Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

oxygen content Related Abstracts

3 Texture and Twinning in Selective Laser Melting Ti-6Al-4V Alloys

Authors: N. Kazantseva, P. Krakhmalev, I. Yadroitsev, A. Fefelov, N. Vinogradova, I. Ezhov, T. Kurennykh

Abstract:

Martensitic texture-phase transition in Selective Laser Melting (SLM) Ti-6Al-4V (ELI) alloys was found. Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) analysis showed the initial cubic beta < 100 > (001) BCC texture. Such kind of texture is observed in BCC metals with flat rolling texture when axis is in the direction of rolling and the texture plane coincides with the plane of rolling. It was found that the texture of the parent BCC beta-phase determined the texture of low-temperature HCP alpha-phase limited the choice of its orientation variants. The {10-12} < -1011 > twinning system in titanium alloys after SLM was determined. Analysis of the oxygen contamination in SLM alloys was done. Comparison of the obtained results with the conventional titanium alloys is also provided.

Keywords: Texture, Ti-6Al-4V, additive technology, twins, oxygen content

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2 Impact of the Oxygen Content on the Optoelectronic Properties of the Indium-Tin-Oxide Based Transparent Electrodes for Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells

Authors: Brahim Aissa

Abstract:

Transparent conductive oxides (TCOs) used as front electrodes in solar cells must feature simultaneously high electrical conductivity, low contact resistance with the adjacent layers, and an appropriate refractive index for maximal light in-coupling into the device. However, these properties may conflict with each other, motivating thereby the search for TCOs with high performance. Additionally, due to the presence of temperature sensitive layers in many solar cell designs (for example, in thin-film silicon and silicon heterojunction (SHJ)), low-temperature deposition processes are more suitable. Several deposition techniques have been already explored to fabricate high-mobility TCOs at low temperatures, including sputter deposition, chemical vapor deposition, and atomic layer deposition. Among this variety of methods, to the best of our knowledge, magnetron sputtering deposition is the most established technique, despite the fact that it can lead to damage of underlying layers. The Sn doped In₂O₃ (ITO) is the most commonly used transparent electrode-contact in SHJ technology. In this work, we studied the properties of ITO thin films grown by RF sputtering. Using different oxygen fraction in the argon/oxygen plasma, we prepared ITO films deposited on glass substrates, on one hand, and on a-Si (p and n-types):H/intrinsic a-Si/glass substrates, on the other hand. Hall Effect measurements were systematically conducted together with total-transmittance (TT) and total-reflectance (TR) spectrometry. The electrical properties were drastically affected whereas the TT and TR were found to be slightly impacted by the oxygen variation. Furthermore, the time of flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) technique was used to determine the distribution of various species throughout the thickness of the ITO and at various interfaces. The depth profiling of indium, oxygen, tin, silicon, phosphorous, boron and hydrogen was investigated throughout the various thicknesses and interfaces, and obtained results are discussed accordingly. Finally, the extreme conditions were selected to fabricate rear emitter SHJ devices, and the photovoltaic performance was evaluated; the lower oxygen flow ratio was found to yield the best performance attributed to lower series resistance.

Keywords: Solar Cell, optoelectronic properties, oxygen content, silicon heterojunction

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1 Effect of Ambient Oxygen Content and Lifting Frequency on the Participant’s Lifting Capabilities, Muscle Activities, and Perceived Exertion

Authors: Atef M. Ghaleb, Mohamed Z. Ramadan, Khalid Saad Aljaloud

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to assesses the lifting capabilities of persons experiencing hypoxia. It also examines the behavior of the physiological response induced through the lifting process related to changing in the hypoxia and lifting frequency variables. For this purpose, the study performed two consecutive tests by using; (1) training and acclimatization; and (2) an actual collection of data. A total of 10 male students from King Saud University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, were recruited in the study. A two-way repeated measures design, with two independent variables (ambient oxygen (15%, 18% and 21%)) and lifting frequency (1 lift/min and 4 lifts/min) and four dependent variables i.e., maximum acceptable weight of lift (MAWL), Electromyography (EMG) of four muscle groups (anterior deltoid, trapezius, biceps brachii, and erector spinae), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), and rating of oxygen feeling (ROF) were used in this study. The results show that lifting frequency has significantly impacted the MAWL and muscles’ activities. The oxygen content had a significant effect on the RPE and ROE. The study has revealed that acclimatization and training sessions significantly reduce the effect of the hypoxia on the human physiological parameters during the manual materials handling tasks.

Keywords: oxygen content, lifting capabilities, muscle activities, perceived exertion

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