Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11

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11 Predictive Value of Coagulopathy in Patients with Isolated Blunt Traumatic Brain Injury: A Cohort of Pakistani Population

Authors: Shahan Waheed, Muhammad Waqas, Mohsin Qadeer, Ehsan Bari, Salman Ahmed, Iqra Patoli

Abstract:

Objective: To determine the value of aPTT, platelets and INR as the predictor of unfavorable outcomes in patients with blunt isolated traumatic brain injury. Methods: This was an observational cohort study conducted in a tertiary care facility from 1st January 2008 to 31st December 2012. All the patients with isolated traumatic brain injury presenting within 24 hours of injury were included in the study. Coagulation parameters at presentation were recorded and Glasgow Outcome Scale calculated on last follow up. Outcomes were dichotomized into favorable and unfavorable outcomes. Relationship of coagulopathy with GOS and unfavorable outcomes was calculated using Spearman`s correlation and area under curve ROC analysis. Results: 121 patients were included in the study. The incidence of coagulopathy was found to be 6 %. aPTT was found to a significantly associated with unfavorable outcomes with an AUC = 0.702 (95%CI = 0.602-0.802). Predictive value of platelets and INR was not found to be significant. Conclusion: Incidence of coagulopathy was found to be low in current population compared to data from the West. aPTT was found to be a good predictor of unfavorable outcomes compared with other parameters of coagulation.

Keywords: aPTT, coagulopathy, unfavorable outcomes, parameters

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10 Simulation of the Performance of the Reforming of Methane in a Primary Reformer

Authors: M. Boumaza, A. Alkattib

Abstract:

Steam reforming is industrially important as it is incorporated in several major chemical processes including the production of ammonia, methanol, hydrogen and ox alcohols. Due to the strongly endothermic nature of the process, a large amount of heat is supplied by fuel burning (commonly natural gas) in the furnace chamber. Reaction conversions, tube catalyst life, energy consumption and CO2 emission represent the principal factors affecting the performance of this unit and are directly influenced by the high operating temperatures and pressures. This study presents a simulation of the performance of the reforming of methane in a primary reformer, through a developed empirical relation which enables to investigate the effects of operating parameters such as the pressure, temperature, steam to carbon ratio on the production of hydrogen, as well as the fraction of non-converted methane. It appears from this analysis that the exit temperature Te, the operating pressure as well the steam to carbon ratio has an important effect on the reforming of methane.

Keywords: Performance, Hydrogen, methane, parameters, reforming

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9 Characterization of New Sources of Maize (Zea mays L.) Resistance to Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Infestation in Stored Maize

Authors: L. C. Nwosu, C. O. Adedire, M. O. Ashamo, E. O. Ogunwolu

Abstract:

The maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky is a notorious pest of stored maize (Zea mays L.). The development of resistant maize varieties to manage weevils is a major breeding objective. The study investigated the parameters and mechanisms that confer resistance on a maize variety to S. zeamais infestation using twenty elite maize varieties. Detailed morphological, physical and chemical studies were conducted on whole-maize grain and the grain pericarp. Resistance was assessed at 33, 56, and 90 days post infestation using weevil mortality rate, weevil survival rate, percent grain damage, percent grain weight loss, weight of grain powder, oviposition rate and index of susceptibility as indices rated on a scale developed by the present study and on Dobie’s modified scale. Linear regression models that can predict maize grain damage in relation to the duration of storage were developed and applied. The resistant varieties identified particularly 2000 SYNEE-WSTR and TZBRELD3C5 with very high degree of resistance should be used singly or best in an integrated pest management system for the control of S. zeamais infestation in stored maize. Though increases in the physical properties of grain hardness, weight, length, and width increased varietal resistance, it was found that the bases of resistance were increased chemical attributes of phenolic acid, trypsin inhibitor and crude fibre while the bases of susceptibility were increased protein, starch, magnesium, calcium, sodium, phosphorus, manganese, iron, cobalt and zinc, the role of potassium requiring further investigation. Characters that conferred resistance on the test varieties were found distributed in the pericarp and the endosperm of the grains. Increases in grain phenolic acid, crude fibre, and trypsin inhibitor adversely and significantly affected the bionomics of the weevil on further assessment. The flat side of a maize grain at the point of penetration was significantly preferred by the weevil. Why the south area of the flattened side of a maize grain was significantly preferred by the weevil is clearly unknown, even though grain-face-type seemed to be a contributor in the study. The preference shown to the south area of the grain flat side has implications for seed viability. The study identified antibiosis, preference, antixenosis, and host evasion as the mechanisms of maize post harvest resistance to Sitophilus zeamais infestation.

Keywords: Mechanisms, parameters, preference, maize weevil, resistant

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8 Evaluation of the Effects of Lead on Some Physiological and Hormonal Biomarkeurs among Workers

Authors: Mansouri Ouarda, Adbdennour Cherif, Boukarma Ziad

Abstract:

Environmental and biological monitoring are used for the evaluation of exposure to industrial chemicals, and provide a tool for assessing workers’ exposure to chemicals. The organs or tissues where the first biological effects can be observed with increasing amounts of lead toxicity. This study aims at evaluating the effect of the metal element-trace; lead, on the sex hormones in male workers, exposed to this metal on the level of the manufacturing plant of lead accumulators. The results indicate a significant reduction of the testosterone concentration in exposed workers compared to the control. However, the rate of LH was strongly increased at the individuals exposed to Pb. A significant difference concerning the rate of FSH, the hormone Prolactin and cortisol was recorded. The indicators of the lead poisoning indicate a very highly significant increase in the value of Pbs which vary between (142-796 µg/L) among which 50% of the workers present a high lead poisoning and the value of PPZ which vary between (43-554µg/L). The biochemical parameters show a significant increase in the rate of the créatinine, the urea and the acid urique. The hepatic results show no significant differentiation in the rate of TGO and TGP between both groups of study. However the rates of the enzyme phosphatase alkaline, triglyceride, and cholesterol a significant difference were registered.

Keywords: hormons, parameters, physilogical, Pbs, PPZ

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7 Physical and Chemical Parameters of Lower Ogun River, Ogun State, Nigeria

Authors: F.I. Adeosun, A.A. Idowu, D.O. Odulate

Abstract:

The aims of carrying out this experiment were to determine the water quality and to investigate if the various human and ecological activities around the river have any effect on the physico-chemical parameters of the river’s resources with a view to effectively utilizing these resources. Water samples were collected from two stations on the surface water of Lower Ogun River Akomoje biweekly for a period of 5 months (January to May, 2011). Results showed that temperature ranged between 24.0-30.7oC, transparency (0.53-1.00 m), depth (1.0-3.88 m), alkalinity (4.5-14.5 mg/l), nitrates (0.235-5.445 mg/l), electrical conductivity (140-190µS/cm), dissolved oxygen (4.12-5.32 mg/l), phosphates (0.02 mg/l-0.7 5 mg/l) and total dissolved solids (70-95).The parameters at the deep end (station A) accounted for the bulk of the highest values; there was however no significant differences between the stations at P˂0.05 with the exception of transparency, depth, total dissolved solids and electrical conductivity. The phosphate value was relatively low which accounted for the low productivity and high transparency. The results obtained from the physico-chemical parameters agreed with the limits set by both national and international bodies for drinking and fish growth. It was however observed that during the period of data collection, catch was low and this could be attributed to low level of primary productivity due to the quality of physico-chemical parameters of the water. It is recommended that the agencies involved in the management of the river should put the right policies in place that will effectively enhance proper exploitation of the water resources. More research should also be carried out on the physico-chemical parameters since this work only studied the water for five months.

Keywords: Chemical, Physical, Water Quality, parameters, Ogunriver

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6 Commissioning of a Flattening Filter Free (FFF) using an Anisotropic Analytical Algorithm (AAA)

Authors: Safiqul Islam, Anamul Haque, Mohammad Amran Hossain

Abstract:

Aim: To compare the dosimetric parameters of the flattened and flattening filter free (FFF) beam and to validate the beam data using anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA). Materials and Methods: All the dosimetric data’s (i.e. depth dose profiles, profile curves, output factors, penumbra etc.) required for the beam modeling of AAA were acquired using the Blue Phantom RFA for 6 MV, 6 FFF, 10MV & 10FFF. Progressive resolution Optimizer and Dose Volume Optimizer algorithm for VMAT and IMRT were are also configured in the beam model. Beam modeling of the AAA were compared with the measured data sets. Results: Due to the higher and lover energy component in 6FFF and 10 FFF the surface doses are 10 to 15% higher compared to flattened 6 MV and 10 MV beams. FFF beam has a lower mean energy compared to the flattened beam and the beam quality index were 6 MV 0.667, 6FFF 0.629, 10 MV 0.74 and 10 FFF 0.695 respectively. Gamma evaluation with 2% dose and 2 mm distance criteria for the Open Beam, IMRT and VMAT plans were also performed and found a good agreement between the modeled and measured data. Conclusion: We have successfully modeled the AAA algorithm for the flattened and FFF beams and achieved a good agreement with the calculated and measured value.

Keywords: parameters, commissioning of a Flattening Filter Free (FFF), using an Anisotropic Analytical Algorithm (AAA), flattened beam

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5 Uncertainty and Optimization Analysis Using PETREL RE

Authors: Ankur Sachan

Abstract:

The ability to make quick yet intelligent and value-added decisions to develop new fields has always been of great significance. In situations where the capital expenses and subsurface risk are high, carefully analyzing the inherent uncertainties in the reservoir and how they impact the predicted hydrocarbon accumulation and production becomes a daunting task. The problem is compounded in offshore environments, especially in the presence of heavy oils and disconnected sands where the margin for error is small. Uncertainty refers to the degree to which the data set may be in error or stray from the predicted values. To understand and quantify the uncertainties in reservoir model is important when estimating the reserves. Uncertainty parameters can be geophysical, geological, petrophysical etc. Identification of these parameters is necessary to carry out the uncertainty analysis. With so many uncertainties working at different scales, it becomes essential to have a consistent and efficient way of incorporating them into our analysis. Ranking the uncertainties based on their impact on reserves helps to prioritize/ guide future data gathering and uncertainty reduction efforts. Assigning probabilistic ranges to key uncertainties also enables the computation of probabilistic reserves. With this in mind, this paper, with the help the uncertainty and optimization process in petrel RE shows how the most influential uncertainties can be determined efficiently and how much impact so they have on the reservoir model thus helping in determining a cost effective and accurate model of the reservoir.

Keywords: Uncertainty, parameters, reservoir model, optimization analysis

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4 Stress Corrosion Cracking, Parameters Affecting It, Problems Caused by It and Suggested Methods for Treatment: State of the Art

Authors: Adnan Zaid

Abstract:

Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) may be defined as a degradation of the mechanical properties of a material under the combined action of a tensile stress and corrosive environment of the susceptible material. It is a harmful phenomenon which might cause catastrophic fracture without a sign of prior warning. In this paper, the stress corrosion cracking, SCC, process, the parameters affecting it, and the different damages caused by it are given and discussed. Utilization of shot peening as a mean of enhancing the resistance of materials to SCC is given and discussed. Finally, a method for improving materials resistance to SCC by grain refining its structure by some refining elements prior to usage is suggested.

Keywords: Damages, Treatment Methods, parameters, stress corrosion cracking

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3 Quality Control Parameters and Pharmacological Aspects of Less Known Medicinal Plant of India: Plumeria pudica Linn.

Authors: Raghvendra Dubey, Sumeet Dwivedi, Shweta Shriwas

Abstract:

Plumeria pudica Linn. Family Apocynaceae commonly known as Nag Chmapa is grown wildly in many parts of India. The plant is medium size shrub, grown up to height of 5-10 feet, evergreen with white flowers. In traditional system of medicine, the plant is widely used in the treatment of worms, infection, inflammation, etc. So, far no any systematic and documented study was done to revealed quality control parameters and pharmacological aspect of the selected plant species, therefore, the attempt was made in present investigation to reveal the same. The parameters such as Ash value, FOM, LOD, SI, etc. were studied using various coarsely dried plant materials of the species. Analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anthelmentic and anti-microbial activity of various extract was investigated and reported in present work.

Keywords: pharmacology, Quality Control, parameters, Plumeria pudica

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2 The Effect of the Parameters of the Grinding on the Characteristics of the Deposit Phosphate Ore of Kef Es Sennoun, Djebel Onk-Tebessa, Algeria

Authors: N. Benabdeslam, N. Bouzidi, F. Atmani, R. Boucif, A. Sakhri

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to provide answers for a better understanding of the mechanisms involved during grinding. To obtain a phosphate powder, we carry out sieving - grinding circuits for each parameter influencing the process. The analysis of the average particle size of the different tests carried out served in the first place as a basis for the determination of the granulometric curve area, the characteristics and the granular coefficients, then the exploitation of the different results for the calculation of the energies consumed for the fragmentation of different ore types, the energy coefficients as well as the ability to grind. Indeed, a time of 5 to 10 minutes can be chosen as the optimal grinding time in a disc mill for a % in weight of the highest pass. However, grinding time can influence the granular characteristics of ore.

Keywords: mineralogical composition, Grinding, parameters, characteristic granular, phosphate ore

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1 Detection of Intravenous Infiltration Using Impedance Parameters in Patients in a Long-Term Care Hospital

Authors: Jae Hyung Kim, Ihn Sook Jeong, Eun Joo Lee, Gun Ho Kim, Young Jun Hwang

Abstract:

This study investigated intravenous (IV) infiltration using bioelectrical impedance for 27 hospitalized patients in a long-term care hospital. Impedance parameters showed significant differences before and after infiltration as follows. First, the resistance (R) after infiltration significantly decreased compared to the initial resistance. This indicates that the IV solution flowing from the vein due to infiltration accumulates in the extracellular fluid (ECF). Second, the relative resistance at 50 kHz was 0.94 ± 0.07 in 9 subjects without infiltration and was 0.75 ± 0.12 in 18 subjects with infiltration. Third, the magnitude of the reactance (Xc) decreased after infiltration. This is because IV solution and blood components released from the vein tend to aggregate in the cell membrane (and acts analogously to the linear/parallel circuit), thereby increasing the capacitance (Cm) of the cell membrane and reducing the magnitude of reactance. Finally, the data points plotted in the R-Xc graph were distributed on the upper right before infiltration but on the lower left after infiltration. This indicates that the infiltration caused accumulation of fluid or blood components in the epidermal and subcutaneous tissues, resulting in reduced resistance and reactance, thereby lowering integrity of the cell membrane. Our findings suggest that bioelectrical impedance is an effective method for detection of infiltration in a noninvasive and quantitative manner.

Keywords: Resistance, parameters, impedance, intravenous infiltration, reactance

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