Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

oxygen evolution reaction Related Abstracts

5 Co₂Fe LDH on Aromatic Acid Functionalized N Doped Graphene: Hybrid Electrocatalyst for Oxygen Evolution Reaction

Authors: Biswaranjan D. Mohapatra, Ipsha Hota, Swarna P. Mantry, Nibedita Behera, Kumar S. K. Varadwaj


Designing highly active and low-cost oxygen evolution (2H₂O → 4H⁺ + 4e⁻ + O₂) electrocatalyst is one of the most active areas of advanced energy research. Some precious metal-based electrocatalysts, such as IrO₂ and RuO₂, have shown excellent performance for oxygen evolution reaction (OER); however, they suffer from high-cost and low abundance which limits their applications. Recently, layered double hydroxides (LDHs), composed of layers of divalent and trivalent transition metal cations coordinated to hydroxide anions, have gathered attention as an alternative OER catalyst. However, LDHs are insulators and coupled with carbon materials for the electrocatalytic applications. Graphene covalently doped with nitrogen has been demonstrated to be an excellent electrocatalyst for energy conversion technologies such as; oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), oxygen evolution reaction (OER) & hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). However, they operate at high overpotentials, significantly above the thermodynamic standard potentials. Recently, we reported remarkably enhanced catalytic activity of benzoate or 1-pyrenebutyrate functionalized N-doped graphene towards the ORR in alkaline medium. The molecular and heteroatom co-doping on graphene is expected to tune the electronic structure of graphene. Therefore, an innovative catalyst architecture, in which LDHs are anchored on aromatic acid functionalized ‘N’ doped graphene may presumably boost the OER activity to a new benchmark. Herein, we report fabrication of Co₂Fe-LDH on aromatic acid (AA) functionalized ‘N’ doped reduced graphene oxide (NG) and studied their OER activities in alkaline medium. In the first step, a novel polyol method is applied for synthesis of AA functionalized NG, which is well dispersed in aqueous medium. In the second step, Co₂Fe LDH were grown on AA functionalized NG by co-precipitation method. The hybrid samples are abbreviated as Co₂Fe LDH/AA-NG, where AA is either Benzoic acid or 1, 3-Benzene dicarboxylic acid (BDA) or 1, 3, 5 Benzene tricarboxylic acid (BTA). The crystal structure and morphology of the samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). These studies confirmed the growth of layered single phase LDH. The electrocatalytic OER activity of these hybrid materials was investigated by rotating disc electrode (RDE) technique on a glassy carbon electrode. The linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) on these catalyst samples were taken at 1600rpm. We observed significant OER performance enhancement in terms of onset potential and current density on Co₂Fe LDH/BTA-NG hybrid, indicating the synergic effect. This exploration of molecular functionalization effect in doped graphene and LDH system may provide an excellent platform for innovative design of OER catalysts.

Keywords: layered double hydroxide, reduced graphene oxide, π-π functionalization, oxygen evolution reaction

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4 Competitive Coordination Strategy Towards Reversible Hybrid Hetero-Homogeneous Oxygen-Evolving Catalyst

Authors: Peikun Zhang, Chunhua Cui


Photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting provides a promising pathway to convert solar energy into renewable fuels. However, the main and seemingly insurmountable obstacle is that the sluggish kinetics of oxygen evolution reaction (OER) severely jeopardizes the overall efficiency, thus exploring highly active, stable, and appreciable catalysts is urgently requested. Herein a competitive coordination strategy was demonstrated to form a reversible hybrid homo-heterogeneous catalyst for efficient OER in alkaline media. The dynamic process involves an in-situ anchoring of soluble nickel–bipyridine pre-catalyst to a conductive substrate under OER and a re-dissolution course under open circuit potential, induced by the competitive coordination between nickel–bipyridine and nickel-hydroxyls. This catalyst allows to elaborately self-modulate a charge-transfer layer thickness upon the catalytic on-off operation, which affords substantially increased active sites, yet remains light transparency, and sustains the stability of over 200 hours of continuous operation. The integration of this catalyst with exemplified state-of-the-art Ni-sputtered Si photoanode can facilitate a ~250 mV cathodic shift at a current density of 20 mA cm-2. This finding helps the understanding of catalyst from a “dynamic” perspective, which represents a viable alternative to address remaining hurdles toward solar-driven water oxidation.

Keywords: Solar energy, Water Splitting, oxygen evolution reaction, molecular catalyst, transition metal complex

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3 Efficient Oxygen Evolution and Gas Bubble Release by a Low-Bubble-Adhesion Iron-Nickel Vanadate Electrocatalyst

Authors: Kamran Dastafkan, Chuan Zhao


Improving surface chemistry is a promising approach in addition to the rational alteration in the catalyst composition to advance water electrolysis. Here, we demonstrate an evident enhancement of oxygen evolution on an iron-nickel vanadate catalyst synthesized by a facile successive ionic adsorption and reaction method. The vanadate-modified catalyst demonstrates a highly efficient oxygen evolution in 1 M KOH by requiring low overpotentials of 274 and 310 mV for delivering large current densities of 100 and 400 mA cm⁻², respectively where vigorous gas bubble evolution occurs. Vanadate modification augments the OER activity from three aspects. (i) Both the electrochemical surface area (47.1 cm²) and intrinsic activity (318 mV to deliver 10 mA cm⁻² per unit ECSA) of the catalytic sites are improved. (ii) The amorphous and roughened nanoparticle-comprised catalyst film exhibits a high surface wettability and a low-gas bubble-adhesion, which is beneficial for the accelerated mass transport and gas bubble dissipation at large current densities. The gas bubble dissipation behavior is studied by operando dynamic specific resistance measurements where a significant change in the variation of the interfacial resistance during the OER is detected for the vanadate-modified catalyst. (iii) The introduced vanadate poly-oxo-anions with high charge density have electronic interplay with Fe and Ni catalytic centers. Raman study reveals the structural evolution of β-NiOOH and γ-FeOOH phases during the OER through the vanadate-active site synergistic interactions. Achievement of a high catalytic turnover of 0.12 s⁻¹ put the developed FeNi vanadate among the best recent catalysts for water oxidation.

Keywords: oxygen evolution reaction, gas bubble dissipation, iron-nickel vanadate, low-gas bubble-adhesion catalyst

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2 Structural Alteration of MoS₂ by Incorporating Fe, Co Composite for an Enhanced Oxygen Evolution Reaction

Authors: Krishnamoorthy Sathiyan, Shanti Gopal Patra, Ronen Bar-Ziv, Tomer Zidki


Developing efficient non-noble metal catalysts that are cheap and durable for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is a great challenge. Moreover, altering the electronic structure of the catalyst and structural engineering of the materials provide a new direction for enhancing the OER. Herein, we have successfully synthesized Fe and Co incorporated MoS₂ catalysts, which show improved catalytic activity for OER when compared with MoS₂, Fe-MoS₂, and Co-MoS₂. It was found that at an optimal ratio of Fe and Co, the electronic and structural modification of MoS₂ occurs, which leads to change in orientation and thereby enhances the active catalytic sites on the edges, which are more exposed for OER. The nanocomposites have been well characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), Elemental Mapping, transmission electron microscope (TEM), and high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM) analysis. Among all, a particular ratio of FeCo-MoS₂ exhibits a much smaller onset with better catalytic current density. The remarkable catalytic activity is mainly attributed to the synergistic effect from the Fe and Co. Most importantly, our work provides an essential insight in altering the electronic structure of MoS₂ based materials by incorporating promoters such as Co and Fe in an optimal amount, which enhances OER activity.

Keywords: Transition Metals, Electrocatalysts, oxygen evolution reaction, molybdenum disulfide

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1 NiSe-Ni₃Se₂/Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes as Efficient Electrocatalysts for the Oxygen Evolution Reaction in Alkaline Media

Authors: Oluwaseun A. Oyetade, Roelof J. Kriek


The development of effective catalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is of great importance to combat energy-related concerns in the environment. Herein, we report a one-step solvothermal method employed for the fabrication of nickel selenide hybrids (NiSe-Ni₃Se₂) and a series of nickel selenide hybrid/multiwalled carbon nanotube composites (NiSe-Ni₃Se₂/MWCNT) as electrocatalysts for OER in alkaline media. The catalytic activities of these catalysts were investigated via several electrochemical characterization techniques, such as linear sweep voltammetry, chronoamperometric studies at constant potential, electrochemical surface area determination, and Tafel slope calculation, under alkaline conditions. Morphological observations demonstrated the agglomeration of non-uniform NiSe-Ni₃Se₂ microspheres around carbon nanotubes (CNTs), demonstrating the successful synthesis of NiSe-Ni₃Se₂/MWCNT nanocomposites. Among the tested electrocatalysts, the 20% NiSe-Ni₃Se₂/MWCNT nanocomposite demonstrated the highest activity, exhibiting an overpotential of 325 mV to achieve a current density of 10⁻² in 0.1⁻³ KOH solution. The NiSe-Ni₃Se₂/MWCNT nanocomposites showed improved activity toward OER compared to bare NiSe-Ni₃Se₂ hybrids and MWCNTs, exhibiting an overpotential of 528, 392 and 434 mV for 10%, 30% and 50% NiSe-Ni₃Se₂/MWCNT nanocomposites, respectively. These results compare favourably to the overpotential of noble catalysts, such as RuO₂ and IrO₂. Our results imply that the addition of MWCNTs increased the activity of NiSe-Ni₃Se₂ hybrids due to an increased number of catalytic sites, dispersion of NiSe-Ni₃Se₂ hybrid nanoparticles, and electronic conductivity of the nanocomposites. These nanocomposites also demonstrated better long-term stability compared to NiSe-Ni₃Se₂ hybrids and MWCNTs. Hence, NiSe-Ni₃Se₂/MWCNT nanocomposites possess the potential as effective electrocatalysts for OER in alkaline media.

Keywords: Nanocomposites, Carbon Nanotubes, Electrocatalysts, oxygen evolution reaction, nickel selenide hybrids

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