Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

oxytocin Related Abstracts

6 Effect of Prophylactic Oxytocin Therapy on Duration of Retained Fetal Membrane (RFM) in Periparturient Dairy Cows

Authors: Amin Tamadon, Hamid Ghasemzadeh- Nava, Maziar Kaveh Baghbadorani

Abstract:

Considering response of uterus to ecbolic effect of oxytocin near the time of parturition, this study was done for investigating the effect of prophylactic administration of this hormone on duration of fetal membrane retention, time interval to first detectable estrus, time interval to first service, and conception rate at first service in cases of both normal parturition and dystocia. For this reason cows with (n=18) and without (n=18) dystocia assigned randomly to treatment (n=12) or control (n=6) groups and received intramuscular injection of 100 IU of oxytocin or 10 mL of normal saline respectively. Further observations and investigations indicate that duration of fetal retention is significantly shorter in treatment group cows compared to control groups, regardless of having dystocia (P=0.002) or normal spontaneous calving (P=0.001). The same trend exists for conception rate at first service in which cows in treatment groups had significantly higher conception rate (CR) in comparison to cows in control groups with (P=0.0003) or without dystocia (P=0.017). The time interval to first detected heat and first service didn’t show any difference between groups.

Keywords: conception rate, oxytocin, RFM, time to first service

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5 Effect of Oxytocin on Cytosolic Calcium Concentration of Alpha and Beta Cells in Pancreas

Authors: Rauza Sukma Rita, Katsuya Dezaki, Yuko Maejima, Toshihiko Yada

Abstract:

Oxytocin is a nine-amino acid peptide synthesized in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and supraoptic nucleus (SON) of the hypothalamus. Oxytocin promotes contraction of the uterus during birth and milk ejection during breast feeding. Although oxytocin receptors are found predominantly in the breasts and uterus of females, many tissues and organs express oxytocin receptors, including the pituitary, heart, kidney, thymus, vascular endothelium, adipocytes, osteoblasts, adrenal gland, pancreatic islets, and many cell lines. On the other hand, in pancreatic islets, oxytocin receptors are expressed in both α-cells and β-cells with stronger expression in α- cells. However, to our knowledge there are no reports yet about the effect of oxytocin on cytosolic calcium reaction on α and β-cell. This study aims to investigate the effect of oxytocin on α-cells and β-cells and its oscillation pattern. Islet of Langerhans from wild type mice were isolated by collagenase digestion. Isolated and dissociated single cells either α-cells or β-cells on coverslips were mounted in an open chamber and superfused in HKRB. Cytosolic concentration ([Ca2+]i) in single cells were measured by fura-2 microfluorimetry. After measurement of [Ca2+]i, α-cells were identified by subsequent immunocytochemical staining using an anti-glucagon antiserum. In β-cells, the [Ca2+]i increase in response to oxytocin was observed only under 8.3 mM glucose condition, whereas in α-cells, [Ca2+]i an increase induced by oxytocin was observed in both 2.8 mM and 8.3 mM glucose. The oscillation incidence was induced more frequently in β-cells compared to α-cells. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that oxytocin directly interacts with both α-cells and β-cells and induces increase of [Ca2+]i and its specific patterns.

Keywords: oscillation, oxytocin, α-cells, β-cells, cytosolic calcium concentration

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4 Effects of Oxytocin on Neural Response to Facial Emotion Recognition in Schizophrenia

Authors: Avyarthana Dey, Naren P. Rao, Arpitha Jacob, Chaitra V. Hiremath, Shivarama Varambally, Ganesan Venkatasubramanian, Rose Dawn Bharath, Bangalore N. Gangadhar

Abstract:

Objective: Impaired facial emotion recognition is widely reported in schizophrenia. Neuropeptide oxytocin is known to modulate brain regions involved in facial emotion recognition, namely amygdala, in healthy volunteers. However, its effect on facial emotion recognition deficits seen in schizophrenia is not well explored. In this study, we examined the effect of intranasal OXT on processing facial emotions and its neural correlates in patients with schizophrenia. Method: 12 male patients (age= 31.08±7.61 years, education= 14.50±2.20 years) participated in this single-blind, counterbalanced functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study. All participants underwent three fMRI scans; one at baseline, one each after single dose 24IU intranasal OXT and intranasal placebo. The order of administration of OXT and placebo were counterbalanced and subject was blind to the drug administered. Participants performed a facial emotion recognition task presented in a block design with six alternating blocks of faces and shapes. The faces depicted happy, angry or fearful emotions. The images were preprocessed and analyzed using SPM 12. First level contrasts comparing recognition of emotions and shapes were modelled at individual subject level. A group level analysis was performed using the contrasts generated at the first level to compare the effects of intranasal OXT and placebo. The results were thresholded at uncorrected p < 0.001 with a cluster size of 6 voxels. Neuropeptide oxytocin is known to modulate brain regions involved in facial emotion recognition, namely amygdala, in healthy volunteers. Results: Compared to placebo, intranasal OXT attenuated activity in inferior temporal, fusiform and parahippocampal gyri (BA 20), premotor cortex (BA 6), middle frontal gyrus (BA 10) and anterior cingulate gyrus (BA 24) and enhanced activity in the middle occipital gyrus (BA 18), inferior occipital gyrus (BA 19), and superior temporal gyrus (BA 22). There were no significant differences between the conditions on the accuracy scores of emotion recognition between baseline (77.3±18.38), oxytocin (82.63 ± 10.92) or Placebo (76.62 ± 22.67). Conclusion: Our results provide further evidence to the modulatory effect of oxytocin in patients with schizophrenia. Single dose oxytocin resulted in significant changes in activity of brain regions involved in emotion processing. Future studies need to examine the effectiveness of long-term treatment with OXT for emotion recognition deficits in patients with schizophrenia.

Keywords: Recognition, Schizophrenia, Social Cognition, functional connectivity, oxytocin

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3 Computational Analysis and Daily Application of the Key Neurotransmitters Involved in Happiness: Dopamine, Oxytocin, Serotonin, and Endorphins

Authors: Hee Soo Kim, Ha Young Kyung

Abstract:

Happiness and pleasure are a result of dopamine, oxytocin, serotonin, and endorphin levels in the body. In order to increase the four neurochemical levels, it is important to associate daily activities with its corresponding neurochemical releases. This includes setting goals, maintaining social relationships, laughing frequently, and exercising regularly. The likelihood of experiencing happiness increases when all four neurochemicals are released at the optimal level. The achievement of happiness is important because it increases healthiness, productivity, and the ability to overcome adversity. To process emotions, electrical brain waves, brain structure, and neurochemicals must be analyzed. This research uses Chemcraft and Avogadro to determine the theoretical and chemical properties of the four neurochemical molecules. Each neurochemical molecule’s thermodynamic stability is calculated to observe the efficiency of the molecules. The study found that among dopamine, oxytocin, serotonin, alpha-, beta-, and gamma-endorphin, beta-endorphin has the lowest optimized energy of 388.510 kJ/mol. Beta-endorphin, a neurotransmitter involved in mitigating pain and stress, is the most thermodynamically stable and efficient molecule that is involved in the process of happiness. Through examining such properties of happiness neurotransmitters, the science of happiness is better understood.

Keywords: Positive Psychology, Neurotransmitters, Serotonin, Dopamine, Happiness, oxytocin, endorphins

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2 Increased Envy and Schadenfreude in Parents of Newborns

Authors: Sandra Baez, Hernando Santamaria-Garcia, Ana-María Gómez-Carvajal, Mateo Bernal, Mario Valderrama, Daniela Lizarazo, Juliana Restrepo, María Fernanda Barreto, Angélica Parra, Paula Torres, Diana Matallana, Jaime Silva, José Santamaría-García

Abstract:

Higher levels of oxytocin are associated with better performance on social cognition tasks. However, higher levels of oxytocin have also been associated with increased levels of envy and schadenfreude. Considering these antecedents, this study aims to explore social emotions (i.e., envy and schadenfreude) and other components of social cognition (i.e. ToM and empathy), in women in the puerperal period and their respective partners, compared to a control group of men and women without children or partners. Control women should be in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle or taking oral contraceptives as they allow oxytocin levels to remain stable. We selected this population since increased levels of oxytocin are present in both mothers and fathers of newborn babies. Both groups were matched by age, sex, and education level. Twenty-two parents of newborns (11 women, 11 men) and 15 controls (8 women, 7 men) performed an experimental task designed to trigger schadenfreude and envy. In this task, each participant was shown a real-life photograph and a description of two target characters matched in age and gender with the participant. The task comprised two experimental blocks. In the first block, participants read 15 sentences describing fortunate events involving either character. After reading each sentence, participants rated the event in terms of how much envy they felt for the character (1=no envy, 9=extreme envy). In the second block, participants read and reported the intensity of their pleasure (schadenfreude, 1=no pleasure, 9=extreme pleasure) in response to 15 unfortunate events happening to the characters. Five neutral events were included in each block. Moreover, participants were assessed with ToM and empathy tests. Potential confounding variables such as general cognitive functioning, stress levels, hours of sleep and depression symptoms were also measured. Results showed that parents of newborns showed increased levels of envy and schadenfreude. These effects are not explained by any confounding factor. Moreover, no significant differences were found in ToM or empathy tests. Our results offer unprecedented evidence of specific differences in envy and schadenfreude levels in parents of newborns. Our findings support previous studies showing a negative relationship between oxytocin levels and negative social emotions. Further studies should assess the direct relationship between oxytocin levels in parents of newborns and the performance in social emotions tasks.

Keywords: Theory of Mind, Empathy, oxytocin, envy, Schadenfreude, social emotions

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1 The Effect of Visfatin on Pregnant Mouse Myometrial Contractility in vitro

Authors: Seham Alsaif, Susan Wray

Abstract:

Obesity is a worldwide disorder influencing women’s health and childbearing. There is a close relation between obesity and pregnancy related complications. Dyslipidemia and adipokine dysregulation are core environmental changes that may mechanistically link these complications with obesity in pregnant women. We have previously found that visfatin has a relaxant effect on mouse, rat and human myometrial contractility. We hypothesised that visfatin inhibits mouse myometrial contractility through the NAD+ pathway. This study was designed to examine the mechanism of action of visfatin on myometrial contractility. To examine the NAD+ pathway, FK866 which is a potent inhibitor of NAD+ biosynthesis was used. Methods: Myometrial strips from term pregnant mice were dissected, superfused with physiological saline and the effects of visfatin (10nM) on oxytocin-induced contractions (0.5nM) alone and after the infusion of FK866 (10uM) were studied. After regular contractions were established, contractility was examined for control (100%) and test response at 37 °C for 10 min each. Results: FK866 was found to inhibit the effect of visfatin on myometrial contractility (the AUC increased from 89±2% of control, P=0.0009 for visfatin alone to 97±4% of control, P>0.05 for visfatin combined with FK866, n=8). In conclusion, NAD+ pathway appears to be involved in the mechanism of action of visfatin on mouse myometrium. This could have a role in making new targets to prevent obesity-related complications.

Keywords: Obesity, pregnancy, visfatin, oxytocin, myometrium

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