Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

packaging Related Abstracts

14 Application of Lean Six Sigma Tools to Minimize Time and Cost in Furniture Packaging

Authors: Suleiman Obeidat, Nabeel Mandahawi


In this work, the packaging process for a move is improved. The customers of this move need their household stuff to be moved from their current house to the new one with minimum damage, in an organized manner, on time and with the minimum cost. Our goal was to improve the process between 10% and 20% time efficiency, 90% reduction in damaged parts and an acceptable improvement in the cost of the total move process. The expected ROI was 833%. Many improvement techniques have been used in terms of the way the boxes are prepared, their preparation cost, packing the goods, labeling them and moving them to a place for moving out. DMAIC technique is used in this work: SIPOC diagram, value stream map of “As Is” process, Root Cause Analysis, Maps of “Future State” and “Ideal State” and an Improvement Plan. A value of ROI=624% is obtained which is lower than the expected value of 833%. The work explains the techniques of improvement and the deficiencies in the old process.

Keywords: packaging, Six Sigma, lean tools, DMAIC methodology, SIPOC

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13 Packaging Improvement for Unit Cell Vanadium Redox Flow Battery (V-RFB)

Authors: A. C. Khor, M. R. Mohamed, M. H. Sulaiman, M. R. Daud


Packaging for vanadium redox flow battery is one of the key elements for successful implementation of flow battery in the electrical energy storage system. Usually the bulky battery size and low energy densities make this technology not available for mobility application. Therefore RFB with improved packaging size and energy capacity are highly desirable. This paper focuses on the study of packaging improvement for unit cell V-RFB to the application on Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle. Two different designs of 25 cm2 and 100 cm2 unit cell V-RFB at same current density are used for the sample in this investigation. Further suggestions on packaging improvement are highlighted.

Keywords: packaging, Electric Vehicle, vanadium, redox flow battery

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12 Retail Managers’ Perception on Coca-Cola Company’s Success of Glass Package Recovery and Recycling in Nairobi, Kenya

Authors: Brigitte Wabuyabo-Okonga


Little research has been done to establish the level of success of Coca Cola Company in recycling and reusing their glass bottles. This paper attempts to establish retail managers’ perception of the company’s self acclaimed success. Retail managers of supermarkets in the CBD of Nairobi, Kenya were considered for the study. Data were collected through questionnaires and analyzed using descriptive (mean, frequencies and percentages) and inferential statistics (correlation analysis) were used to analyze the data. The study found out that there is relative success although a lot needs to be done. For example, improving in communicating policy issues and in practice enhance the actual collection of broken and/or non-broken Coca Cola Company glass bottles through providing drop-off points in open areas such as on the streets and in parks.

Keywords: packaging, Kenya, Coca Cola Company glass bottles, Nairobi, retail manager

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11 Food Processing Technology and Packaging: A Case Study of Indian Cashew-Nut Industry

Authors: Parashram Jakappa Patil


India is the global leader in world cashew business and cashew-nut industry is one of the important food processing industries in world. However India is the largest producer, processor, exporter and importer eschew in the world. India is providing cashew to the rest of the world. India is meeting world demand of cashew. India has a tremendous potential of cashew production and export to other countries. Every year India earns more than 2000 cores rupees through cashew trade. Cashew industry is one of the important small scale industries in the country which is playing significant role in rural development. It is generating more than 400000 jobs at remote area and 95% cashew worker are women, it is giving income to poor cashew farmers, majority cashew processing units are small and cottage, it is helping to stop migration from young farmers for employment opportunities, it is motivation rural entrepreneurship development and it is also helping to environment protection etc. Hence India cashew business is very important agribusiness in India which has potential make inclusive development. World Bank and IMF recognized cashew-nut industry is one the important tool for poverty eradication at global level. It shows important of cashew business and its strong existence in India. In spite of such huge potential cashew processing industry is facing different problems such as lack of infrastructure ability, lack of supply of raw cashew, lack of availability of finance, collection of raw cashew, unavailability of warehouse, marketing of cashew kernels, lack of technical knowledge and especially processing technology and packaging of finished products. This industry has great prospects such as scope for more cashew cultivation and cashew production, employment generation, formation of cashew processing units, alcohols production from cashew apple, shield oil production, rural development, poverty elimination, development of social and economic backward class and environment protection etc. This industry has domestic as well as foreign market; India has tremendous potential in this regard. The cashew is a poor men’s crop but rich men’s food. The cashew is a source of income and livelihood for poor farmers. Cashew-nut industry may play very important role in the development of hilly region. The objectives of this paper are to identify problems of cashew processing and use of processing technology, problems of cashew kernel packaging, evolving of cashew processing technology over the year and its impact on final product and impact of good processing by adopting appropriate technology packaging on international trade of cashew-nut. The most important problem of cashew processing industry is that is processing and packaging. Bad processing reduce the quality of cashew kernel at large extent especially broken of cashew kernel which has very less price in market compare to whole cashew kernel and not eligible for export. On the other hand if there is no good packaging of cashew kernel will get moisture which destroy test of it. International trade of cashew-nut is depend of two things one is cashew processing and other is packaging. This study has strong relevance because cashew-nut industry is the labour oriented, where processing technology is not playing important role because 95% processing work is manual. Hence processing work was depending on physical performance of worker which makes presence of large workforce inevitable. There are many cashew processing units closed because they are not getting sufficient work force. However due to advancement in technology slowly this picture is changing and processing work get improve. Therefore it is interesting to explore all the aspects in context of cashew processing and packaging of cashew business.

Keywords: International Trade, packaging, Change, Processing Technology, cashew

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10 Antmicrobial Packaging, a Step Towards Safe Food: A Review

Authors: M. N. Akhtar, Hafiz A. Sakandar, M. Afzaal, U. Khan


Food is the primary concern of living organisms, provision of diet for maintenance of good physical and mental health is a basic right of an individual and the outcome of factors related to diet on health has been matter of apprehension since ancient times. Healthy and fresh food always demanded by the consumers. Modern research has find out many alternatives of traditional packaging. Now the consumer knows that good packaging system is that which protects the food from the contaminants and increases shelf life of food product. While in Pakistan about 40% of fruits and vegetables lost due to spoilage caused by poor handling, transportation, and poor packaging interaction with other environmental conditions. So it is crucial for developing countries like Pakistan to pay attention to these exacerbating situations for economy losses by considering food packaging an ultimate solution to the problem.

Keywords: Food Safety, packaging, Antimicrobial, food losses

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9 Packaging in the Design Synthesis of Novel Aircraft Configuration

Authors: Paul Okonkwo, Howard Smith


A study to estimate the size of the cabin and major aircraft components as well as detect and avoid interference between internally placed components and the external surface, during the conceptual design synthesis and optimisation to explore the design space of a BWB, was conducted. Sizing of components follows the Bradley cabin sizing and rubber engine scaling procedures to size the cabin and engine respectively. The interference detection and avoidance algorithm relies on the ability of the Class Shape Transform parameterisation technique to generate polynomial functions of the surfaces of a BWB aircraft configuration from the sizes of the cabin and internal objects using few variables. Interference detection is essential in packaging of non-conventional configuration like the BWB because of the non-uniform airfoil-shaped sections and resultant varying internal space. The unique configuration increases the need for a methodology to prevent objects from being placed in locations that do not sufficiently enclose them within the geometry.

Keywords: packaging, Optimisation, Aircraft Conceptual Design, BWB, parameterisation

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8 Enhancement of Shelflife of Malta Fruit with Active Packaging

Authors: N. C. Shahi, Rishi Richa, J. P. Pandey, S. S. Kautkar


Citrus fruits rank third in area and production after banana and mango in India. Sweet oranges are the second largest citrus fruits cultivated in the country. Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, and Uttarakhand are the main sweet orange-growing states. Citrus fruits occupy a leading position in the fruit trade of Uttarakhand, is casing about 14.38% of the total area under fruits and contributing nearly 17.75 % to the total fruit production. Malta is grown in most of the hill districts of the Uttarakhand. Malta common is having high acceptability due to its attractive colour, distinctive flavour, and taste. The excellent quality fruits are generally available for only one or two months. However due to its less shelf-life, Malta can not be stored for longer time under ambient conditions and cannot be transported to distant places. Continuous loss of water adversely affects the quality of Malta during storage and transportation. Method of picking, packaging, and cold storage has detrimental effects on moisture loss. The climatic condition such as ambient temperature, relative humidity, wind condition (aeration) and microbial attack greatly influences the rate of moisture loss and quality. Therefore, different agro-climatic zone will have different moisture loss pattern. The rate of moisture loss can be taken as one of the quality parameters in combination of one or more parameter such as RH, and aeration. The moisture contents of the fruits and vegetables determine their freshness. Hence, it is important to maintain initial moisture status of fruits and vegetable for prolonged period after the harvest. Keeping all points in views, effort was made to store Malta at ambient condition. In this study, the response surface method and experimental design were applied for optimization of independent variables to enhance the shelf life of four months stored malta. Box-Benkhen design, with, 12 factorial points and 5 replicates at the centre point were used to build a model for predicting and optimizing storage process parameters. The independent parameters, viz., scavenger (3, 4 and 5g), polythene thickness (75, 100 and 125 gauge) and fungicide concentration (100, 150 and 200ppm) were selected and analyzed. 5g scavenger, 125 gauge and 200ppm solution of fungicide are the optimized value for storage which may enhance life up to 4months.

Keywords: packaging, Shelf Life, scavenger, Malta fruit

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7 Modeling of Nanocomposite Films Made of Cloisite 30b- Metal Nanoparticle in Packaging of Soy Burger

Authors: Faranak Beigmohammadi, Seyed Hadi Peighambardoust, Seyed Jamaledin Peighambardoust


This study undertakes to investigate the ability of different kinds of nanocomposite films made of cloisite-30B with different percentages of silver and copper oxide nanoparticles incorporated into a low-density polyethylene (LDPE) polymeric matrix by a melt mixing method in order to inhibit the growth of microorganism in soy burger. The number of surviving cell of the total count was decreased by 3.61 log and mold and yeast diminished by 2.01 log after 8 weeks storage at 18 ± 0.5°C below zero, whilst pure LDPE did not has any antimicrobial effect. A composition of 1.3 % cloisite 30B-Ag and 2.7 % cloisite 30B-CuO for total count and 0 % cloisite 30B-Ag and 4 % cloisite 30B-CuO for yeast & mold gave optimum points in combined design test in Design Expert 7.1.5. Suitable microbial models were suggested for retarding above microorganisms growth in soy burger. To validation of optimum point, the difference between the optimum point of nanocomposite film and its repeat was not significant (p<0.05) by one-way ANOVA analysis using SPSS 17.0 software, while the difference was significant for pure film. Migration of metallic nanoparticles into a food stimulant was within the accepted safe level.

Keywords: Modeling, packaging, nanocomposite film, soy burger

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6 The Development of Packaging to Create Additional Value for Organic Rice Products of Uttaradit Province, Thailand

Authors: Juntima Pokkrong


The objectives of the study were to develop packaging made from rice straws left after the harvest in order to create additional value for organic rice products of Uttaradit Province and to demonstrate the technology of producing straw packaging to the community. The population was promoters of organic rice distributors, governmental organizations, consumers, and three groups of organic rice producers which are the Agriculturist Group of Khorrum Sub-district, Pichai District, Uttaradit Province; the Agriculturist Group of Wangdin Sub-district, Muang District, Uttaradit Province; and the Agriculturist Group of Wangkapi Sub-district, Muang District, Uttaradit Province. The data were collected via group discussions, and two types of questionnaires. The data acquired were then analyzed using descriptive statistic for percentage, mean, standard deviation, and content analysis. It has been found that primary packaging for one kilogram of rice requires vacuumed plastic bags made from thermoplastic or resin because they are able to preserve the quality of rice for a long time, and they are also very cheap. For secondary packaging, the making of straw paper was studied and applied. Straw paper can be used for various purposes, and in this study, it was used to create the secondary packaging models in compliance with packaging preferences acquired from the questionnaires. The models were surveyed among the population for their opinion using satisfaction questionnaires, and the result was overall highly satisfactory.

Keywords: packaging, environmentally friendly, organic rice, straw paper

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5 Development of Optimized Eye Mascara Packages with Bioinspired Spiral Methodology

Authors: Daniela Brioschi, Rovilson Mafalda, Silvia Titotto


In the present days, packages are considered a fundamental element in the commercialization of products and services. A good package is capable of helping to attract new customers and also increasing a product’s purchase intent. In this scenario, packaging design emerges as an important tool, since products and design of their packaging are so interconnected that they are no longer seen as separate elements. Packaging design is, in fact, capable of generating desire for a product. The packaging market for cosmetics, especially makeup market, has also been experiencing an increasing level of sophistication and requirements. Considering packaging represents an important link of communication with the final user and plays a significant role on the sales process, it is of great importance that packages accomplish not only with functional requirements but also with the visual appeal. One of the possibilities for the design of packages and, in this context, packages for make-up, is the bioinspired design – or biomimicry. The bio-inspired design presents a promising paradigm for innovation in both design and sustainable design, by using biological system analogies to develop solutions. It has gained importance as a widely diffused movement in design for environmentally conscious development and is also responsible for several useful and innovative designs. As eye mascara packages are also part of the constant evolution on the design for cosmetics area and the traditional packages present the disadvantage of product drying along time, this project aims to develop a new and innovative package for this product, by using a selected bioinspired design methodology during the development process and also suitable computational tools. In order to guide the development process of the package, it was chosen the spiral methodology, conceived by The Biomimicry Institut, which consists of a reliable tool, since it was based on traditional design methodologies. The spiral design comprises identification, translation, discovery, abstraction, emulation and evaluation steps, that can work iteratively as the process develops as a spiral. As support tool for packaging, 3D modelling is being used by the software Inventor Autodesk Inventor 2018. Although this is an ongoing research, first results showed that spiral methodology design, together with Autodesk Inventor, consist of suitable instruments for the bio-inspired design process, and also nature proved itself to be an amazing and inexhaustible source of inspiration.

Keywords: packaging, Cosmetics, Design methodology, Bio-Inspired Design

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4 Effects of Packaging Method, Storage Temperature and Storage Time on the Quality Properties of Cold-Dried Beef Slices

Authors: Mustafa Erbas, Elif Aykın Dinçer


The effects of packaging method (modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) and aerobic packaging (AP)), storage temperature (4 and 25°C) and storage time (0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 days) on the chemical, microbiological and sensory properties of cold-dried beef slices were investigated. Beef slices were dried at 10°C and 3 m/s after pasteurization with hot steam and then packaged in order to determine the effect of different storage conditions. As the storage temperature and time increased, it was determined that the amount of CO2 decreased in the MAP packed samples and that the amount of O2 decreased while the amount of CO2 increased in the AP packed samples. The water activity value of stored beef slices decreased from 0.91 to 0.88 during 90 days of storage. The pH, TBARS and NPN-M values of stored beef slices were higher in the AP packed samples and pH value increased from 5.68 to 5.93, TBARS increased from 25.25 to 60.11 μmol MDA/kg and NPN-M value increased from 4.37 to 6.66 g/100g during the 90 days of storage. It was determined that the microbiological quality of MAP packed samples was higher and the mean counts of TAMB, TPB, Micrococcus/Staphylococcus, LAB and yeast-mold were 4.10, 3.28, 3.46, 2.99 and 3.14 log cfu/g, respectively. As a result of sensory evaluation, it was found that the quality of samples packed MAP and stored at low temperature was higher and the shelf life of samples was 90 days at 4°C and 75 days at 25°C for MAP treatment, and 60 days at 4°C and 45 days at 25°C for AP treatment.

Keywords: packaging, Storage, cold drying, dried meat

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3 Design of a New Package for Saffron Using Kansei Engineering

Authors: Sotiris Papantonopoulos, Marianna Bortziou


This study aimed at developing a new package of saffron using emotional design and specifically the Kansei Engineering method. Kansei Engineering is a proactive product development methodology, which aims to improve the product development process and to translate consumers' feelings and image of a product into design elements. A survey was conducted with two major purposes: (1) to determine the target group of saffron use and to collect information about the adequacy of the product’s promotion and the importance of its packaging, (2) to collect the most important properties of a package according to consumers and to evaluate the existing saffron packages according to these properties (benchmarking). The interaction with the general public conducted by the distribution of online questionnaires and personal interviews as well as the statistical analysis of the results were performed using the SPSS software. The results of the survey were used in all stages of Kansei Engineering. Based on the results, a new saffron package was designed by using various designing and image processing software. This improved package is expected to achieve a better promotion and increased sales of the product.

Keywords: Design, packaging, Emotional Design, Kansei Engineering, saffron

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2 Synthesis and Characterization of Cassava Starch-Zinc Nanocomposite Film for Food Packaging Application

Authors: Adeshina Fadeyibi


Application of pure thermoplastic film in food packaging is greatly limited because of its poor service performance, often enhanced by the addition of organic or inorganic particles in the range of 1–100 nm. Thus, this study was conducted to develop cassava starch zinc-nanocomposite films for applications in food packaging. Three blending ratios of 1000 g cassava starch, 45–55 % (w/w) glycerol and 0–2 % (w/w) zinc nanoparticles were formulated, mixed and mechanically homogenized to form the nanocomposite. Thermoplastic were prepared, from a dispersed mixture of 24 g of the nanocomposite and 600 ml of distilled water, and heated to 90oC for 30 minutes. Plastic molds of 350 ×180 mm dimension and 8, 10 and 12 mm depths were used for film casting and drying at 60oC and 80 % RH for 24 hour. The average thicknesses of the dried films were found to be 15, 16 and 17 µm. The films were characterized based on their barrier, thermal, mechanical and structural properties. The results show that the oxygen and water vapor barrier properties increased with glycerol concentration and decreased with thickness; but the full width at half maximum (FWHM) and d- spacing increased with thickness. The higher degree of d- spacing obtained is a consequence of higher polymer intercalation and exfoliation. Also, only 2 % weight degradation was observed when the films were exposed to temperature between 30–60oC; indicating that they are thermally stable and can be used for packaging applications in the tropics. The mechanical properties of the film were higher than that of the pure thermoplastic but comparable with the LDPE films. The information on the characterized attributes and optimization of the cassava starch zinc-nanocomposite films justifies their alternative application to pure thermoplastic and conventional films for food packaging.

Keywords: Characterization, Synthesis, packaging, nanocomposite film, casaava Starch

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1 Track and Trace Solution on Land Certificate Production: Indonesian Land Certificate

Authors: Adrian Rifqi, Febe Napitupulu, Erdi Hermawan, Edwin Putra, Yang Leprilian


This article focuses on the implementation of the production improvement process of the Indonesian land certificate product that printed in Perum Peruri as the state-owned enterprises. Based on the data obtained, there are several complaints from customers of the 2019 land certificate production. The complaints become a negative value to loyal customers of Perum Peruri. Almost all the complaints are referring to ‘defective printouts and the difference between products in packaging and packaging labels both in terms of type and quantity’. To overcome this problem, we intend to make an improvement to the production process that focuses on complaints ‘there is a difference between products in packaging with packaging labels’. Improvements in the land certificate production process are relying on the technology of the scales and QR code on the packaging label. In addition, using the QR code on the packaging label will facilitate the process of tracking product data. With this method, we hope to reduce the error rate between products in packaging with the packaging label both in terms of quantity, type, and product number on the land certificate and error rate of sending land certificates, which will be sent to many places to 0%. With this solution, we also hope to get precise data and real-time reports on the production of land certificates in the near future, so track and trace implementation can be done as the solution of the land certificate production.

Keywords: packaging, QR code, land certificates, track and trace

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