Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 81

Oxidative Stress Related Abstracts

81 Beneficial Effects of Curcumin against Stress Oxidative and Mitochondrial Dysfunction Induced by Trinitrobenzene Sulphonic Acid in Colon

Authors: Souad Mouzaoui, Bahia Djerdjouri

Abstract:

Oxidative stress is one of the main factors involved in the onset and chronicity of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In this study, we investigated the beneficial effects of a potent natural antioxidant, curcumin (Cur) on colitis and mitochondrial dysfunction in trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in mice. Rectal instillation of the chemical irritant TNBS (30 mg kg-1) induced the disruption of distal colonic architecture and a massive inflammatory cells influx to the mucosa and submucosa layers. Under these conditions, daily administration of Cur (25 mg kg-1) efficiently decreased colitis scores in the inflamed distal colon by reducing leukocyte infiltrate as attested by reduced myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Moreover, the levels of nitrite, an end product of inducible NO synthase activity (iNOS) and malonyl dialdehyde (MDA), a marker of lipid peroxidation increased in a time depending manner in response to TNBS challenge. Conversely, the markers of the antioxidant pool, reduced glutathione (GSH) and catalase activity (CAT) were drastically reduced. Cur attenuated oxidative stress markers and partially restored CAT and GSH levels. Moreover, our results expanded the effect of Cur on TNBS-induced colonic mitochondrial dysfunction. In fact, TNBS induced mitochondrial swelling and lipids peroxidation. These events reflected in the opening of mitochondrial transition pore and could be an initial indication in the cascade process leading to cell death. TNBS inhibited also mitochondrial respiratory activity, caused overproduction of mitochondrial superoxide anion (O2-.) and reduced level of mitochondrial GSH. Nevertheless, Cur reduced the extent of mitochondrial oxidative stress induced by TNBS and restored colonic mitochondrial function. In conclusion, our results showed the critical role of oxidative stress in TNBS-induced colitis. They highlight the role of colonic mitochondrial dysfunction induced by TNBS, as a potential source of oxidative damages. Due to its potent antioxidant properties, Cur opens a promising therapeutic approach against oxidative inflammation in IBD.

Keywords: Mitochondria, Oxidative Stress, Curcumin, colitis, TNBS

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80 Environmentally Realistic Doses of Cadmium Affects the Vascular Tonus in Wistar Testis: An Experimental Study Paralleling Human Environmental Exposure to Cadmium

Authors: R. P. Leite, M. A. S. Diamante, F. R. Gadelha, L. H. G. Ribeiro, H. Dolder

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Although industrial processes are the major contributor to increase cadmium environmental concentration, phosphate fertilizers have significantly increased its percentage in soil, making food and tobacco the main source of cadmium exposure to humans. Worldwide population surveys have shown a consistent link between environmental exposure to cadmium and several idiopathic pathologies among non-occupationally exposed subjects. Epidemiological investigations and animal experiments paralleling human chronic exposure to environmental cadmium are, therefore of major importance for establishing a relationship between cadmium and several pathologies of unspecific etiology. In the present study, Wistar rats were randomly divided into three different groups and subjected to increasing cadmium doses ranging between low to moderate environmentally realistic doses. At the end of the treatment, the testis was dissected and subjected to biochemical and histological analyses. Our data show a significant disturbance in the cellular oxidative status for all cadmium-treated group, accompanied by morphological changes in blood vessel lumen.

Keywords: Oxidative Stress, cadmium, blood vessel, environmental realistic doses

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79 Diallyl Trisulfide Protects the Rat Liver from CCl4-Induced Injury and Fibrogenesis by Attenuating Oxidative Stress

Authors: Liang Zhou, Xiao-Jing Zhu, Shi-Zhong Zheng

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Various studies have shown that diallyl trisulfide (DATS) can protect the liver injury, and DATS has a strong antioxidant property. The aim of this study is to evaluate the in vivo role of DATS in protecting the liver against injury and fibrogenesis and further explores the underlying mechanisms. Our results demonstrated that DATS protected the liver from CCl4-caused injury by suppressing the elevation of ALT and AST activities, and by improving the histological architecture of the liver. Treatment with DATS or colchicine improved the liver fibrosis by sirius red staining and immunofluorescence. In addition, immunohistochemistry, western blot, and RT-PCR analyses indicated that DATS inhibited HSC activation. Furthermore, DATS attenuated oxidative stress by increasing glutathione and reducing lipid peroxides and malondialdehyde. These findings suggest that the protective effect of DATS on CCl4-caused liver injury and liver fibrogenesis was, at least partially, attributed to its antioxidant activity.

Keywords: Oxidative Stress, liver injury, DATS, liver fibrogenesis

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78 The Antioxidant Effect of Vitamin C against Oxidative Stress Generate by Dietary Zn-Deficiency in Diabetic Rats

Authors: Zine Kechrid

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This study was carried out to investigate the antioxidant effect of vitamin C on oxidative stress induced by dietary Zn-deficiency in albino diabetic rats. Thirty two males alloxan-diabetic rats divided into two groups of 16 individuals each; the first group was fed a zinc adequate diet (54 mg zinc/kg). The second group had given low zinc diet (1 mg zinc/kg). Then, half of each group was treated with vitamin C (1 g/l) in drinking water. After four weeks, animals were sacrificed and different parameters were determined. The findings showed that dietary deficiency zinc intake significantly increased serum glucose. Zn-deficiency was also led to an increase in oxidative stress, which was indicated by an increase of MDA level and glutathione-S-transferase activity. Meanwhile it was result in a decrease of reduced glutathione (GSH) content, glutathione peroxidase GSH-Px and catalase activities in liver. However, the administration of vitamin C restored all the previous parameters approximately to their normal values. In conclusion, vitamin C probably played a key role strong as antioxidant factor against oxidative stress provoked by dietary zinc inadequate. Therefore, it might be contributed in reduction diabetes complications.

Keywords: Experimental diabetes, rats, Oxidative Stress, zinc, vitamin C

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77 Exercise and Aging Process Related to Oxidative Stress

Authors: S. Petrovska, B. Dejanova, L. Todorovska, J. Pluncevic, S. Mancevska, V. Antevska, E. Sivevska, I. Karagjozova

Abstract:

Introduction: Aging process is mainly related to endothelial function which may be impaired by oxidative stress (OS). Exercise is known to be beneficial to aging process, which may improve health and prevent appearance of chronic diseases in elderly. The aim of the study was to investigate the OS markers related to exercise. Methods: A number of 80 subjects (healthy volunteers) were examined (38 male and 32 female), divided in 3 age groups: group I ≤ 30 years (n=24); group II – 31-50 years (n=24); group III - ≥ 51 year (n=32). Each group was divided to subgroups of sedentary subjects (SS) and subjects who exercise (SE). Group I: SS (n=11), SE (n=13); group II: SS (n=13), SE (n=10); group III: SS (n=23) SE (n=9). Lipid peroxidation (LP) as a fluorimetric method with thiobarbituric acid was used to estimate OS. Antioxidative status was determined by cell antioxidants such as enzymes - superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glucose 6 phosphate (G-6-PD); and by extra cell antioxidants such as glutathione reductase (GR), nitric oxide (NO) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Results: Increased values of LP were noticed along the aging process: group I – 3.30±0.3 µmol/L; group II – 3.91±0.2 µmol/L; group III – 3.94±0.8 µmol/L (p<0.05), while no statistical significance was found between male and female subjects. Statistical significance for OS was not found between SS and SE in group I as it was found in group II (p<0.05) and in group III (p<0.01). No statistical significance was found for all cell antioxidants and GR within the groups, while NO and TAC showed lower values in SS compared to SE in II (p<0.05) and in group III (p<0.05). Discussion and conclusion: Aging process showed increased OS which may be either due to impaired function of scavengers of free radicals or due to their enormous production. Well balanced exercise might be one of the factors that keep the integrity of blood vessel endothelium which slows down the aging process. Possible mechanism of exercise beneficial influence is shear stress by upregulation of genes coding for nitric oxide bioavailability. Thus, due to obtained results we may conclude that OS is found to be diminished in the subject groups who perform exercise.

Keywords: Exercise, Oxidative Stress, Aging Process, endothelial function

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76 Neuroprotective Effects of Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in Rat Model of Alzheimer’s Disease

Authors: Hanan F. Aly, Fateheya M. Metwally, Hanaa H. Ahmed

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The current study is undertaken to elucidate a possible neuroprotective role of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) against the development of Alzheimer’s disease in experimental rat model. Alzheimer’s disease was produced in young female ovariectomized rats by intraperitoneal administration of AlCl3 (4.2 mg/kg body weight) daily for 12 weeks. Half of these animals also received orally DHEA (250 mg/kg body weight, three times weekly) for 18 weeks. Control groups of animals received either DHAE alone, or no DHEA, or were not ovariectomized. After such treatment the animals were analyzed for oxidative stress biomarkers such as hydrogen peroxide, nitric oxide and malondialdehyde, total antioxidant capacity, reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities, antiapoptotic marker Bcl-2 and brain derived neurotrophic factor. Also, brain cholinergic markers (acetylcholinesterase and acetylcholine) were determined. The results revealed significant increase in oxidative stress parameters associated with significant decrease in the antioxidant enzyme activities in Al-intoxicated ovariectomized rats. Significant depletion in brain Bcl-2 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels were also detected. Moreover, significant elevations in brain acetylcholinesterase activity accompanied with significant reduction in acetylcholine level were recorded. Significant amelioration in all investigated parameters was detected as a result of treatment of Al-intoxicated ovariectomized rats with DHEA. These results were confirmed by histological examination of brain sections. These results clearly indicate a neuroprotective effect of DHEA against Alzheimer’s disease.

Keywords: apoptosis, Oxidative Stress, alzheimer’s disease, dehydroepiandrosterone

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75 Grape Seed Extract and Zinc Containing Multivitamin-Mineral Nutritional Food Supplement Protects Heart against Myocardial Ischemic-Reperfusion Injury in Wistar Rats

Authors: K. L. Bairy, S. M. Satyam, R. Pirasanthan, R. L. Vaishnav

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Zincovit tablets have been used as nutritional food supplement over a prolonged period of time. The aim of the present study was to investigate the cardio-protective effect of combined formulation of grape seed extract and Zincovit tablets (40, 80 and 160 mg/kg) using a Langendorff model of ischemia-reperfusion in Wistar rats. Following 21 days of pre-treatment, combined formulation of grape seed extract and Zincovit tablets significantly attenuated ischemia-reperfusion induced cardiac injury in terms of increased coronary flow rate (p < 0.01), decreased creatine kinase activity in coronary effluent (p < 0.05), decreased MDA (p < 0.001), 4-HNE (p < 0.001) and increased protein thiol content (p < 0.01) in comparison with the untreated (control) group. This study opens an avenue to clinical studies to demonstrate the validity of this paradigm as a nutritional food supplement, which could improve the clinical outcome of patients subjected to percutaneous angioplasty.

Keywords: Oxidative Stress, grape seed extract, myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury, Zincovit tablets

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74 Repeated Dose 28-Day Oral Toxicity Study Offungicides: Propinèbe, Propiconazole, And Their Mixture in Wistar Rats

Authors: Aiche Mohamed Amine, Mallem Leila, Yahia El Khansa, Boulakoud Mohamed Salah

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Until recently, toxicological studies focused on the effects of individual chemicals. However, humans and wildlife are exposed to a complex milieu of chemicals from different sources including food and water, personal care products and the environment. The aim of this study is to detect the toxicity of two fungicides and their mixtures in the fertility and oxidative damge induced in the rat. The male of rats (28) were used, they were divided in four groups (7 rats of each group) and one group was used as control. Rats were dosed orally with Propiconazole 60mg/Kg/day, Propinebe 100mg/Kg/day and their mixture 30mg Propiconazole/kg/day + 50mg Propineb/kg/day for 4 weeks. Animals were observed for clinical toxicity. At the end of treatment period, animals of all groups were scarified, blood was collected for hematological and biochemical’s analysis and desired organs were removed and weighted. The results indicated that the fungicide and their mixture were toxic in the treated animals. The semen study showed a decrease in the count and mobility of spermatozoa in all treated group, it was also a decrease in the weight of the testis and epidydimis in the treated group as compared with control. Reduced glutathione (GSH), Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) level was decreased in all treated groups.

Keywords: Fungicides, Oxidative Stress, Fertility, mixtures

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73 The Relation Between Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and Neopterin in the Paraquat-Induced Lung Toxicity

Authors: M. Toygar, I. Aydin, M. Agilli, F. N. Aydin, M. Oztosun, H. Gul, E. Macit, Y. Karslioglu, T. Topal, B. Uysal, M. Honca

Abstract:

Paraquat (PQ) is a well-known quaternary nitrogen herbicide. The major target organ in PQ poisoning is the lung. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammation play a crucial role in the development of PQ-induced pulmonary injury. Neopterin is synthesized in macrophage by interferon g and other cytokines. We aimed to evaluate the utility of neopterin as a diagnostic marker in PQ-induced lung toxicity. Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups (sham and PQ), administered intraperitoneally 1 mL saline and PQ (15 mg/kg/mL) respectively. Blood samples and lungs were collected for analyses. Lung injury and fibrosis were seen in the PQ group. Serum total antioxidant capacity, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and lung transforming growth factor-1 (TGF-1) levels were significantly higher than the sham group (in all, p< 0.001). In addition, in the PQ group, serum neopterin and lung malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were also significantly higher than the sham group (in all, p 1/4 0.001). Serum neopterin levels were correlated with LDH activities, lung MDA, lung TGF-1 levels, and the degree of lung injury. These findings demonstrated that oxidative stress, reduction of antioxidant capacity, and inflammation play a crucial role in the PQ-induced lung injury. Elevated serum neopterin levels may be a prognostic parameter to determine extends of PQ-induced lung toxicity. Further studies may be performed to clarify the role of neopterin by different doses of PQ.

Keywords: Inflammation, Oxidative Stress, paraquat, neopterin, lung toxicity

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72 Proinflammatory Response of Agglomerated TiO2 Nanoparticles in Human-Immune Cells

Authors: Ali A. Alshatwi, Jegan Athinarayanan, Vaiyapuri Subbarayn Periasamy

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The widespread use of Titanium oxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs), now are found with different physic-chemical properties (size, shape, chemical properties, agglomeration, etc.) in many processed foods, agricultural chemicals, biomedical products, food packaging and food contact materials, personal care products, and other consumer products used in daily life. Growing evidences have been highlighted that there are risks of physico-chemical properties dependent toxicity with special attention to “TiO2-NPs and human immune system”. Unfortunately, agglomeration and aggregation have frequently been ignored in immuno-toxicological studies, even though agglomeration and aggregation would be expected to affect nanotoxicity since it changes the size, shape, surface area, and other properties of the TiO2-NPs. In this present investigation, we assessed the immune toxic effect of TiO2-NPs on human immune cells Total WBC including Lymphocytes (T cells (CD3+), T helper cells (CD3+, CD4+), Suppressor/cytotoxic T cells (CD3+/CD8+) and NK cells (CD3-/CD16+ and CD56+), Monocytes (CD14+, CD3-) and B lymphocytes (CD19+, CD3-) in order to find the immunological response (IL1A, IL1B, IL2 IL-4, IL5 IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IFN-γ, TGF-β, and TNF-a) and redox gene regulation (TNF, p53, BCl-2, CAT, GSTA4, TNF, CYP1A, POR, SOD1, GSTM3, GPX1, and GSR1)-linking physicochemical properties with special reference to agglomeration of TiO2-NPs. Our findings suggest that TiO2-NPs altered cytokine production, enhanced phagocytic indexing, metabolic stress through specific immune regulatory- genes expression in different WBC subsets and may contribute to pro-inflammatory response. Although TiO2-NPs have great advantages in the personal care products, biomedical, food and agricultural products, its chronic and acute immune-toxicity still need to be assessed carefully with special reference to food and environmental safety.

Keywords: Oxidative Stress, cytokine, TiO2 nanoparticles, human immune cells

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71 Oxidative and Hormonal Disruptions Underlie Bisphenol A: Induced Testicular Toxicity in Male Rabbits

Authors: Kadry M. Sadek, Tarek K. Abouzed, Mousa A. Ayoub

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The presence of endocrine-disrupting compounds, such as bisphenol A (BPA), in the environment can cause serious health problems. However, there are controversial opinions. This study investigated the reproductive, metabolic, oxidative and immunologic-disrupting effects of bisphenol A in male rabbits. Rabbits were divided into five groups. The first four rabbit groups were administered oral BPA (1, 10, 50, or 100 mg/kg/day) for ten weeks. The fifth group was administered corn oil as the vehicle. BPA significantly decreased serum testosterone, estradiol and the free androgen index (FAI) and significantly increased sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) compared with the placebo group. The higher doses of BPA showed a significant decrease in follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). A significant increase in blood glucose levels was identified in the BPA groups. The non-significant difference in insulin levels is a novel finding. The cumulative testicular toxicity of BPA was clearly demonstrated by the dose-dependent decrease in absolute testes weight, primary measures of semen quality and a significant increase in testicular malonaldehyde (MDA). Moreover, BPA significantly decreased total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and significantly increased immunoglobulin G (IgG) at the highest concentration. Our results suggest that BPA, especially at higher doses, is associated with many adverse effects on metabolism, oxidative stress, immunity, sperm quality and markers of androgenic action. These results may reflect the estrogenic effects of BPA, which we hypothesize could be related, in part, to an inhibitory effect on testicular steroidogenesis. The induction of oxidative stress by BPA may play an additional role in testicular toxicity. These results suggest that BPA poses a threat to endocrine and reproductive functions.

Keywords: Oxidative Stress, Rabbits, bisphenol A, semen quality, steroidogenesis

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70 Beneficial Effect of Lupeol in Diabetes Induced Oxidative Damage

Authors: Rajnish Gupta, R. S. Gupta

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Present research was aimed to investigate antidiabetic and antioxidant status of Lupeol in streptozotocin induced diabetes. Rats were divided into following groups mainly: control, diabetic, normal group as well as diabetic treated with Lupeol at 25 and 35 mg/kg b.wt./day for 21 days, diabetic group treated with glibenclamide. Tissue (pancreas, kidney and liver) as well as serum biochemical parameters were analysed for any abnormal behavior. Lupeol administration reduced diabetes onset with significant improvement in serum insulin level also strengthened by increase in β-Cell counts. A significant decrease was observed in serum glucose level. Furthermore, Lupeol treatment increased the antioxidant enzymes, glycolytic enzymes and also protein levels with a decrease in the level of thiobarbituric acid-reactive oxygen species and gluconeogenic enzymes. Present study proves that Lupeol administration significantly reinstated serum and tissue biochemical parameters and thus strengthening its antidiabetic potential.

Keywords: Oxidative Stress, reactive oxygen species, pterostilbene, thiobarbituric acid

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69 Modulation of Isoprenaline-Induced Myocardial Damage by Atorvastatin

Authors: Dalia Atallah, Lamiaa Ahmed, Hala Zaki, Mahmoud Khattab

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Background: Isoprenaline (ISO) administration induces myocardial damage via oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction. Atorvastatin (ATV) treatment improves both oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction yet recent studies have reported a pro-oxidant effect upon ATV administration on both clinical and experimental studies. The present study was directed to investigate the effect of ATV pre-treatment and treatment on ISO-induced myocardial damage. Methods: Male rats were divided into five groups (n = 10). Rats were given ISO (5mg/kg/day, i.p.) for one week with or without ATV (10mg/kg/day, p.o.). ATV was given either as pre-treatment for one week before its co-administration with ISO for another week or as a treatment for two weeks at the end of the ISO administration. At the end of the experiment, the electrocardiographic examination was done and blood was isolated for the estimation of plasma creatine kinase MB (CK-MB) activity. Rats were then sacrificed and the whole ventricles were isolated for histological examination and the estimation of lipid peroxides as malondialdehyde (MDA) level, reduced glutathione (GSH) level, catalase activity, total nitrate-nitrite (NOx), as well as the estimation of both endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein expression. Results: ISO-induced myocardial damage showed a significant elevation in ST segment, an increase in CK-MB activity, as well as increased oxidative stress biomarkers. Also, ISO-treated rats showed a significant decrease in myocardial NOx level and eNOS as well as degeneration in the myocardium. ATV pre-treatment didn’t show any protection to ISO-treated rats. On the other hand, ATV treatment showed a significant decrease in both the elevated ST wave and CK-MB activity. Moreover, ATV Treatment succeeded to improve oxidative stress biomarkers, tissue NOx, and eNOS protein expression, as well as amelioration of the histological alterations. Conclusion: Pre-treatment with ATV failed to protect against ISO-induced damage. This might suggest a synergistic pro-oxidant effect upon administration of the pro-oxidant ISO along with ATV as demonstrated by the increased oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction. On the other side, ATV treatment succeeded to significantly improve oxidative stress biomarkers, endothelial dysfunction and myocardial degeneration.

Keywords: Oxidative Stress, atorvastatin, endothelial dysfunction, isoprenaline

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68 Adverse Effects on Liver Function in Male Rats after Exposure to a Mixture of Endocrine Disrupting Pesticides

Authors: Mohamed Salah Boulakoud, Mohamed Amine Aiche, Elkhansa Yahia, Leila Mallem

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Exposure to endocrine disrupting (ED) during life may cause long-term health effects, the population is exposed to chemicals present in air, water, food and in a variety of consumer and personal care products. Previous research indicates that a wide range of pesticides may act as endocrine disrupters. The azole fungicides propiconazole and propineb have been shown to react through several endocrine disrupting mechanisms, and to induce various endocrine disrupting effects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of two fungicides; propiconazole and propineb tested separately and in combination, on liver function. The experimental was applied on male Wistar rats dosed orally with Propiconazole 60 mg/kg/day, Propineb 100 mg/kg/day and their mixture 30 mg Propiconazole/kg/day + 50 mg Propineb /kg/day for 4 weeks, for result, a significant increase in liver weights in both treated groups with propineb, propiconazole and their mixture by reference with controls group. Also, highly significant mean values of markers of liver function such as transaminases (ALT/AST) and the activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in all treated groups. The antioxidant activity showed a significant decrease in the hepatic glutathione content (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) in all treated groups.

Keywords: Liver, Oxidative Stress, propiconazole, endocrine disrupting, pesticide mixture, propineb

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67 Effects of Kolavironon Liver Oxidative Stress and Beta-Cell Damage in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

Authors: Omolola R. Ayepola, Nicole L. Brooks, Oluwafemi O. Oguntibeju

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The liver plays an important role in the regulation of blood glucose and is a target organ of hyperglycaemia. Hyperglycemia plays a crucial role in the onset of various liver diseases and may culminate into hepatopathy if untreated. Alteration in antioxidant defense and increase in oxidative stress that results in tissue injury is characteristic of diabetes. We evaluated the protective effects of kolaviron-a biflavonoid complex, on hepatic antioxidants, lipid peroxidation and apoptosis in the liver of diabetic rats. To induce type I diabetes, rats were injected with streptozotocin intraperitoneally at a single dose of 50 mg/kg. Oral treatment of diabetic rats with kolaviron (100 mg/kg) started on the 6th day after diabetes induction and continued for 6 weeks (5 times weekly). Diabetic rats exhibited a significant increase in the peroxidation of hepatic lipids as observed from the elevated level of malondialdehyde (MDA) estimated by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography. In addition, Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC), ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) and catalase (CAT) activity was decreased in the liver of diabetic rats. TUNEL assay revealed increased apoptotic cell death in the liver of diabetic rats. Examination of Pancreatic beta-cells by immunohistochemical methods revealed beta cell degeneration and reduction in beta cell/ islet area in the diabetic controls. Kolaviron-treatment increased the area of insulin immunoreactive beta-cells significantly. Kolaviron attenuated lipid peroxidation and apoptosis in the liver of diabetic rats, increased CAT activity GSH levels and the resultant GSH: GSSG. The ORAC of kolaviron-treated diabetic liver was restored to near-normal values. Kolaviron protects the liver against oxidative and apoptotic damage induced by hyperglycemia. The antidiabetic effect of kolaviron may also be related to its beneficial effects on beta-cell function.

Keywords: apoptosis, Liver, Oxidative Stress, diabetes mellitus, kolaviron

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66 Deltamethrin-Induces Oxidative Stress to the Freshwater Ciliate Model: Paramecium tetraurelia

Authors: Berrebbah Houria, Amamra Ryma, Djebar Mohamed Reda, Moumeni Ouissem, Otmani Hadjer

Abstract:

The problem of environmental contamination by the excessive use of organics cannot be neglected. Extensive application is usually companied with serious problems and health risk. It is established that many chemicals, in common use, can produce some toxic effects on biological systems through their mode of action or by production of free radicals that damage all cell compounds. Deltamethrin, a widely used type II pyrethroid pesticide, is one of the most common contaminants in freshwater aquatic system. In this study, we investigate the effects of deltamethrin exposure on the induction of oxidative stress to the freshwater ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia. After the treatment of paramecium cells with increasing concentrations of insecticide, we followed up the growth kinetics, generation time and the percentage response. Also, we studied the variation in biomarkers of stress such as: GSH content, GST, GPX and CAT activities. Our results showed a significant decrease in the proliferation of cells correlated by the decrease in generation number and the increase in generation time. Also, we noted an inhibition in the percentage response. The monitoring of biomarkers revealed depletion in GSH content in a proportional and dose dependent manner accompanied by an increase in the GST activity. In parallel, a strong induction in the CAT and GPX activities was noted specially for the highest dose. In summary, under the current experimental conditions, deltamethrin is highly toxic to the freshwater ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia. Exposure to low concentrations showed significant adverse on growth accompanied with the induction of oxidative damage supported by the decrease in GSH content and the intensification of the antioxidant enzymes.

Keywords: Biomarkers, Growth, Oxidative Stress, antioxidant, deltamethrin, Paramecium tetraurelia

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65 Screening of Antioxidant Activity of Exopolysaccharides Produced by Lactic Acid Bacteria From Human Origin

Authors: Piña-Ronces Laura Gabriela, Reyes-Escogido María de Lourdes

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Exist a large variability in Exopolysaccharides (EPS) produced by LAB depending on carbon source, they have multiple applications in food industry mainly, but they have become important for the health. In this study, we identified EPS-producing strains belonging to the BAL group; they were previously isolated from humans. After that, we extracted and evaluated the antioxidant activity of EPS produced by all strains. Antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH method using ascorbic acid as standard for both comparison and quantification. 31 strains (51.66 %) produced EPS at concentrations between 451 and 1.561 mg/l, 16 of EPS extracted showed antioxidant effect superior to ascorbic acid at the same concentrations. EPS-producing strains were L. plantarum, L. sp and L. fermentum corresponding to Lactobacillus genus and, E. faecium, E. durans, and E. hirae of Enterococcus genus. Antioxidant activity showed by EPS from 3 strains of L. plantarum and 3 strains of E. faecium was different into specie, while the antioxidant activity determined for EPS obtained from the other strains did not show difference at specie level, but was superior to ascorbic acid. EPS produced by L. plantarum and E. hirae had the best activity, it could be considerate for selection them as a possible new alternative for therapy or treatment of diseases related whit oxidative stress. Further studies about biological functions of EPS have to be conducted for new applications in health.

Keywords: Lactic Acid Bacteria, Oxidative Stress, antioxidant activity, exopolysaccharides

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64 Hydroxy Safflower Yellow A (HSYA) Mediated Neuroprotective Effect against Ischemia Reperfusion (I/R) Injury in Cerebral Stroke

Authors: Sruthi Ramagiri, Rajeev T.

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Free radical damage has been entailed as the major culprit in the ischemic stroke contributing for oxidative damage. Recent investigations on Hydroxy Safflower Yellow A (HSYA) suggested its role in cerebral ischemia and various neurodegenerative disorders with unidentified molecular mechanisms. The current study was designed to investigate putative therapeutic role and possible molecular mechanisms of HSYA administration during the onset of reperfusion in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in cerebral stroke. Cerebral stroke was achieved by focal ischemic model. HSYA (10 mg/kg) was injected intravenously via the tail vein 5 minutes before reperfusion. Losses of sensorimotor abilities were evaluated by neurological scoring, spontaneous locomotor activity, and rotarod performance. Extent of oxidative stress was evaluated by biochemical parameters i.e., malondialdehyde (MDA), Glutathione (GSH), Super Oxide Dismutase (SOD) and catalase levels. The infarct volume of brain was assessed by 2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining technique. Increased cerebral injury (I/R) was evidenced by motor impairment, increased infarct volume and elevation of MDA levels along with significant reduction in antioxidant i.e.,MDA levels along with significant reduction in antioxidant i.e., GSH, SOD and catalase levels when compared to sham control. However, post conditioning with HSYA (10 mg/kg, i.v.) at the onset of reperfusion has significantly ameliorated sensorimotor abilities, attenuated MDA levels and reduced the infarct volume as compared with vehicle treated I/R injury group. Moreover, HSYA treatments improved antioxidant enzyme levels as compared with vehicle treated I/R-injury group. In conclusion, it may be suggested that HSYA post conditioning could be novel therapeutic approach against I/R injury in cerebral stroke possibly through its anti-oxidant mechanism.

Keywords: Stroke, Oxidative Stress, HSYA, Ischemia reperfusion injury

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63 Sulforaphane Alleviates Muscular Dystrophy in Mdx Mice by Activation of Nrf2

Authors: Liang Wang, Chengcao Sun, Cuili Yang, Shujun Li, Ruilin Xue, Yongyong Xi, Dejia Li

Abstract:

Backgrounds: Sulforaphane, one of the most important isothiocyanates in the human diet, is known to have chemopreventive and antioxidant activities in different tissues via activation of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-mediated induction of antioxidant/phase II enzymes, such as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1). However, its effects on muscular dystrophy remain unknown. This work was undertaken to evaluate the effects of Sulforaphane on Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Methods: 4-week-old mdx mice were treated with SFN by gavage (2 mg/kg body weight per day) for 8 weeks. Blood was collected from eye socket every week, and tibial anterior, extensor digitorum longus, gastrocnemius, soleus, triceps brachii muscles and heart samples were collected after 8-week gavage. Force measurements and mice exercise capacity assays were detected. GSH/GSSG ratio, TBARS, CK and LDH levels were analyzed by spectrophotometric methods. H&E staining was used to analyze histological and morphometric of skeletal muscles of mdx mice, and Evas blue dye staining was made to detect sarcolemmal integrity of mdx mice. Further, the role of Sulforaphane on Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway was analyzed by ELISA, western blot and qRT-PCR. Results: Our results demonstrated that SFN treatment increased the expression and activity of muscle phase II enzymes NQO1 and HO-1 with Nrf2 dependent manner. SFN significantly increased skeletal muscle mass, muscle force (~30%), running distance (~20%) and GSH/GSSG ratio (~3.2 folds) of mdx mice, and decreased the activities of plasma creatine phosphokinase (CK) (~45%) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (~40%), gastrocnemius hypertrophy (~25%), myocardial hypertrophy (~20%) and MDA levels (~60%). Further, SFN treatment also reduced the central nucleation (~40%), fiber size variability, inflammation and improved the sarcolemmal integrity of mdx mice. Conclusions: Collectively, these results show that SFN can improve muscle function, pathology and protect dystrophic muscle from oxidative damage in mdx mice through Nrf2 signaling pathway, which indicate Nrf2 may have clinical implications for the treatment of patients with muscular dystrophy.

Keywords: Oxidative Stress, NrF2, sulforaphane, duchenne muscular dystrophy

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62 Role of Oxidative Stress and Nitric Oxide in the Protective Effects of Simvastatine against Isoniazid-Rifampicin-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats

Authors: Mabroka Omar Sherehe

Abstract:

Despite the great efficacy of isoniazid (INH) and rifampicine (RIF) combination in the treatment of tuberculosis, hepatotoxicity is the most common serious complication. The potential protective effect of simvastatin (sim) against combination-induced hepatotoxicity was investigated in the present study. The administration of INH-RIF combination (50mg/kg each for 14 days) resulted in a significant increased activities of serum alanine and aspartate aminotransferases, such effects were further supported by histopathological studies. INH-RIF combination produced a significant increase in liver lipid, decreased SOD and CAT, and a significant depletion of GSH level. Additionally, treatment with INH-RIF combination resulted in a significant increase in liver MPO activity. The lipid-lowering drug, Sim demonstrated in the current study an evident antioxidant action, such effect was mediated via decreasing the elevated MDA, MPO, and restoring liver CAT activity. Additionally, Sim restored liver NO level to near basal value Furthermore, one cannot rule out the lipid-lowering effect of Sim that would probably add to its beneficial hepatoprotective antioxidant activity, where Sim decreased the elevated cholesterol, TGs and LDL cholesterol level and increased the serum HDL cholesterol level.

Keywords: Oxidative Stress, Nitric Oxide, isoniazid, rifampicine

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61 Synthesis and Evaluation of Antioxidant Behavior of Some Indole-Based Melatonin Derivatives

Authors: Elif Ince, Eddy Neuhaus, Hanif Shirinzadeh, Cigdem Karaaslan, Hande Gurer-Orhan, Sibel Suzen

Abstract:

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress can cause fatal damage to essential cell structures, including DNA. It is known that use of antioxidants could be advantageous in the prevention of various diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases and neurodegenerative disorders. Since antioxidant properties of the indole ring-containing melatonin (MLT) has been described and evaluated, MLT-related compounds such as MLT metabolites and synthetic analogues are under investigation to determine which exhibit the highest activity with the lowest side-effects. Owing to indole and hydrazones appealing physiological properties and are mostly found in numerous biologically active compounds a series of indole-7-carbaldehyde hydrazone derivatives were synthesized, characterized and in vitro antioxidant activity was investigated by evaluating their reducing effect against oxidation of a redox-sensitive fluorescent probe. Cytotoxicity potential of all indole-based MLT analogues was investigated both by lactate dehydrogenase leakage assay and by MTT assay. This work was supported by The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TÜBİTAK) Research and Development Grant 112S599.

Keywords: Oxidative Stress, Melatonin, antioxidant activity, indole, hydrazone

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60 Oxidative Status and Some Serum Macro Minerals during Estrus, Anestrous and Repeat Breeding in Cholistani Cattle

Authors: Farah Ali, Laeeq Akbar Lodhi, Riaz Hussain, Muhammad Sufyan

Abstract:

The present study was conducted to determine the macro mineral profile and biomarkers of oxidative stress in Cholistani cattle kept at a public farm and various villages in district Bahawalpur. For this purpose 90 blood samples were collected each from estrual, anestrous and repeat breeding cattle having different age and lactation number. Reproductive tract examination of all the cattle was carried out to determine the reproductive status. Blood samples without EDTA were collected for serum separation at day of estrus (normal cyclic), repeat breeder and anestrous cows. The serum calcium levels were significantly decreased (P<0.05) in anestrous (7.31±0.02 mg/dl) cattle as compared to estrus. However, these values were non-significantly different between repeat breeder and cattle having estrus phase. The concentrations of serum phosphorus were significantly higher (P<0.01) in normal estrual (4.99±0.08 mg/dl) as compared torepeat breeder (3.90±0.06 mg/dl) and anestrous (3.82±0.04 mg/dl) Cholistani cattle. Mean serum MDA (nmol/ml) levels of repeat breeder (2.68±0.18) and anestrous (2.54±0.22) were significantly(P<0.01) higher than the estrous (1.71±0.03) cattle. Moreover, the serum nitric oxide levels(µmol/L) were also increased significantly (P<0.01) in repeat breeder(58.28±4.01)and anestrous (61.40±9.40) than the normalestrous (31.67±6.71) cattle. The ratio of Ca: P in normal cyclic animals was lower (1.73:1) as compared to the anestrous animals (1.92:1). It can be concluded from the present study that the level of Ca: P should also be near to 1.5:1 for better reproductive performance.

Keywords: Minerals, Oxidative Stress, anestrus, cholistani cattle, repeat breeder

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59 Phyllantus nuriri Protect against Fe2+ and SNP Induced Oxidative Damage in Mitochondrial Rich Fractions of Rats Brain

Authors: Olusola Olalekan Elekofehinti, Isaac Gbadura Adanlawo, Joao Batista Teixeira Rocha

Abstract:

We evaluated the potential neuroprotective effect of Phyllantus nuriri against Fe2+ and SNP induced oxidative stress in mitochondria of rats brain. Cellular viability was assessed by MTT reduction, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was measured using the probe 2,7-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA). Glutathione content was measured using dithionitrobenzoic acid (DTNB). Fe2+ (10µM) and SNP (5µM) significantly decreased mitochondrial activity, assessed by MTT reduction assay, in a dose-dependent manner, this occurred in parallel with increased glutathione oxidation, ROS production and lipid peroxidation end-products (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS). The co-incubation with methanolic extract of Phyllantus nuriri (10-100 µg/ml) reduced the disruption of mitochondrial activity, gluthathione oxidation, ROS production as well as the increase in TBARS levels caused by both Fe2+ and SNP in a dose dependent manner. HPLC analysis of the extract revealed the presence of gallic acid (20.54±0.01), caffeic acid (7.93±0.02), rutin (25.31±0.05), quercetin (31.28±0.03) and kaemferol (14.36±0.01). This result suggests that these phytochemicals account for the protective actions of Phyllantus nuriri against Fe2+ and SNP -induced oxidative stress. Our results show that Phyllantus nuriri consist important bioactive molecules in the search for an improved therapy against the deleterious effects of Fe2+, an intrinsic producer of reactive oxygen species (ROS), that leads to neuronal oxidative stress and neurodegeneration.

Keywords: Neuroprotection, Mitochondria, Oxidative Stress, Phyllantus niruri, synaptosome

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58 Hepatoxicity induced Glyphosate-Based Herbicide Baron in albino rats

Authors: Manal E. A Elhalwagy, Nadia Amin Abdulmajeed, Hanan S. Alnahdi, Enas N. Danial

Abstract:

Baron is herbicide includes (48% glyphosate) widely used in Egypt. The present study assesses the cytotoxic and genotoxic effect of baron on rats liver. Two groups of rats were treated orally with 1/10 LD 50, (275.49 mg kg -1) and 1/40 LD 50, (68.86 mg kg-1) glyphosate for 28 days compared with control group. Serum and liver tissues were taken at 14 and 28 days of treatment. An inhibition in Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities were recorded at both treatment periods and reduction in total serum protein (TP) and albumin (ALB). However, non-significant changes in serum acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Elevation in oxidative stress biomarker malondyaldehyde (MDA) and the decline in detoxification biomarker total reduced glutathione (GSH), Glutathione S-transferase (GST) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in liver tissues led to increase in percentage of DNA damage. Destruction in liver tissue architecture was observed . Although, Baron was classified in the safe category pesticides repeated exposure to small doses has great danger effect.

Keywords: Oxidative Stress, DNA damage, glyphosate, liver toxicity, commet assay

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57 Hyparrhenia hirta: A Potential Protective Agent against DNA Damage and Liver Toxicity of Sodium Nitrate in Adult Rats

Authors: Hanen Bouaziz-Ketata, Ghada Ben Salah, Hichem Ben Salah, Kamel Jamoussi, Najiba Zeghal

Abstract:

The present study investigated the protective role of Hyparrhenia hirta on nitrate-induced liver damage. Experiments were carried out on adult rats divided into 3 groups, a control group and two treated groups. NaNO3 was administered daily by oral gavage at a dose of 400 mg/kg bw in treated groups either alone or coadministered with Hyparrhenia hirta methanolic extract via drinking water at a dose of 200 mg/kg bw for 50 days. Liver toxicity induced by NaNO3 was characterized by higher serum levels of glucose, total cholesterol and triglyceride and lower serum total protein than those of controls. Transaminases and lactate deshydrogenase activities in serum were elevated indicating hepatic cells’ damage after treatment with NaNO3. The hyperbilirubinemia and the increased serum gamma glutamyl transferase activities suggested the presence of cholestasis in NaNO3 exposed rats. In parallel, NaNO3 caused oxidant/antioxidant imbalance in the liver as reflected by the increased lipid peroxidation, the decreased total glutathione content and superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities. Nitrate caused also a significant induction of DNA fragmentation as evidenced by the presence of a smear without ladder formation on agarose gel. Hyparrhenia hirta supplementation showed an improvement of all parameters cited above. We conclude that the present work provides ethnopharmacological relevance of Hyparrhenia hirta against the toxic effect of nitrate, suggesting its role as a potential antioxidant.

Keywords: Liver, Oxidative Stress, rat, Hyparrhenia hirta, nitrate toxicity

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56 Antioxidant Status in Synovial Fluid from Osteoarthritis Patients: A Pilot Study in Indian Demography

Authors: S. Koppikar, P. Kulkarni, D. Ingale, N. Wagh, S. Deshpande, A. Mahajan, A. Harsulkar

Abstract:

Crucial role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the progression Osteoarthritis (OA) pathogenesis has been endorsed several times though its exact mechanism remains unclear. Oxidative stress is known to instigate classical stress factors such as cytokines, chemokines and ROS, which hampers cartilage remodelling process and ultimately results in worsening the disease. Synovial fluid (SF) is a biological communicator between cartilage and synovium that accumulates redox and biochemical signalling mediators. The present work attempts to measure several oxidative stress markers in the synovial fluid obtained from knee OA patients with varying degree of disease severity. Thirty OA and five Meniscal-tear (MT) patients were graded using Kellgren-Lawrence scale and assessed for Nitric oxide (NO), Nitrate-Nitrite (NN), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Potential (FRAP), Catalase (CAT), Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels for comparison. Out of various oxidative markers studied, NO and SOD showed significant difference between moderate and severe OA (p= 0.007 and p= 0.08, respectively), whereas CAT demonstrated significant difference between MT and mild group (p= 0.07). Interestingly, NN revealed statistically positive correlation with OA severity (p= 0.001 and p= 0.003). MDA, a lipid peroxidation by-product was estimated maximum in early OA when compared to MT (p= 0.06). However, FRAP did not show any correlation with OA severity or MT control. NO is an essential bio-regulatory molecule essential for several physiological processes, and inflammatory conditions. However, due to its short life, exact estimation of NO becomes difficult. NO and its measurable stable products are still it is considered as one of the important biomarker of oxidative damage. Levels of NO and nitrite-nitrate in SF of patients with OA indicated its involvement in the disease progression. When SF groups were compared, a significant correlation among moderate, mild and MT groups was established. To summarize, present data illustrated higher levels of NO, SOD, CAT, DPPH and MDA in early OA in comparison with MT, as a control group. NN had emerged as a prognostic bio marker in knee OA patients, which may act as futuristic targets in OA treatment.

Keywords: Oxidative Stress, antioxidant, synovial fluid, knee osteoarthritis

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55 Cerebrum Maturity Damage Induced by Fluoride in Suckling Mice

Authors: Najiba Zeghal, Hanen Bouaziz, Françoise Croute

Abstract:

In order to investigate the toxic effects of fluoride on cerebrum maturity of suckling mice, we treated adult female mice of Swiss Albinos strain by 500 ppm NaF in their drinking water from the 15th day of pregnancy until the day 14 after delivery. All mice were sacrificed on day 14 after parturition. During treatment, levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, the marker of lipid peroxidation extend, increased, while the activities of the antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase and the level of glutathione decreased significantly in cerebellum compared with those of the control group. These results suggested that fluoride enhanced oxidative stress, thereby disturbing the antioxidant defense of nursing pups. In addition, acetylcholinesterase activity in cerebellum was inhibited after treatment with fluoride. In cerebellum of mice, migration of neurons from the external granular layer to the internal granular layer occurred postnatally. Key guidance signals to these migrating neurons were provided by laminin, an extracellular matrix protein fixed to the surface of astrocytes. In the present study, we examined the expression and distribution of laminin in cerebellum of 14-day-old mice. Immunoreactive laminin was disappeared by postnatal day 14 in cerebellum parenchyma of control pups and was restricted to vasculature despite the continued presence of granular cells in the external granular layer. In contrast, in cerebellum of NaF treated pups, laminin was deposited in organised punctuate clusters in the molecular layer. These data indicated that the disruption of laminin distribution might play a major role in the profound derangement of neuronal migration observed in cerebellum of NaF treated pups.

Keywords: Oxidative Stress, cerebellum, acetylcholinesterase activity, laminin, suckling mice

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54 Nitrate-Induced Biochemical and Histopathological Changes in the Kidney of Rats: Attenuation by Hyparrhenia hirta

Authors: Ghada Ben Salah, Kamel Jamoussi, Najiba Zeghal, Hanen Bouaziz, Moez Rafrafi, Tahia Boudawara

Abstract:

The present study investigated the protective role of Hyparrhenia hirta against sodium nitrate (NaNO3)-induced nephrotoxicity. A high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a mass spectrometer (HPLC-MS) method was developed to separate and identify flavonoids in Hyparrhenia hirta. Seven flavonoids were identified as 3-O-methylquercetin, luteolin-7-O-glucoside, luteolin, apigenin-7-O-glucoside, apigenin-8-C-glucoside, luteolin-8-C-glucoside and luteolin-6-C-glucoside. Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: a control group and two treated groups during 50 days with NaNO3 administered either alone in drinking water or co-administered with Hyparrhenia hirta. NaNO3 treatment induced a significant increase in plasma levels of creatinine, urea and uric while urinary level decreased significantly. Nephrotoxicity induced by NaNO3 was characterized by significant increase in creatinine clearance. In parallel, a significant increase in malondialdehyde level along with a concomitant decrease in total glutathione content and superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities were observed in the kidney after NaNO3 treatment. The histopathological changes in kidney after NaNO3 administration were shrunken. There were renal tubule cell degeneration and infiltration of mononuclear cells. Most glomeruli revealed shrinkage, a wide capsular space and a peri-glomerular mononuclear cells infiltration. Hyparrhenia hirta supplementation showed a remarkable amelioration of the abnormalities cited above. The results concluded that the treatment with Hyparrhenia hirta had a significant role in protecting the animals from nitrate-induced kidney dysfunction.

Keywords: Oxidative Stress, Kidney, Flavonoids, rat, Hyparrhenia hirta, nitrate toxicity

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53 Hepatotoxicity Induced by Arsenic Trioxide in Adult Mice and Their Progeny

Authors: Bouaziz H., Soudania N., Essafia M., Ben Amara I., Hakim A., Jamoussi K., Zeghal Km, Zeghal N.

Abstract:

In this investigation, we have evaluated the effects of arsenic trioxide on hepatic function in pregnant and lactating Swiss albino mice and their suckling pups. Experiments were carried out on female mice given 175 ppm As2O3 in their drinking water from the 14th day of pregnancy until day 14 after delivery. Our results showed a significant decrease in plasma levels of total protein and albumin, cholesterol and triglyceride in As2O3 treated mice and their pups. The hyperbilirubinemia and the increased plasma total alkaline phosphatase activity suggested the presence of cholestasis. Transaminase activities as well as lactate deshydrogenase activity in plasma, known as biomarkers of hepatocellular injury, were elevated indicating hepatic cells’damage after treatment with As2O3. Exposure to arsenic led to an increase of liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substances level along with a concomitant decrease in the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase and in glutathione.

Keywords: mice, Oxidative Stress, hepatotoxicity, antioxidant status, arsenic trioxide

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52 Imipramine Ameliorate Altered Biochemical Parameter and Oxidative Damage in Depression

Authors: D. S. Mohale, A.V. Chandewar

Abstract:

Study was undertaken to investigate the effect of imipramine on various biochemical parameters and oxidative stress markers in short and long term depression on rats. Rats were subjected for short (21 days) and long term (84 days) social isolation for and checked for depression on force swim test and tail suspension method. Various markers of oxidative stress like lipid peroxidation (LPO), reduced glutathione (GSH), Supersoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and biochemical parameters like Serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), Serum glutamate pyruate transaminase (SGPT), and blood glucose were determined in depressed, control, imipramine and Vitamin E treated group. The rats displayed an increase in depression on force swim test and tail suspension method relative to control. There was significant increase in the level of LPO and decrease in the levels of GSH, SOD and CAT after short and long term depression. Increased oxidative stress in depression which may leads to alteration of biochemical parameters. Treatment with imipramine an tricyclic antidepressant significantly decreases in level of LPO, SGOT, SGPT and increase in the levels of GSH, SOD and CAT in long term depression.

Keywords: Depression, Oxidative Stress, Lipid Peroxidation, reduced glutathione

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