Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

oxygen Related Abstracts

14 Effect of Laser Ablation OTR Films on the Storability of Handaeri – gomchwi (Ligularia fischeri var. spiciformis Nakai) Jangajji in MA (Modified Atmosphere) Storage

Authors: In-Lee Choi, Sung Mi Hong, Min Jae Jeong, Jun Pill Baek, Ho-Min Kang


Gomchwi (Ligularia fischeri) is grown in the wetland of the deep mountains in Korea and East Asia and has properties that are, inflammation control, whitening, antimutagenic and antigenotoxic. Jangajji is a type of pickle in Korean fermented food which is made by pickling or marinating vegetables in a sauce, such as soy sauce, chili pepper paste, soybean paste, or diluted vinegar for a long period of time. Handaeri-gomchwi jangajii is generally packed a film that has very low or no gas permeability in the Korean domestic market, so packages have a risk of swelling or bursting as a result of internal gas generation during storage or sale This study was conducted to improve secure distribution of Handaeri-gomchwi (Ligularia fischeri var. spiciformis Nakai) Jangajji using laser ablation OTR (oxygen transmission rate) films. Handaeri-gomchwi cultivated in Yangu, Gangwon province, Republic of Korea (Ligularia fischeri var. spiciformis Nakai) was processed in to Jangajji using soy sauce. They were packed by different OTR films, and were stored for 90 days in 7℃(10,000 cc, 20,000 cc, 40,000 cc and 80,000 cc O2/m²• day • atm), 20 days in 20℃ (10,000 cc, 30,000 cc, 70,000 cc and 100,000 cc) and compared with the control film(PP film, 1,300cc). The fresh weight loss, carbon dioxide, oxygen, and ethylene concentrations of Handaeri–gomchwi packages were measured during storage. On the final day of storage, incidence rate of fungi, pH, salinity, firmness, and off-flavor were measured. The fresh weight loss rate of Handaeri–gomchwi was less than 2.0% in 10,000cc OTR films at two different storage periods and temperatures. At 80,000cc(7℃) and 100,000cc(20℃), carbon dioxide contents were 2.0% and 6.4% respectively, whereas the control treatment had the highest concentration. Which was 35%(20℃) and 15%(7℃) , that resulted the packages to swell during storage. The control treatment Showed the lowest oxygen concentration at 2.5% in 7℃ and 0.8% in 20℃. Packages in 7℃ (0.3-1.7μL/L) showed very lower ethylene concentration than in 20℃(10-25μL/L), they also had no significant relation. On the final storage day, fungi were found in every film at both temperatures, except the 10,000cc, as oxygen permeability increased so did the pH, while the salinity decreased. Firmness and off-flavor Showed the best results at 10,000cc in both temperatures best result at 10,000cc in both temperature. Following the results, 10,000cc film is the most reasonable treat in storing Handaeri–gomchwi. For it had a suitable oxygen transmission rate, which prevents billowing, and maintained good qualities in both temperatures.

Keywords: Carbon Dioxide, oxygen, Korean pickle, marketable

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13 Computational Quantum Mechanics Study of Oxygen as Substitutional Atom in Diamond

Authors: K. M. Etmimi, A. A. Sghayer, A. M. Gsiea, A. M. Abutruma


Relatively few chemical species can be incorporated into diamond during CVD growth, and until recently the uptake of oxygen was thought to be low perhaps as a consequence of a short surface residence time. Within the literature, there is speculation regarding spectroscopic evidence for O in diamond, but no direct evidence. For example, the N3 and OK1 EPR centres have been tentatively assigned models made up from complexes of substitutional N and substitutional oxygen. In this study, we report density-functional calculations regarding the stability, electronic structures, geometry and hyperfine interaction of substitutional oxygen in diamond and show that the C2v, S=1 configuration very slightly lower in energy than the other configurations (C3v, Td, and C2v with S=0). The electronic structure of O in diamond generally gives rise to two defect-related energy states in the band gap one a non-degenerate a1 state lying near the middle of the energy gap and the other a threefold-degenerate t2 state located close to the conduction band edges. The anti-bonding a1 and t2 states will be occupied by one to three electrons for O+, O and O− respectively.

Keywords: Diamond, dft, oxygen, hyperfine

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12 Experimental Study - Inorganic Membranes for Air Separation

Authors: Adesola O. Orimoloye, Mohammed N. Kajama, Edward Gobina


Gas permeation of Oxygen [O2] and Nitrogen [N2] were investigated at room temperature using 15 and 6000nm pore diameter tubular commercial alumina ceramic membranes with pressure values ranging 1.00 to 2.50 bar. The flow rates of up to 2.59 and 2.77 l/min were achieved for O2 and N2 respectively. The ratio of O2/N2 flow rates were used to compute the O2/N2 selectivity. The experimental O2/N2 selectivity obtained for 15 nm was 1.05 while the 6000 nm indicated 0.95.

Keywords: Gas separation, Nitrogen, oxygen, selectivity

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11 Similitude for Thermal Scale-up of a Multiphase Thermolysis Reactor in the Cu-Cl Cycle of a Hydrogen Production

Authors: Mohammed W. Abdulrahman


The thermochemical copper-chlorine (Cu-Cl) cycle is considered as a sustainable and efficient technology for a hydrogen production, when linked with clean-energy systems such as nuclear reactors or solar thermal plants. In the Cu-Cl cycle, water is decomposed thermally into hydrogen and oxygen through a series of intermediate reactions. This paper investigates the thermal scale up analysis of the three phase oxygen production reactor in the Cu-Cl cycle, where the reaction is endothermic and the temperature is about 530 oC. The paper focuses on examining the size and number of oxygen reactors required to provide enough heat input for different rates of hydrogen production. The type of the multiphase reactor used in this paper is the continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) that is heated by a half pipe jacket. The thermal resistance of each section in the jacketed reactor system is studied to examine its effect on the heat balance of the reactor. It is found that the dominant contribution to the system thermal resistance is from the reactor wall. In the analysis, the Cu-Cl cycle is assumed to be driven by a nuclear reactor where two types of nuclear reactors are examined as the heat source to the oxygen reactor. These types are the CANDU Super Critical Water Reactor (CANDU-SCWR) and High Temperature Gas Reactor (HTGR). It is concluded that a better heat transfer rate has to be provided for CANDU-SCWR by 3-4 times than HTGR. The effect of the reactor aspect ratio is also examined in this paper and is found that increasing the aspect ratio decreases the number of reactors and the rate of decrease in the number of reactors decreases by increasing the aspect ratio. Finally, a comparison between the results of heat balance and existing results of mass balance is performed and is found that the size of the oxygen reactor is dominated by the heat balance rather than the material balance.

Keywords: Heat Transfer, Sustainable Energy, clean energy, Hydrogen, oxygen, Cu-Cl cycle

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10 Heat Transfer Analysis of a Multiphase Oxygen Reactor Heated by a Helical Tube in the Cu-Cl Cycle of a Hydrogen Production

Authors: Mohammed W. Abdulrahman


In the thermochemical water splitting process by Cu-Cl cycle, oxygen gas is produced by an endothermic thermolysis process at a temperature of 530oC. Oxygen production reactor is a three-phase reactor involving cuprous chloride molten salt, copper oxychloride solid reactant and oxygen gas. To perform optimal performance, the oxygen reactor requires accurate control of heat transfer to the molten salt and decomposing solid particles within the thermolysis reactor. In this paper, the scale up analysis of the oxygen reactor that is heated by an internal helical tube is performed from the perspective of heat transfer. A heat balance of the oxygen reactor is investigated to analyze the size of the reactor that provides the required heat input for different rates of hydrogen production. It is found that the helical tube wall and the service side constitute the largest thermal resistances of the oxygen reactor system. In the analysis of this paper, the Cu-Cl cycle is assumed to be heated by two types of nuclear reactor, which are HTGR and CANDU SCWR. It is concluded that using CANDU SCWR requires more heat transfer rate by 3-4 times than that when using HTGR. The effect of the reactor aspect ratio is also studied and it is found that increasing the aspect ratio decreases the number of reactors and the rate of decrease in the number of reactors decreases by increasing the aspect ratio. Comparisons between the results of this study and pervious results of material balances in the oxygen reactor show that the size of the oxygen reactor is dominated by the heat balance rather than the material balance.

Keywords: Heat Transfer, clean energy, Hydrogen production, oxygen, Cu-Cl cycle

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9 Optimization of Oxygen Plant Parameters Simulating with MATLAB

Authors: B. J. Sonani, J. K. Ratnadhariya, Srinivas Palanki


Cryogenic engineering is the fast growing branch of the modern technology. There are various applications of the cryogenic engineering such as liquefaction in gas industries, metal industries, medical science, space technology, and transportation. The low-temperature technology developed superconducting materials which lead to reduce the friction and wear in various components of the systems. The liquid oxygen, hydrogen and helium play vital role in space application. The liquefaction process is produced very low temperature liquid for various application in research and modern application. The air liquefaction system for oxygen plants in gas industries is based on the Claude cycle. The effect of process parameters on the overall system is difficult to be analysed by manual calculations, and this provides the motivation to use process simulators for understanding the steady state and dynamic behaviour of such systems. The parametric study of this system via MATLAB simulations provide useful guidelines for preliminary design of air liquefaction system based on the Claude cycle. Every organization is always trying for reduce the cost and using the optimum performance of the plant for the staying in the competitive market.

Keywords: Optimization, Liquefaction, MATLAB, oxygen, cryogenic, low -temperature, claude cycle

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8 The Stable Isotopic Composition of Pedogenic Carbonate in the Minusinsk Basin, South Siberia

Authors: Jessica Vasil'chuk, Elena Ivanova, Pavel Krechetov, Vladimir Litvinsky, Nadine Budantseva, Julia Chizhova, Yurij Vasil'chuk


Carbonate minerals’ isotopic composition is widely used as a proxy for environmental parameters of the past. Pedogenic carbonate coatings on lower surfaces of coarse rock fragments are studied in order to indicate the climatic conditions and predominant vegetation under which they were formed. The purpose of the research is to characterize the isotopic composition of carbonate pedofeatures in soils of Minusink Hollow and estimate its correlation with isotopic composition of soil pore water, precipitation, vegetation and parent material. The samples of pedogenic carbonates, vegetation, carbonate parent material, soil water and precipitation water were analyzed using the Delta-V mass spectrometer with options of a gas bench and element analyser. The soils we studied are mainly Kastanozems that are poorly moisturized, therefore soil pore water was extracted by ethanol. Oxygen and carbon isotopic composition of pedogenic carbonates was analyzed in 3 key sites. Kazanovka Khakass state national reserve, Hankul salt lake, region of Sayanogorsk aluminum smelter. Vegetation photosynthetic pathway in the region is mainly C3. δ18O values of carbonate coatings in soils of Kazanovka vary in a range from −7.49 to −10.5‰ (vs V-PDB), and the smallest value −13.9‰ corresponds the coatings found between two buried soil horizons which 14C dates are 4.6 and 5.2 kyr BP. That may indicate cooler conditions of late Holocene than nowadays. In Sayanogorsk carbonates’ δ18O range is from −8.3 to −11.1‰ and near the Hankul Lake is from −9.0 to −10.2‰ all ranges are quite similar and may indicate coatings’ uniform formation conditions. δ13C values of carbonate coatings in Kazanovka vary from −2.5 to −6.7‰, the highest values correspond to the soils of Askiz and Syglygkug rivers former floodplains. For Sayanogorsk the range is from −4.9 to −6.8‰ and for Hankul from −2.3 to −5.7‰, where the highest value is for the modern salt crust. δ13C values of coatings strongly decrease from inner (older) to outer (younger) layers of coatings, that can indicate differences connected with the diffusion of organic material. Carbonate parent material δ18O value in the region vary from −11.1 to −12.0‰ and δ13C values vary from −4.9 to −5.7‰. Soil pore water δ18O values that determine the oxygen isotope composition of carbonates vary due to the processes of transpiration and mixing in the studied sites in a wide range of −2.0 to −13.5‰ (vs V-SMOW). Precipitation waters show δ18O values from -6.6‰ in May and -19.0‰ in January (snow) due to the temperature difference. The main conclusions are as follows: pedogenic carbonates δ13C values (−7…−2,5‰) show no correlation with modern C3 vegetation δ13C values (−30…−26‰), expected values under such vegetation are (−19…−15‰) but are closer to C4 vegetation. Late Holocene climate for the Minusinsk Hollow according to obtained data on isotope composition of carbonates and soil pore water chemical composition was dryer and cooler than present, that does not contradict with paleocarpology data obtained for the region. The research was supported by Russian Science Foundation (grant №14-27-00083).

Keywords: Carbon, oxygen, Stable Isotopes, pedogenic carbonates, South Siberia

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7 Highly Sensitive, Low-Cost Oxygen Gas Sensor Based on ZnO Nanoparticles

Authors: Xin Chang, Daping Chu


Oxygen gas sensing technology has progressed since the last century and it has been extensively used in a wide range of applications such as controlling the combustion process by sensing the oxygen level in the exhaust gas of automobiles to ensure the catalytic converter is in a good working condition. Similar sensors are also used in industrial boilers to make the combustion process economic and environmentally friendly. Different gas sensing mechanisms have been developed: ceramic-based potentiometric equilibrium sensors and semiconductor-based sensors by oxygen absorption. In this work, we present a highly sensitive and low-cost oxygen gas sensor based on Zinc Oxide nanoparticles (average particle size of 35nm) dispersion in ethanol. The sensor is able to measure the pressure range from 103 mBar to 10-5 mBar with a sensitivity of more than 102 mA/Bar. The sensor is also erasable with heat.

Keywords: Sensor, Nanoparticles, oxygen, ZnO

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6 Retrospective Study for Elective Medical Patients Evacuation of Different Diagnoses Requiring Different Approach in Oxygen Usage

Authors: Branimir Skoric


Over the past two decades, number of international travels rose significantly in the United Kingdom and Worldwide in the shape of business travels and holiday travels as well. The fact that elderly people travel a lot, more than ever before increased the needs for medical evacuations (repatriations) back home if they fell ill abroad or had any kind of accident. This paper concerns medical evacuations of patients on the way back home to the United Kingdom (United Kingdom Residents) and their specific medical needs during short-haul or long-haul commercial scheduled flight and ground transportation to the final destination regardless whether it was hospital or usual place of residence. Particular medical need during medical evacuations is oxygen supply and it can be supplied via portable oxygen concentrator, pulse flow oxygenator or continuous free flow oxygenator depending on the main diagnosis and patient’s comorbidities. In this retrospective study, patients were divided into two groups. One group was consisted of patients suffering from cardio-respiratory diagnoses as primary illness. Another Group consisted of patients suffering from noncardiac illnesses who have other problems including any kind of physical injury. Needs for oxygen and type of supply were carefully considered in regards of duration of the flight, standard airline cabin pressure and results described in this retrospective study.

Keywords: oxygen, commercial flight, elderly travellers, medical evacuations

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5 Nucleophile Mediated Addition-Fragmentation Generation of Aryl Radicals from Aryl Diazonium Salts

Authors: Elene Tatunashvili, Bun Chan, Philippe E. Nashar, Christopher S. P. McErlean


The reduction of aryl diazonium salts is one of the most efficient ways to generate aryl radicals for use in a wide range of transformations, including Sandmeyer-type reactions, Meerwein arylations of olefins and Gomberg-Bachmann-Hey arylations of heteroaromatic systems. The aryl diazonium species can be reduced electrochemically, by UV irradiation, inner-sphere and outer-sphere single electron transfer processes (SET) from metal salts, SET from photo-excited organic catalysts or fragmentation of adducts with weak bases (acetate, hydroxide, etc.). This paper details an approach for the metal-free reduction of aryl diazonium salts, which facilitates the efficient synthesis of various aromatic compounds under exceedingly mild reaction conditions. By measuring the oxidation potential of a number of organic molecules, a series of nucleophiles were identified that reduce aryl diazonium salts via the addition-fragmentation mechanism. This approach leads to unprecedented operational simplicity: The reactions are very rapid and proceed in the open air; there is no need for external irradiation or heating, and the process is compatible with a large number of radical reactions. We illustrate these advantages by using the addition-fragmentation strategy to regioselectively arylate a series of heterocyclic compounds, to synthesize ketones by arylation of silyl enol ethers, and to synthesize benzothiophene and phenanthrene derivatives by radical annulation reactions.

Keywords: oxygen, Radical Reactions, diazonium salts, hantzsch esters, synthetic methods

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4 A Green Optically Active Hydrogen and Oxygen Generation System Employing Terrestrial and Extra-Terrestrial Ultraviolet Solar Irradiance

Authors: H. Shahid


Due to Ozone layer depletion on earth, the incoming ultraviolet (UV) radiation is recorded at its high index levels such as 25 in South Peru (13.5° S, 3360 m a.s.l.) Also, the planning of human inhabitation on Mars is under discussion where UV radiations are quite high. The exposure to UV is health hazardous and is avoided by UV filters. On the other hand, artificial UV sources are in use for water thermolysis to generate Hydrogen and Oxygen, which are later used as fuels. This paper presents the utility of employing UVA (315-400nm) and UVB (280-315nm) electromagnetic radiation from the solar spectrum to design and implement an optically active, Hydrogen and Oxygen generation system via thermolysis of desalinated seawater. The proposed system finds its utility on earth and can be deployed in the future on Mars (UVB). In this system, by using Fresnel lens arrays as an optical filter and via active tracking, the ultraviolet light from the sun is concentrated and then allowed to fall on two sub-systems of the proposed system. The first sub-system generates electrical energy by using UV based tandem photovoltaic cells such as GaAs/GaInP/GaInAs/GaInAsP and the second elevates temperature of water to lower the electric potential required to electrolyze the water. An empirical analysis is performed at 30 atm and an electrical potential is observed to be the main controlling factor for the rate of production of Hydrogen and Oxygen and hence the operating point (Q-Point) of the proposed system. The hydrogen production rate in the case of the commercial system in static mode (650ᵒC, 0.6V) is taken as a reference. The silicon oxide electrolyzer cell (SOEC) is used in the proposed (UV) system for the Hydrogen and Oxygen production. To achieve the same amount of Hydrogen as in the case of the reference system, with minimum chamber operating temperature of 850ᵒC in static mode, the corresponding required electrical potential is calculated as 0.3V. However, practically, the Hydrogen production rate is observed to be low in comparison to the reference system at 850ᵒC at 0.3V. However, it has been shown empirically that the Hydrogen production can be enhanced and by raising the electrical potential to 0.45V. It increases the production rate to the same level as is of the reference system. Therefore, 850ᵒC and 0.45V are assigned as the Q-point of the proposed system which is actively stabilized via proportional integral derivative controllers which adjust the axial position of the lens arrays for both subsystems. The functionality of the controllers is based on maintaining the chamber fixed at 850ᵒC (minimum operating temperature) and 0.45V; Q-Point to realize the same Hydrogen production rate as-is for the reference system.

Keywords: Hydrogen, Ultraviolet, oxygen, thermolysis

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3 Thermomechanical Simulation of Equipment Subjected to an Oxygen Pressure and Heated Locally by the Ignition of Small Particles

Authors: Khaled Ayfi


In industrial oxygen systems at high temperature and high pressure, contamination by solid particles is one of the principal causes of ignition hazards. Indeed, gas can sweep away particles, generated by corrosion inside the pipes or during maintenance operations (welding residues, careless disassembly, etc.) and produce accumulations at places where the gas velocity decrease. Moreover, in such an environment rich in oxygen (oxidant), particles are highly reactive and can ignite system walls more actively and at higher temperatures. Oxidation based thermal effects are responsible for mechanical properties lost, leading to the destruction of the pressure equipment wall. To deal with this problem, a numerical analysis is done regarding a sample representative of a wall subjected to pressure and temperature. The validation and analysis are done comparing the numerical simulations results to experimental measurements. More precisely, in this work, we propose a numerical model that describes the thermomechanical behavior of thin metal disks under pressure and subjected to laser heating. This model takes into account the geometric and material nonlinearity and has been validated by the comparison of simulation results with experimental measurements.

Keywords: Numerical Simulation, Ignition, oxygen, thermomechanical behavior

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2 Thermomechanical Behaviour of Various Pressurized Installations Subjected to Thermal Load Due to the Combustion of Metal Particles

Authors: Khaled Ayfi, Morgan Dal, Frederic Coste, Nicolas Gallienne, Martina Ridlova, Philippe Lorong


In the gas industry, contamination of equipment by metal particles is one of the feared phenomena. Indeed, particles inside equipment can be driven by the gas flow and accumulate in places where the velocity is low. As they constitute a potential ignition hazard, particular attention is paid to the presence of particles in the oxygen industry. Indeed, the heat release from ignited particles may damage the equipment and even result in a loss of integrity. The objective of this work is to support the development of new design criteria. Studying the thermomechanical behavior of this equipment, thanks to numerical simulations, allows us to test the influence of various operating parameters (oxygen pressure, wall thickness, initial operating temperature, nature of the metal, etc.). Therefore, in this study, we propose a numerical model that describes the thermomechanical behavior of various pressurized installations heated locally by the combustion of small particles. This model takes into account the geometric and material nonlinearity and has been validated by the comparison of simulation results with experimental measurements obtained by a new device developed in this work.

Keywords: Numerical Simulation, Ignition, oxygen, thermomechanical behavior

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1 GUI Design of Mathematical Model of Cardiovascular-Respiratory System

Authors: Ntaganda J.M., Maniraguha J.D., Mukeshimana S., Harelimana D, Bizimungu T., Ruataganda E.


This paper presents the design of Graphic User Interface (GUI) in Matlab as interaction tool between human and machine. The designed GUI can be used by medical doctors and other experts particularly the physiologists. Matlab packages and estimated parameters of the mathematical model of cardiovascular-respiratory system developed in Rwandan context are used in GUI. The ordinary differential equations (ODE’s) govern a mathematical model in designing GUI in Matlab and a window that sets model estimated parameters and the measured parameters by any user. For healthy subject, these measured parameters include heart rate, systolic blood and diastolic blood pressure, partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood, partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood, concentration of bound and dissolved oxygen in the mixed venous blood entering the lungs, and concentration of bound and dissolved carbon dioxide in the mixed venous blood entering the lungs. The results of numerical test give a consistent appearance as empirically known results.

Keywords: oxygen, Blood Pressure, mathematical model, Graphic User Interface, cardiovascur-respiratory system, walking physical activity

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