Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

Parasites Related Abstracts

9 Food and Parasitic on Balls of Grand Corbeau Corvus corax tingitanus Irby, 1874 (Aves - Corvidae) in the Garbage Dump of Oum El Bouaghi (Guelif Road)

Authors: Faiza Marniche, Amel Milla, Salah Eddine Doumandji, Samiha Belmania, Ahlem Fadheli


Within the public discharge of Oum El Bouaghi region through the analysis of balls of rejection that have been picked up during the year 2008 and 2009. The diet of Grand Corbeau Corvus corax tingitanus is studied in relation to food availability represented by prey-insects with a parasitic study, on the balls of the latter. Food stokes are taken to the public discharge of Oum El Bouaghi during all three seasons, autumn (2008), winter (2009) and spring (2009). We note that insects are dominant in the course of three seasons, fall (91.62%), winter (58.95%) and spring (77.78%). The analysis of 42 balls of rejection collected at the level of this station have revealed that insects dominate the diet of Raven over the three seasons whose family the best represented is those of the Formicidae in autumn (43.5%) and spring (24.2%) however in winter is that of family Carabidae with a percentage of 9.1%. Parasitic analysis on the 30 balls of this species has revealed the existence of three endoparasites, Isospora Sp. (Protozoa-Coccidae), Eimeria Sp. (Protozoa-Coccidae) and Nematoda Sp. IND. (Metazoa - Nemathelmintes).

Keywords: diet, Parasites, big raven Corvus corax tingitanus, garbage dump, Oum El Bouaghi

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8 Food and Parasitical Outline on Balls of Raven Corvus corax tingitanus Irby, on 1874 (Aves–Corvidae) in the Public Dump of Oum El Bouaghi (Road of Guelif)

Authors: Faiza Marniche, Amel Milla, Samiha Belmania, Ahlem Fadheli, Salah Eddine Doumandji


Within the public dump of the region of Oum El Bouaghi across the analysis of pellets of réjection which were picked up during two years 2008 and 2009. The diet of Raven Corvus corax tingitanus is studied in relation with available food represented by insects-preys with a parasitical study, on the pellets of this species. The food stored is gotten from the public dump of Oum El Bouaghi during three seasons, we note that insects are predominant during three seasons, autumn (91.62%), winter (58.95%) and springs (77.78%). The analysis of 42 pellets of rejection collected in this station have revealed that insects dominate the diet of Raven through three seasons , the most presented family is that of the Formicidae in autumn (43.5%) and spring (24.2%) however in winter is that of family Carabidae with a percentage of 9.1%. Parasitic analysis on 30 pellets of this species has indicated the existence of three endoparasites, Isospora sp. (Protozoa-Coccidae), Eimeria sp. (Protozoa-Coccidae) and Nematoda sp.ind. (Metazoa-Nemathelmintes).

Keywords: diet, Parasites, big raven Corvus corax tingitanus, Oum El Bouaghi, public dump, available food

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7 Prevalence of Parasitic Diseases in Different Fishes of North-West Himalayan Streams of India

Authors: Feroz A. Shah, M. H. Balkhi


The study was aimed at to record the distribution and prevalence of various metazoan parasites of fish from hill stream/coldwater fishes of various water bodies of northwest Himalayan region of India. Snow trout (Schizoth oracids) from eutrophic lakes and fresh water streams were collected from January to December 2012, to study the impact of environmental factors on the dynamics and distribution of parasitic infection. The prevalence of helminth parasites was correlated with available physico-chemical parameters including water temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen (DO). The most abundant parasitic infection recorded during this study was Adenoscolex sp. (Cestode parasite) which showed positive correlation with pH (significant p≤0.05) negative correlation with temperature. The Bothriocephalus was having positive correlation with water temperature while as negative correlation was observed with pH and DO. The correlation between Diplozoon sp. and Clinostomum sp. with the physiochemical parameters were non-significant.

Keywords: Parasites, hill stream fishes, Western Himalayas, prevelance

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6 Mechanical Transmission of Parasites by Cockroaches’ Collected from Urban Environment of Lahore, Pakistan

Authors: Hafsa Memona, Farkhanda Manzoor


Cockroaches are termed as medically important pests because of their wide distribution in human habitation including houses, hospitals, food industries and kitchens. They may harbor multiple drug resistant pathogenic bacteria and protozoan parasites on their external surfaces, disseminate on human food and cause serious diseases and allergies to human. Hence, they are regarded as mechanical vector in human habitation due to their nocturnal activity and nutritional behavior. Viable eggs and dormant cysts of parasites can hitch a ride on cockroaches. Ova and cysts of parasitic organism may settle into the crevices and cracks between thorax and head. There are so many fissures and clefts and crannies on a cockroach which provide site for these organisms. This study aimed with identifying role of cockroaches in mechanically transmitting and disseminating gastrointestinal parasites in two environmental settings; hospitals and houses in urban area of Lahore. Totally, 250 adult cockroaches were collected from houses and hospitals by sticky traps and food baited traps and screened for parasitic load. All cockroaches were captured during their feeding time in natural habitat. Direct wet smear, 1% lugols iodine and modified acid-fast bacilli staining were used to identify the parasites from the body surfaces of cockroaches. Among human habitation two common species of cockroaches were collected i.e. P. americana and B. germanica. The results showed that 112 (46.8%) cockroaches harbored at least one human intestinal parasite on their body surfaces. The cockroaches from hospital environment harboured more parasites than houses. 47 (33.57%) cockroaches from houses and 65 (59.09%) from hospitals were infected with parasitic organisms. Of these, 76 (67.85%) were parasitic protozoans and 36(32.15%) were pathogenic and non-pathogenic intestinal parasites. P. americana harboured more parasites as compared to B. germanica in both environment. Most common human intestinal parasites found on cockroaches include ova of Ascaris lumbricoides (giant roundworm), Trichuris trichura (whipworm), Anchylostoma deodunalae (hookworm), Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm), Taenia spp. and Strongyloides stercoralis (threadworm). The cysts of protozoans’ parasites including Balantidium coli, Entomoeba hystolitica, C. parvum, Isospora belli, Giardia duodenalis and C. cayetenensis were isolated and identified from cockroaches. Both experimental sites were significantly different in carriage of parasitic load on cockroaches. Difference in the hygienic condition of the environments, including human excrement disposal, variable habitat interacted, indoor and outdoor species, may account for the observed variation in the parasitic carriage rate of cockroaches among different experimental site. Thus a finding of this study is that Cockroaches are uniformly distributed in human habitation and act as a mechanical vector of pathogenic parasites that cause common illness such as diarrhea and bowel disorders. This fact contributes to epidemiological chain therefore control of cockroaches will significantly lessen the prevalence of illness in human. Effective control strategies will reduce the public health burden of the gastro-intestinal parasites in the developing countries.

Keywords: Transmission, hospitals, cockroaches, Parasites, Health Risks, houses, protozoans

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5 Dynamics of Bacterial Contamination and Oral Health Risks Associated with Currency Notes and Coins Circulating in Kampala City

Authors: Abdul Walusansa


In this paper, paper notes and coins were collected from general public in Kampala City where ready-to-eat food can be served, in order to survey for bacterial contamination. The total bacterial number and potentially pathogenic organisms loading on currency were tested. All isolated potential pathogens were also tested for antibiotic resistance against four most commonly prescribed antibiotics. 1. The bacterial counts on one hundred paper notes sample were ranging between 6~10918/cm cm-2,the median was 141/ cm-2, according to the data it was much higher than credit cards and Australian notes which were made of polymer. The bacterial counts on sixty coin samples were ranging between 2~380/cm-2, much less than paper notes. 2. Coliform (65.6%), E. coli (45.9%), S. aureus (41.7%), B. cereus (67.7%), Salmonella (19.8%) were isolated on one hundred paper notes. Coliform (22.4%), E. coli (5.2%), S. aureus (24.1%), B. cereus (34.5%), Salmonella (10.3%) were isolated from sixty coin samples. These results suggested a high rate of potential pathogens contamination of paper notes than coins. 3. Antibiotic resistances are commonly in most of the pathogens isolated on currency. Ampicillin resistance was found in 60%of Staphylococcus aureus isolated on currency, as well as 76.6% of E. coil and 40% of Salmonella. Erythromycin resistance was detected in 56.6% of S. aureus and in 80.0% of E. coli. All the pathogens isolated were sensitive to Norfloxacin, Salmonella and S. aureus also sensitive to Cefaclor. In this paper, we also studied the antimicrobial capability of metal coins, coins collected from different countries were tested for the ability to inhibit the growth of E. sakazakii, S. aureus, E. coli, L. monocytogenes and S. typhimurium. 1) E. sakazakii appeared very sensitive to metal coins, the second is S. aureus, but E. coli, L. monocytogenes and S. typhimurium are more resistant to these metal coin samples. 2) Coins made of Nickel-brass alloy and Copper-nickel alloy showed a better effect in anti-microbe than other metal coins, especially the ability to inhibited the growth of E. sakazakii and S. aureus, all the inhibition zones produced on nutrient agar are more than 20.6 mm. Aluminium-bronze alloy revealed weak anti-microbe activity to S. aureus and no effect to kill other pathogens. Coins made of stainless steel also can’t resist bacteria growth. 3) Surprisingly, one cent coins of USA which were made of 97.5% Zinc and 2.5% Cu showed a significant antimicrobial capability, the average inhibition zone of these five pathogens is 45.5 mm.

Keywords: Bacteria, Parasites, antibiotic sensitivity, coins, currency

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4 The Combination of Curcuma Extract and IgG Colostrum on Strongyloides Infection in CD1 Mice

Authors: Laurentius J. M. Rumokoy, Jimmy Posangi, Wisje Lusia Toar, Julio Lopez Aban


The threat of pathogen infection agents to the neonates is a major health problem to the new born life livestock. Neonate losses became an important case in the world as well as in Indonesia. This condition can be triggered by an infection with nematode in conjunction with a failure of immunoglobulin passive transfer. The study was conducted to evaluate the role of the curcuma combined with IgG colostrum on the development of parasites in the gut of CD1 mice. Animal experiments were divided in four groups (G) based on the treatment: G1 (infection only); G2 (curcuma+infection), G3 (IgG + infection) and G4 (curcuma+IgG+infection). The parameters measured were EPG (eggs per gram) and female in the intestine. The results obtained showed that the treatment has no a significant influence on the number of eggs per gram of feces in the group infected compared to the control group without receiving IgG nor curcuma. However, the EGP response tended to decrease at day 6 in G3 and G4 with a minimum number at zero eggs. This performant showed that the immunoglobulin-G and curcuma substances could slightly decreased the number of eggs in animal infected with Strongyloides. The results obtained showed also that the treatment has no significant difference (P > 0.05) on female larva in the gut of MCD1 experimental. In other side, we found that the best performance to inhibit the female quantity in the gut was the treatment with IgG and infection of parasite in G3. In this treatment, the minimum number was five female only in the gut. The results described IgG response was better than the curcuma single use in reducing the female parasite in the gut. This positive response of IgG compared to other controls group was associated with the function of colostrum antibodies.

Keywords: Livestock, Parasites, curcuma, colostrums

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3 Prevalence of Haemo and Gastrointestinal Parasites of Small Ruminants in Akwanga Local Government Area of Nasarawa State

Authors: Victoria Adamu Pam, Victor Ameh Adejoh, Akwashiki Ombugadu


The prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites of ruminant has been on the increase leading to great economic and production losses with more fatal cases occurring in developing countries. This study was conducted to investigate and provide data on the prevalence and impact of haemo and gastro intestinal parasites of small ruminants in Akwanga LGA of Nasarawa State. One hundred fecal and blood samples were collected from goats and sheep. The fecal and blood samples were examined using floatation method and thin blood smear method respectively. Four gastro intestinal parasites were identified in the study, these are; Strongyloides spp, Paramphistome spp, Coccidia spp and Moniezia spp. while 2 heamo parasites were identified; Babesia spp. and Anaplasma spp. The most prevalent gastro intestinal parasite encountered was Strongyloide pp with 48(64.86%) and 48(77.42%) in sheep and goat respectively. This is followed by Paramphistome spp with 18(24.32%) in sheep only. The least prevalent was Coccidia spp with 8(10.8%) in sheep and Moniezia spp with 2 (3.23%) in goats. The most prevalent heamo parasites was Babesia spp with 10(71.43%) and 10(100.00%) in sheep and goat respectively while the least prevalent was Anaplasma spp with 4(28.57%) in sheep only. Statistically, there is no significant difference between haemo and gastrointestinal parasites of sheep and goats in the study area. (P > 0.05). The prevalence of gastrointestinal and haemo parasites in relation to sex showed that female had the highest prevalence of 50% than in the male 2.00% while In relation to age the prevalence was higher in adult 58% than in the Young 2.00%. Statistically, there is a significant difference (P < 0.05) between adult and young. The study indicates that parasitic infections are prevalent in ruminants in the study area.

Keywords: Gastrointestinal, Parasites, akwanga, haemo

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2 Risk Factors Associated with Ectoprotozoa Infestation of Wild and Farmed Cyprinids

Authors: M. A. Peribanez, G. Illan, I. De Blas, A. Muniesa, I. Ruiz-Zarzuela


Intensive aquaculture is commonly associated with increased incidence of parasites. However, in Spain, the recent intensification of cyprinid production has not led to knowledge of the parasites that develop in the aquaculture facilities, the factors that affect their development and spread and the transmission between wild and cultivated fish species. The present study focuses on the knowledge of environmental factors, as well as host dependent factors, and their possible influence as risk factors in the incidence and intensity of parasitic infections. This work was conducted in the Duero River Basin, NW Spain. A total of 114 tenches (Tinca tinca) were caught in a fish farm and 667 specimens belonging to six species of cyprinid, not tench, in five rivers. An exhaustive search and microscopic identification of protozoa on skin and gills were carried out. Physical, chemical, and biological parameters of water samples from the capture points were determined. Only two ectoprotozoa were identified, Ichthyophthirius multifiliis and Tripartiella sp. In I. multifiliis, a high intensity of infection (more than 40 parasites on the body surface and more than 80 on gills) was determined in farmed tench (14%) and in Iberian barbel (Luciobarbus bocagei) (91%) and Duero nase (Pseudochondrostoma duriense) (71%) of middle stretches of rivers. The prevalence was similar between farmed tenches and cyprinids of middle courses. Tripartiella sp. was only found in barbels (prevalence in middle stretches, 0.7%) and in farmed tenches (63%), this species resulting in a high risk factor (odds ratio, OR= 1143) in the presence of the ciliate. There were no differences between the two species relative to the intensity of parasitization. Some of the physical, chemical and microbiological water quality parameters appear to be risk factors in the presence of I. multifiliis, with maximum OR of 8. Nevertheless, in Tripartiella sp., the risk is multiplied by 720 when the pH value exceeds 8.4, if we consider the total of the data, and it is increased more than 500 times if we only consider the values recorded in the fish farm (529 by nitrates > 3 mg/l; 530 by total coliforms > 100 CFU/100 ml). However, the high prevalence and risk of infection by I. multifiliis and Tripartiella sp. in fish farms should be related to environmental factors that dependent upon sampling point rather than in direct influence of the physical-chemical and biological parameters of the water. The high pH value recorded in the fish farm (9.62 ± 0.76) is the only parameter that we consider may have a substantial direct influence. Chronic exposure to alkaline pH levels can be a chronic stress generator, predisposing to parasitization by Tripartiella sp. In conclusion, often minor changes in ecosystem conditions, both natural and man-made, can modify the host-parasite relationship, resulting in an increase in the prevalence and intensity of parasitic infections in populations of cyprinids, sometimes causing disease outbreaks.

Keywords: Fish, Parasites, Risk Factors, protozoa, cyprinids

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1 Black-Legged Tick (Ixodes Scapularis) Impacts on Hematology and Ectoparasite Communities of Peromyscus Mice

Authors: Erica Fellin, Albrecht Schulte-Hostedde


As the climate warms, the black-legged tick’s (Ixodes scapularis) range expands further north in Ontario, Canada, reaching new host populations that have not previously interacted with this blood-feeding parasite. Peromyscus mice in these northern areas are unfamiliar and inexperienced to the effects of these ticks compared to their southern counterparts that have adapted to living with these organisms. The purpose of this study was to see if there is a difference in physiology between these two groups – deer mice living in areas where tick populations have established and deer mice living in black-legged tick-free environments – looking specifically to see if there is significant variation in hemoglobin levels, which can negatively impact how these mice function in their environment. Along with this, a comparison of the parasite community structure on these mice hosts was analyzed to see if ticks change the composition of these micro-environments. Blood samples were collected from individual mice from populations where black-legged ticks were either present or absent to assess haemoglobin levels. At the same time, ectoparasites were collected from these same mice to determine parasite loads and species diversity. Haemoglobin levels were found to be lower when tick loads were high, and parasite diversity appeared to be higher when ticks were absent. Since black-legged ticks are carriers of many pathogens that can be passed on to humans, including Lyme’s disease, it is important to understand their movement and distribution across Ontario as well as their interactions with their hosts (and co-occurring parasites) in their environments.

Keywords: Hematology, Community ecology, Parasites, hosts

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