Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

parametric study Related Abstracts

9 Parametric Study on the Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Continuous Beams Flexurally Strengthened with FRP Plates

Authors: Mohammed A. Sakr, Tarek M. Khalifa, Walid N. Mansour

Abstract:

External bonding of fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) plates to reinforced concrete (RC) beams is an effective technique for flexural strengthening. This paper presents an analytical parametric study on the behavior of RC continuous beams flexurally strengthened with externally bonded FRP plates on the upper and lower fibers, conducted using simple uniaxial nonlinear finite element model (UNFEM). UNFEM is able to estimate the load-carrying capacity, different failure modes and the interfacial stresses of RC continuous beams flexurally strengthened with externally bonded FRP plates on the upper and lower fibers. The study investigated the effect of five key parameters on the behavior and moment redistribution of FRP-reinforced continuous beams. The investigated parameters were the length of the FRP plate, the width and the thickness of the FRP plate, the ratio between the area of the FRP plate to the concrete area, the cohesive shear strength of the adhesive layer, and the concrete compressive strength. The investigation resulted in a number of important conclusions reflecting the effects of the studied parameters on the behavior of RC continuous beams flexurally strengthened with externally bonded FRP plates.

Keywords: finite element, continuous beams, parametric study, fiber reinforced polymer

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8 A Parametric Study on the Backwater Level Due to a Bridge Constriction

Authors: S. Atabay, T. A. Ali, Md. M. Mortula

Abstract:

This paper presents the results and findings from a parametric study on the water surface elevation at upstream of bridge constriction for subcritical flow. In this study, the influence of Manning's Roughness Coefficient of main channel (nmc) and of floodplain (nfp), and bridge opening (b) flow rate (Q), contraction (kcon), and expansion coefficients (kexp) were investigated on backwater level. The DECK bridge models with different span widths and without any pier were investigated within the two stage channel having various roughness conditions. One of the most commonly used commercial one-dimensional HEC-RAS model was used in this parametric study. This study showed that the effects of main channel roughness (nmc) and flow rate (Q) on the backwater level are much higher than those of the floodplain roughness (nfp). Bridge opening (b) with contraction (kcon) and expansion coefficients (kexp) have very little effect on the backwater level within this range of parameters.

Keywords: parametric study, bridge backwater, waterways, HEC-RAS model

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7 Parametric Study for Optimal Design of Hybrid Bridge Joint

Authors: Bongsik Park, Jae Hyun Park, Jae-Yeol Cho

Abstract:

Mixed structure, which is a kind of hybrid system, is incorporating steel beam and prestressed concrete beam. Hybrid bridge adopting mixed structure have some merits. Main span length can be made longer by using steel as main span material. In case of cable-stayed bridge having asymmetric span length, negative reaction at side span can be restrained without extra restraining devices by using weight difference between main span material and side span material. However angle of refraction might happen because of rigidity difference between materials and stress concentration also might happen because of abnormal loading transmission at joint in the hybrid bridge. Therefore the joint might be a weak point of the structural system and it needs to pay attention to design of the joint. However, design codes and standards about the joint in the hybrid-bridge have not been established so the joint designs in most of construction cases have been very conservative or followed previous design without extra verification. In this study parametric study using finite element analysis for optimal design of hybrid bridge joint is conducted. Before parametric study, finite element analysis was conducted based on previous experimental data and it is verified that analysis result approximated experimental data. Based on the finite element analysis results, parametric study was conducted. The parameters were selected as those have influences on joint behavior. Based on the parametric study results, optimal design of hybrid bridge joint has been determined.

Keywords: Finite Element Analysis, Optimal Design, parametric study, hybrid bridge

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6 Parametric Study of a Solar-Heating-And-Cooling System with Hybrid Photovoltaic/Thermal Collectors in North China

Authors: Jili Zhang, Ruobing Liang, Chao Zhou

Abstract:

A solar-heating-and-cooling (SHC) system, consisting of a hybrid photovoltaic/ thermal collector array, a hot water storage tank, and an absorption chiller unit is designed and modeled to satisfy thermal loads (space heating, domestic hot water, and space cooling). The system is applied for Dalian, China, a location with cold climate conditions, where cooling demand is moderate, while space heating demand is slightly high. The study investigates the potential of a solar system installed and operated onsite in a detached single-family household to satisfy all necessary thermal loads. The hot water storage tank is also connected to an auxiliary heater (electric boiler) to supplement solar heating, when needed. The main purpose of the study is to model the overall system and contact a parametric study that will determine the optimum economic system performance in terms of design parameters. The system is compared, through a cost analysis, to an electric heat pump (EHP) system. This paper will give the optimum system combination of solar collector area and volumetric capacity of the hot water storage tank, respectively.

Keywords: Cost Analysis, parametric study, absorption chiller, solar PVT collector, solar heating and cooling, solar air-conditioning

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5 Sand Production Modelled with Darcy Fluid Flow Using Discrete Element Method

Authors: M. N. Nwodo, Y. P. Cheng, N. H. Minh

Abstract:

In the process of recovering oil in weak sandstone formations, the strength of sandstones around the wellbore is weakened due to the increase of effective stress/load from the completion activities around the cavity. The weakened and de-bonded sandstone may be eroded away by the produced fluid, which is termed sand production. It is one of the major trending subjects in the petroleum industry because of its significant negative impacts, as well as some observed positive impacts. For efficient sand management therefore, there has been need for a reliable study tool to understand the mechanism of sanding. One method of studying sand production is the use of the widely recognized Discrete Element Method (DEM), Particle Flow Code (PFC3D) which represents sands as granular individual elements bonded together at contact points. However, there is limited knowledge of the particle-scale behavior of the weak sandstone, and the parameters that affect sanding. This paper aims to investigate the reliability of using PFC3D and a simple Darcy flow in understanding the sand production behavior of a weak sandstone. An isotropic tri-axial test on a weak oil sandstone sample was first simulated at a confining stress of 1MPa to calibrate and validate the parallel bond models of PFC3D using a 10m height and 10m diameter solid cylindrical model. The effect of the confining stress on the number of bonds failure was studied using this cylindrical model. With the calibrated data and sample material properties obtained from the tri-axial test, simulations without and with fluid flow were carried out to check on the effect of Darcy flow on bonds failure using the same model geometry. The fluid flow network comprised of every four particles connected with tetrahedral flow pipes with a central pore or flow domain. Parametric studies included the effects of confining stress, and fluid pressure; as well as validating flow rate – permeability relationship to verify Darcy’s fluid flow law. The effect of model size scaling on sanding was also investigated using 4m height, 2m diameter model. The parallel bond model successfully calibrated the sample’s strength of 4.4MPa, showing a sharp peak strength before strain-softening, similar to the behavior of real cemented sandstones. There seems to be an exponential increasing relationship for the bigger model, but a curvilinear shape for the smaller model. The presence of the Darcy flow induced tensile forces and increased the number of broken bonds. For the parametric studies, flow rate has a linear relationship with permeability at constant pressure head. The higher the fluid flow pressure, the higher the number of broken bonds/sanding. The DEM PFC3D is a promising tool to studying the micromechanical behavior of cemented sandstones.

Keywords: fluid flow, parametric study, discrete element method, sand production/bonds failure

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4 Shear Capacity of Rectangular Duct Panel Experiencing Internal Pressure

Authors: K. S. Sivakumaran, T. Thanga, B. Halabieh

Abstract:

The end panels of a large rectangular industrial duct, which experience significant internal pressures, also experience considerable transverse shear due to transfer of gravity loads to the supports. The current design practice of such thin plate panels for shear load is based on methods used for the design of plate girder webs. The structural arrangements, the loadings and the resulting behavior associated with the industrial duct end panels are, however, significantly different than those of the web of a plate girder. The large aspect ratio of the end panels gives rise to multiple bands of tension fields, whereas the plate girder web design is based on one tension field. In addition to shear, the industrial end panels are subjected to internal pressure which in turn produces significant membrane action. This paper reports a study which was undertaken to review the current industrial analysis and design methods and to propose a comprehensive method of designing industrial duct end panels for shear resistance. In this investigation, a nonlinear finite element model was developed to simulate the behavior of industrial duct end panel subjected to transverse shear and internal pressures. The model considered the geometric imperfections and constitutive relations for steels. Six scale independent dimensionless parameters that govern the behavior of such end panel were identified and were then used in an extensive parametric study. It was concluded that the plate slenderness dominates the shear strength of stockier end panels, and whereas, the aspect ratio and plate slenderness influence the shear strength of slender end panels. Based on these studies, this paper proposes design aids for estimating the shear strength of rectangular duct end panels.

Keywords: Design, Finite Element Analysis, parametric study, thin plate, transverse shear, tension field

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3 Parametric Study for Obtaining the Structural Response of Segmental Tunnels in Soft Soil by Using No-Linear Numerical Models

Authors: Jatziri Y. Moreno-Martínez, Arturo Galván, Israel Enrique Herrera Díaz, José Ramón Gasca Tirado

Abstract:

In recent years, one of the methods most used for the construction of tunnels in soft soil is the shield-driven tunneling. The advantage of this construction technique is that it allows excavating the tunnel while at the same time a primary lining is placed, which consists of precast segments. There are joints between segments, also called longitudinal joints, and joints between rings (called as circumferential joints). This is the reason because of this type of constructions cannot be considered as a continuous structure. The effect of these joints influences in the rigidity of the segmental lining and therefore in its structural response. A parametric study was performed to take into account the effect of different parameters in the structural response of typical segmental tunnels built in soft soil by using non-linear numerical models based on Finite Element Method by means of the software package ANSYS v. 11.0. In the first part of this study, two types of numerical models were performed. In the first one, the segments were modeled by using beam elements based on Timoshenko beam theory whilst the segment joints were modeled by using inelastic rotational springs considering the constitutive moment-rotation relation proposed by Gladwell. In this way, the mechanical behavior of longitudinal joints was simulated. On the other hand for simulating the mechanical behavior of circumferential joints elastic springs were considered. As well as, the stability given by the soil was modeled by means of elastic-linear springs. In the second type of models, the segments were modeled by means of three-dimensional solid elements and the joints with contact elements. In these models, the zone of the joints is modeled as a discontinuous (increasing the computational effort) therefore a discrete model is obtained. With these contact elements the mechanical behavior of joints is simulated considering that when the joint is closed, there is transmission of compressive and shear stresses but not of tensile stresses and when the joint is opened, there is no transmission of stresses. This type of models can detect changes in the geometry because of the relative movement of the elements that form the joints. A comparison between the numerical results with two types of models was carried out. In this way, the hypothesis considered in the simplified models were validated. In addition, the numerical models were calibrated with (Lab-based) experimental results obtained from the literature of a typical tunnel built in Europe. In the second part of this work, a parametric study was performed by using the simplified models due to less used computational effort compared to complex models. In the parametric study, the effect of material properties, the geometry of the tunnel, the arrangement of the longitudinal joints and the coupling of the rings were studied. Finally, it was concluded that the mechanical behavior of segment and ring joints and the arrangement of the segment joints affect the global behavior of the lining. As well as, the effect of the coupling between rings modifies the structural capacity of the lining.

Keywords: Numerical Models, Structural Response, parametric study, segmental tunnels

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2 Performance Study of Scraped Surface Heat Exchanger with Helical Ribbons

Authors: S. Ali, M. Baccar

Abstract:

In this work, numerical simulations were carried out using a specific CFD code in order to study the performance of an innovative Scraped Surface Heat Exchanger (SSHE) with helical ribbons for Bingham fluids (threshold fluids). The resolution of three-dimensional form of the conservation equations (continuity, momentum and energy equations) was carried out basing on the finite volume method (FVM). After studying the effect of dimensionless numbers (axial Reynolds, rotational Reynolds and Oldroyd numbers) on the hydrodynamic and thermal behaviors within SSHE, a parametric study was developed, by varying the width of the helical ribbon, the clearance between the stator wall and the tip of the ribbon and the number of turns of the helical ribbon, in order to improve the heat transfer inside the exchanger. The effect of these geometrical numbers on the hydrodynamic and thermal behaviors was discussed.

Keywords: Heat Transfer, Thermal Behavior, parametric study, hydrodynamic behavior, helical ribbons, SSHE

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1 Mathematical Modelling and Numerical Simulation of Maisotsenko Cycle

Authors: Rasikh Tariq, Fatima Z. Benarab

Abstract:

Evaporative coolers has a minimum potential to reach the wet-bulb temperature of intake air which is not enough to handle a large cooling load; therefore, it is not a feasible option to overcome cooling requirement of a building. The invention of Maisotsenko (M) cycle has led evaporative cooling technology to reach the sub-wet-bulb temperature of the intake air; therefore, it brings an innovation in evaporative cooling techniques. In this work, we developed a mathematical model of the Maisotsenko based air cooler by applying energy and mass balance laws on different air channels. The governing ordinary differential equations are discretized and simulated on MATLAB. The temperature and the humidity plots are shown in the simulation results. A parametric study is conducted by varying working air inlet conditions (temperature and humidity), inlet air velocity, geometric parameters and water temperature. The influence of these aforementioned parameters on the cooling effectiveness of the HMX is reported.  Results have shown that the effectiveness of the M-Cycle is increased by increasing the ambient temperature and decreasing absolute humidity. An air velocity of 0.5 m/sec and a channel height of 6-8mm is recommended.

Keywords: Mathematical Modeling, Numerical Simulation, parametric study, HMX, maisotsenko cycle

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