabetes and their parents.

Keywords: Diabetes Management, Motivation, Parents, advanced diabetes management technologies, children living with type 1 diabetes

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