Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 24

Overweight Related Abstracts

24 Family History of Obesity and Risk of Childhood Overweight and Obesity: A Meta-Analysis

Authors: Martina Kanciruk, Tyrone Donnon, Jac J. W. Andrews


The purpose of this study was to determine the significance of history of obesity for the development of childhood overweight and/or obesity. Accordingly, a systematic literature review of English-language studies published from 1980 to 2012 using the following data bases: MEDLINE, PsychINFO, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Dissertation Abstracts International was conducted. The following terms were used in the search: pregnancy, overweight, obesity, family history, parents, childhood, risk factors. Eleven studies of family history and obesity conducted in Europe, Asia, North America, and South America met the inclusion criteria. A meta-analysis of these studies indicated that family history of obesity is a significant risk factor of overweight and /or obesity in offspring; risk for offspring overweight and/or obesity associated with family history varies depending of the family members included in the analysis; and when family history of obesity is present, the offspring are at greater risk for developing obesity or overweight. In addition, the results from moderator analyses suggest that part of the heterogeneity discovered between the studies can be explained by the region of world that the study occurred in and the age of the child at the time of weight assessment.

Keywords: Overweight, Childhood Obesity, Meta-analysis, Risk Factors, family history

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23 Maternal Smoking and Risk of Childhood Overweight and Obesity: A Meta-Analysis

Authors: Martina Kanciruk, Tyrone Donnon, Jac J. W. Andrews


The purpose of this study was to determine the significance of maternal smoking for the development of childhood overweight and/or obesity. Accordingly, a systematic literature review of English-language studies published from 1980 to 2012 using the following data bases: MEDLINE, PsychINFO, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Dissertation Abstracts International was conducted. The following terms were used in the search: pregnancy, overweight, obesity, smoking, parents, childhood, risk factors. Eighteen studies of maternal smoking during pregnancy and obesity conducted in Europe, Asia, North America, and South America met the inclusion criteria. A meta-analysis of these studies indicated that maternal smoking during pregnancy is a significant risk factor for overweight and obesity; mothers who smoke during pregnancy are at a greater risk for developing obesity or overweight; the quantity of cigarettes consumed by the mother during pregnancy influenced the odds of offspring overweight and/or obesity. In addition, the results from moderator analyses suggest that part of the heterogeneity discovered between the studies can be explained by the region of world that the study occurred in and the age of the child at the time of weight assessment.

Keywords: Overweight, Childhood Obesity, Risk Factors, Smoking, Parents

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22 Association of Overweight and Obesity with Breast Cancer

Authors: Amir Ghasemlouei, Alireza Khalaj


In women, cancer of the breast is one of the most common incident cancer and cause of death from cancer .we reviewed the prevalence of obesity and its association with breast cancer. In this study, a total of 25 articles regarding the subject matter of the article have been presented in which 640 patients were examined that 320 patients with breast cancer and 320 were controls. The distribution of breast cancer patients and controls with respect to their anthropometric indices in patients with higher weight, which was statistically significant (60.2 ± 10.2 kg) compared with control group (56.1 ± 11.3 kg). The body mass index of patients was (26.06+/-3.42) and significantly higher than the control group (24.1+/-1.7). Obesity leads to increased levels of adipose tissue in the body that can be stored toxins and carcinogens to produce a continuous supply. Due to the high level of fat and the role of estrogen in a woman is endogenous estrogen of the tumor and regulate the activities of growth steroids, obesity is a risk factor for breast cancer is confirmed. Our study and other studies show that obesity is a risk factor for breast cancer. And with a weight loss intervention for breast cancer can be prevented in the future.

Keywords: Obesity, Breast Cancer, Overweight, review study

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21 Factors Relating to Motivation to Change Behaviors in Individuals Who Are Overweight

Authors: Teresa Wills, Geraldine Mccarthy, Nicola Cornally


Background: Obesity is an emerging healthcare epidemic affecting virtually all age and socio-economic groups and is one of the most serious and prevalent diseases of the 21st century. It is a public health challenge because of its prevalence, associated costs and health effects. The increasing prevalence of obesity has created a social perception that overweight body sizes are healthy and normal. This normalization of obesity within our society and the acceptance of higher body weights have led to individuals being unaware of the reality of their weight status and gravity of this situation thus impeding recognition of obesity. Given the escalating global health problem of obesity and its co-morbidities, the need to re-appraise its management is more compelling than ever. It is widely accepted that the causes of obesity are complex and multi-factorial. Engagement of individuals in weight management programmes is difficult if they do not perceive they have a problem with their weight. Recognition of the problem is a key component of obesity management and identifying the main predictors of behaviour is key to designing health behaviour interventions. Aim: The aim of the research was to determine factors relating to motivation to change behaviours in individuals who perceive themselves to be overweight. Method: The research design was quantitative, correlational and cross-sectional. The design was guided by the Health Belief Model. Data were collected online using a multi-section and multi-item questionnaire, developed from a review of the theoretical and empirical research. A sample of 202 men and women who perceived themselves to be overweight participated in the research. Descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were employed to describe relationships between variables. Findings: Following multivariate regression analysis, perceived barriers to weight loss and perceived benefits of weight loss were significant predictors of motivation to change behaviour. The perceived barriers to weight loss which were significant were psychological barriers to weight loss (p = < 0.019) and environmental barriers to physical activity (p= < 0.032).The greatest predictor of motivation to change behaviour was the perceived benefits of weight loss (p < 0.001). Perceived susceptibility to obesity and perceived severity of obesity did not emerge as significant predictors in this model. Total variance explained by the model was 33.5%. Conclusion: Perceived barriers to weight loss and perceived benefits of weight loss are important determinants of motivation to change behaviour. These findings have important implications for health professionals to help inform their practice and for the development of intervention programmes to prevent and control obesity.

Keywords: Obesity, Overweight, Interventions, motivation to change behaviours, predictors of behavior

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20 Pilot Study of Overweight and Obesity among 8-9 Year Old Schoolchildren in the Republic of Kazakhstan

Authors: Z. E. Battakova, G. Z. Tokmurziyeva, S. Z. Abdrakhmanova, A. A. Akimbaeva, A. A. Adaeva


Introduction: In the Republic of Kazakhstan few studies have quantified overweight rates among children. Assessment of overweight and obesity in school children based on measured inter country comparable data has not been implemented. In this regard, in a pilot region, Aktobe oblast, prevalence of obesity among school children was studied based on the protocol of the World Health Organization (WHO) European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative. Methods: The study was conducted on sample of 800 children of 2-3 grades in September 2014. The anthropometric variables were measured by standardized equipment to calculate body mass index. Prevalence of overweight and obesity was determined for 8 and 9 year old children by gender using WHO growth reference 2007. Results: 21,4% of children aged 8 years old were overweight, and 8,7% were obese. Among 8 year old boys the prevalence of overweight and obesity was 23,7% and 10,6% respectively, among girls 18,9% and 6,7% respectively. The prevalence of overweight was 25,7% and obesity was 10,8% for 9 year old children. 29,6% boys of 9 years of age were overweight and 8,6% were obese respectively.20,9% of 9 year old girls were overweight and 13,4% were obese. Conclusion: Thus, 22,6% of children 8-9 years of age at the study population were overweight and 9,3% obese. The results of the survey demonstrate the need for further study of indicators at the national level for internationally comparable data and actions to tackle childhood obesity epidemic as well as the need for monitoring trends of overweight and obesity among children.

Keywords: Obesity, Overweight, body mass index

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19 The Effect of Parents BMI on Overweight and Obesity Elementary School Students in Behbahan City

Authors: Sana Mohammad Jafar, Hosseini Siahi Zohreh


The prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents has increased in recent decades in different countries. Childhood obesity, increases the risk of adult obesity and its related diseases. Determine the prevalence of the problem in different populations results to screening and adequate intervention and the effects of early and late complications. Various studies have shown Parents and family environment has a significant impact on the incidence of overweight and obesity in children. As parental obesity is directly related to child obesity. In this study were selected randomly 60 girl students with a BMI above the 95th percentile (as fat) and BMI greater than 85 and less than 95 (overweight). So 60 were selected randomly of girl students with a BMI of between 5 and 85 (normal). In the case of boys was done exactly the same. Case and control groups were matched according to age and grade for statistical analysis of SPPS software version 17. According to results the prevalence of overweight and obesity in girl students respectively is 8.7 percent and 13.76 percent and in boy students 9.9 percent and 10.42 percent. Also was not found in boys group the relationship significant between obesity and overweight with parents BMI. Whereas in girls group was found a significant relationship.

Keywords: Obesity, Overweight, primary school students, parents BMI

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18 Obese and Overweight Women and Public Health Issues in Hillah City, Iraq

Authors: Amean A. Yasir, Zainab Kh. A. Al-Mahdi Al-Amean


In both developed and developing countries, obesity among women is increasing, but in different patterns and at very different speeds. It may have a negative effect on health, leading to reduced life expectancy and/or increased health problems. This research studied the age distribution among obese women, the types of overweight and obesity, and the extent of the problem of overweight/obesity and the obesity etiological factors among women in Hillah city in central Iraq. A total of 322 overweight and obese women were included in the study, those women were randomly selected. The Body Mass Index was used as indicator for overweight/ obesity. The incidence of overweight/obesity among age groups were estimated, the etiology factors included genetic, environmental, genetic/environmental and endocrine disease. The overweight and obese women were screened for incidence of infection and/or diseases. The study found that the prevalence of 322 overweight and obese women in Hillah city in central Iraq was 19.25% and 80.78%, respectively. The obese women types were recorded based on BMI and WHO classification as class-1 obesity (29.81%), class-2 obesity (24.22%) and class-3 obesity (26.70%), the result was discrepancy non-significant, P value < 0.05. The incidence of overweight in women was high among those aged 20-29 years (90.32%), 6.45% aged 30-39 years old and 3.22% among ≥ 60 years old, while the incidence of obesity was 20.38% for those in the age group 20-29 years, 17.30% were 30-39 years, 23.84% were 40-49 years, 16.92% were 50-59 years group and 21.53% were ≥ 60 years age group. These results confirm that the age can be considered as a significant factor for obesity types (P value < 0.0001). The result also showed that the both genetic factors and environmental factors were responsible for incidents of overweight or obesity (84.78%) p value < 0.0001. The results also recorded cases of different repeated infections (skin infection, recurrent UTI and influenza), cancer, gallstones, high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes, and infertility. Weight stigma and bias generally refers to negative attitudes; Obesity can affect quality of life, and the results of this study recorded depression among overweight or obese women. This can lead to sexual problems, shame and guilt, social isolation and reduced work performance. Overweight and Obesity are real problems among women of all age groups and is associated with the risk of diseases and infection and negatively affects quality of life. This result warrants further studies into the prevalence of obesity among women in Hillah City in central Iraq and the immune response of obese women.

Keywords: Obesity, Overweight, Iraq, body mass index

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17 Food Consumption Pattern and Other Associated Factors of Overweight/Obesity and the Prevalence of Dysglyceamia/Diabetes among Employees Attached to the Ministry of Economic Development

Authors: G. S. Sumanasekara, A. Balasuriya


Introduction: In Sri Lanka studies reveal higher trend in prevalence of diabetes. The office employees have sedentary life style and their eating patterns changed due to nutritional transition. Further overall, urban and rural pre diabetes is also increasing. Objectives - Study the general food pattern of office employees and its relation to overweight/obesity and prevalence of diabetes among them. Method: The data was collected from office employees between 30-60 years (n-400).Data analyzed using SPSS 16 version.The Study design was a descriptive cross sectional study. The study setting was Ministry of Economic Development. Anthropometric measurements and blood glucose assessed by trained nurses. Dietary pattern was studied through a food frequency questionairre thereby calculated daily nutrient intakes. Results: Mean age of office employees were 38.98 SD (7.033) CI=95%) and 245 females (61.2%) 155 males (38.8 %) ,Nationality includes Sinhala (67.5%), Tamil(20%), and Muslims (12.5%).Owerweight(7,1.8%), obese male(36,9%), obese female(66,16%)/ diabetes/obese(18,4.5%) out of 127(31.8%) who were above the normal BMI whereas 273(68.2) were within the normal. Mean BMI was 24.1593.Mean Blood sugar level was 104.646,SD(16.018).12% consume tobacco products,17.8 consumed alcohol.15.8% had nutrition training. Two main dietary patterns identified who were vegetarians and non vegetarians .Mean energy intake 1727.1, (SD 4.97), Mean protein consumption(11.33, SD 1.811), Mean fat consumption(24.07, SD 4.131),Mean CHO consumption (64.56, SD 4.54), Mean Fibre (30.05, SD 17.9), Mean cholesterol(16.85, SD 17.22), Energy intake was higher in non vegetarians and larger propotion of energy derived from proteins , and fat. Their carbohydrate and cholesterol intake was also higher. Tamils were mostly vegetarians. Mainly BMI were within normal range(18.5-23.5) whereas Muslims who had higher energy intakes showed BMI above the normal. Conclusion: Two distinct dietary patterns identified. Different ethnic groups consume different diets with different nutrient composition. Dietary pattern has a relation to overweight. Overweight related to high blood glucose levels but some overweight subjects do not show any relation.

Keywords: Nutrition, Diabetes, Obesity, Overweight, BMI, dietary pattern, non communicable disease

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16 Magnitude and Determinants of Overweight and Obesity among High School Adolescents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Authors: Mulugeta Shegaze, Mekitie Wondafrash, Alemayehu A. Alemayehu, Shikur Mohammed, Zewdu Shewangezaw, Mukerem Abdo, Gebresilasea Gendisha


Background: The 2004 World Health Assembly called for specific actions to halt the overweight and obesity epidemic that is currently penetrating urban populations in the developing world. Adolescents require particular attention due to their vulnerability to develop obesity and the fact that adolescent weight tracks strongly into adulthood. However, there is scarcity of information on the modifiable risk factors to be targeted for primary intervention among urban adolescents in Ethiopia. This study was aimed at determining the magnitude and risk factors of overweight and obesity among high school adolescents in Addis Ababa. Methods: An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted in February and March 2014 on 456 randomly selected adolescents from 20 high schools in Addis Ababa city.  Demographic data and other risk factors of overweight and obesity were collected using self-administered structured questionnaire, whereas anthropometric measurements of weight and height were taken using calibrated equipment and standardized techniques. The WHO STEPS instrument for chronic disease risk was applied to assess dietary habit and physical activity. Overweight and obesity status was determined based on BMI-for-age percentiles of WHO 2007 reference population. Results: The prevalence rates of overweight, obesity, and overall overweight/ obesity among high school adolescents in Addis Ababa were 9.7% (95%CI = 6.9-12.4%), 4.2% (95%CI = 2.3-6.0%), and 13.9% (95%CI = 10.6-17.1%), respectively. Overweight/obesity prevalence was highest among female adolescents, in private schools, and in the higher wealth category. In multivariable regression model, being female [AOR(95%CI) = 5.4(2.5,12.1)], being from private school [AOR(95%CI) = 3.0(1.4,6.2)], having >3 regular meals [AOR(95%CI) = 4.0(1.3,13.0)], consumption of sweet foods [AOR(95%CI) = 5.0(2.4,10.3)] and spending >3 hours/day sitting [AOR(95%CI) = 3.5(1.7,7.2)] were found to increase overweight/ obesity risk, whereas high Total Physical Activity level [AOR(95%CI) = 0.21(0.08,0.57)] and better nutrition knowledge [AOR(95%CI) = 0.160.07,0.37)] were found protective. Conclusions: More than one in ten of the high school adolescents were affected by overweight/obesity with dietary habit and physical activity are important modifiable risk factors. Well-tailored nutrition education program targeting lifestyle change should be initiated with more emphasis to female adolescents and students in private schools.

Keywords: Obesity, Overweight, Adolescents, NCDs

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15 Trend of Overweight and Obesity, Based on Population Study among School Children in North West of Iran: Implications for When to Intervene

Authors: Sakineh Nouri Saeidlou, Fatemeh Rezaiegoyjeloo, Parvin Ayremlou, Fariba Babaie


Introduction: Childhood overweight and obesity is a major public health problem in both developed and developing countries. Overweight and obesity in children may have severe consequences later in adolescence and adulthood. The aim of current study was to determine the prevalence trend of overweight and obesity in school-aged children from 2009 to 2011. Methods: The present study was a population-based study and conducted in three consecutive years, from 2009 to 2011. The study population included all of primary, secondary and high school children in rural and urban regions of West Azarbijan province in West-North of Iran. Body mass index (BMI), the ratio of weight to height squared [weight (kg)]/ [height (m)]2, was calculated to the nearest decimal place. Overweight and obesity were classified using CDC recommendations for age and sex: a BMI 85th–95th percentile was classified as overweight and a BMI>95th percentile was classified as obese. All statistical analyses were performed using the Excel Software. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the sample in different time periods. The prevalence was calculated as the ratio of number present cases to a given population number in a given subgroup at a given time. Results: Overall, 165740, 145146 and 146203 school children were assessed at 2009, 2010 and 2011, respectively. Prevalence of overweight in primary school children among girls were 52.83, 86.93 and 116.36 and for boys were 57.07, 53.4 and 93.55 per 1000 person in 2009, 2010 and 2011 years ,respectively. The prevalence of obesity in secondary school children for girls were 22.26, 27.75 and 28.43 and 26.52, 25.72 and 35.85 for boys per 1000 person in 2009, 2010 and 2011, respectively, The highest prevalence of overweight was 77.58, 142.4 and 126.46 per 1000 person among primary, secondary and high school children, respectively, in 2011. The lowest prevalence of obesity was 12.52, 24.1 and 21.61 per 1000 person among primary, secondary and high school children, respectively, in 2009. Conclusion: However, the rapid increase in both obesity and overweight should have a special attention. Research on prevalence trend of overweight and obesity in children is poorly reported in Iran. So that, future studies need to follow-up on the associations between overweight and obesity with health outcomes when children develop and reach adolescence and adulthood.

Keywords: Obesity, Overweight, School Children, Iran, prevalence trend

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14 The Effects of Eight Weeks of Interval Endurance Training on hs-CRP Levels and Anthropometric Parameters in Overweight Men

Authors: M. J. Pourvaghar, S. Khoshemehry


Inflammatory markers are known as the main predictors of cardiovascular diseases. This study aimed at determining the effect of 8 weeks of interval endurance training on hs-CRP level and some anthropometric parameters in overweight men. Following the call for participation in research project in Kashan, 73 volunteers participated in it and constituted the statistical population of the study. Then, 28 overweight young men from the age of 22 to 25 years old were randomly assigned into two groups of experimental and control group (n=14). Anthropometric and the blood sample was collected before and after the termination of the program for measuring hs-CRP. The interval endurance program was performed at 60 to 75% of maximum heart rate in 2 sessions per week for 8 weeks. Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to test whether two samples come from the same distribution and T-test was used to assess the difference of two groups which were statistically significant at the level of 0.05. The result indicated that there was a significant difference between the hs-RP, weight, BMI and W/H ratio of overweight men in posttest in the exercise group (P≤0.05) but not in the control group. Interval endurance training program causes decrease in hs-CRP level and anthropometric parameters.

Keywords: Overweight, anthropometric, interval endurance training program, HS-CRP

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13 The Coaching on Lifestyle Intervention (CooL): Preliminary Results and Implementation Process

Authors: Celeste E. van Rinsum, Sanne M. P. L. Gerards, Geert M. Rutten, Ien A. M. van de Goor, Stef P. J. Kremers


Combined lifestyle interventions have shown to be effective in changing and maintaining behavioral lifestyle changes and reducing overweight and obesity. A lifestyle coach is expected to promote lifestyle changes in adults related to physical activity and diet. The present Coaching on Lifestyle (CooL) study examined participants’ physical activity level, dietary behavioral, and motivational changes immediately after the intervention and at 1.5 years after baseline. In CooL intervention a lifestyle coach coaches individuals from eighteen years and older with (a high risk of) obesity in group and individual sessions. In addition a process evaluation was conducted in order to examine the implementation process and to be able to interpret the changes within the participants. This action-oriented research has a pre-post design. Participants of the CooL intervention (N = 200) completed three questionnaires: at baseline, immediately after the intervention (on average after 44 weeks), and at 1.5 years after baseline. T-tests and linear regressions were conducted to test self-reported changes in physical activity (IPAQ), dietary behaviors, their quality of motivation for physical activity (BREQ-3) and for diet (REBS), body mass index (BMI), and quality of life (EQ-5D-3L). For the process evaluation, we used individual and group interviews, observations and document analyses to gain insight in the implementation process (e.g. the recruitment) and how the intervention was valued by the participants, lifestyle coaches, and referrers. The study is currently ongoing and therefore the results presented here are preliminary. On average, the participants that finished the intervention and those that have completed the long-term measurement improved their level of vigorous-intense physical activity, sedentary behavior, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and BMI. Mixed results were observed in motivational regulation for physical activity and nutrition. Moreover, an improvement on the quality of life dimension anxiety/depression was found, also in the long-term. All the other constructs did not show significant change over time. The results of the process evaluation have shown that recruitment of clients was difficult. Participants evaluated the intervention positively and the lifestyle coaches have continuously adapted the structure and contents of the intervention throughout the study period, based on their experiences and feedback from research. Preliminary results indicate that the CooL-intervention may have beneficial effects on overweight and obese participants in terms of energy balance-related behaviors, weight reduction, and quality of life. Recruitment of participants and embedding the position of the lifestyle coach in traditional care structures is challenging.

Keywords: Overweight, the Netherlands, combined lifestyle intervention, effect evaluation, lifestyle coaching, process evaluation

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12 The Effects of Three Months of HIIT on Plasma Adiponectin on Overweight College Men

Authors: M. J. Pourvaghar, Sh. Khoshemehry, M. E. Bahram, M. Sayyah


Adiponectin is a cytokine secreted by the adipose tissue that functions as an anti-inflammatory, antiathrogenic and anti-diabetic substance. Its density is inversely correlated with body mass index. The purpose of this research was to examine the effect of 12 weeks of high intensity interval training (HIIT) with the level of serum adiponectin and some selected adiposity markers in overweight and fat college students. This was a clinical research in which 24 students with BMI between 25 kg/m2 to 30 kg/m2. The sample was purposefully selected and then randomly assigned into two groups of experimental (age =22.7±1.5 yr.; weight = 85.8±3.18 kg and height =178.7±3.29 cm) and control (age =23.1±1.1 yr.; weight = 79.1±2.4 kg and height =181.3±4.6 cm), respectively. The experimental group participated in an aerobic exercise program for 12 weeks, three sessions per weeks at a high intensity between 85% to 95% of maximum heart rate (considering the over load principle). Prior and after the termination of exercise protocol, the level of serum adiponectin, BMI, waist to hip ratio, and body fat percentages were calculated. The data were analyzed by using SPSS: PC 16.0 and statistical procedure such as ANCOVA, was used. The results indicated that 12 weeks of intensive interval training led to the increase of serum adiponectin level and decrease of body weight, body fat percent, body mass index and waist to hip ratio (P < 0.05). Based on the results of this research, it may be concluded that participation in intensive interval training for 12 weeks is a non-invasive treatment to increase the adiponectin level while decreasing some of the anthropometric indices associated with obesity or being overweight.

Keywords: Cardiovascular, Overweight, training, adiponectin, interval

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11 The Effect of Eight Weeks of Aerobic Training on Indices of Cardio-Respiratory and Exercise Tolerance in Overweight Women with Chronic Asthma

Authors: masoud Nikbakht, Mohsen Ghanbarzadeh, Somayeh Negahdari, Heshmatolah Tavakol


Asthma, obesity and overweight are the main factors causing change within the heart and respiratory airways. Asthma symptoms are normally observed during exercising. Epidemiological studies have indicated asthma symptoms occurring due to certain lifestyle habits; for example, a sedentary lifestyle. In this study, eight weeks of aerobic exercises resulted in a positive effect overall in overweight women experiencing mild chronic asthma. The quasi-experimental applied research has been done based on experimental and control groups. The experimental group (seven patients) and control group (n = 7) were graded before and after the test. According to the Borg dyspnea and fatigue Perception Index, the training intensity has determined. Participants in the study performed a sub-maximal aerobic activity schedule (45% to 80% of maximum heart rate) for two months, while the control group (n = 7) stayed away from aerobic exercise. Data evaluation and analysis of covariance compared both the pre-test and post-test with paired t-test at significance level of P≤ 0.05. After eight weeks of exercise, the results of the experimental group show a significant decrease in resting heart rate, systolic blood pressure, minute ventilation, while a significant increase in maximal oxygen uptake and tolerance activity (P ≤ 0.05). In the control group, there was no significant difference in these parameters ((P ≤ 0.05). The results indicate the aerobic activity can strengthen the respiratory muscles, while other physiological factors could result in breathing and heart recovery. Aerobic activity also resulted in favorable changes in cardiovascular parameters, and exercise tolerance of overweight women with chronic asthma.

Keywords: Asthma, Overweight, Exercise Tolerance, aerobic, respiratory cardiac index

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10 The Effect of Acute Aerobic Exercise after Consumption of Four Different Diets on Serum Levels Irisin, Insulin and Glucose in Overweight Men

Authors: Abdolhamid Habibi, Majid Mardaniyan Ghahfarokhi, Majid Mohammad Shahi


The combination of exercise and diet as the most important strategy to reduce weight and control obesity-related factors, including Irisin, Insulin, and Glucose was raised. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of aerobic exercise combined with four different diets on serum levels of Irisin, Insulin, and Glucose in overweight men. Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 8 overweight men (BMI 29.23±0.47) with average age of (23±1.6) voluntarily participated in 4 sessions by one-week interval. The study was done in exercise physiology lab. In each session, subjects performed a 30 minutes treadmill test with 60-70% of maximum heart rate, after consuming a high carbohydrate, high-fat, high-protein and normal diet. For biochemical measurement, three blood samples were taken in fasting state, two hours after meals and after exercise Results: Statistical analysis of data showed that the serum levels of Irisin after consumption all four diets had been reduced which this reduce as a result of high-fat diet that were significantly (p ≤ 0/038). Serum concentration of Insulin and Glucose increased after consuming four diets. However, increase in serum Insulin and Glucose was significant only after consuming high-carbohydrate diet (Respectively p ≤ 0/001, p ≤ 0/042). In addition, during exercise after consuming all four regular diet, high carbohydrate, high-protein and high-fat, Irisin significant increased significantly (Respectively p ≤ 0/021, p ≤ 0/049, p ≤ 0/001, P ≤ 0/003), Insulin decreased significantly (Respectively p ≤ 0/002, p ≤ 0/001, p ≤ 0/001, p ≤ 0/002) and Glucose were significantly reduced (Respectively p ≤ 0/001, p ≤ 0/001, P ≤ 0/001, p ≤ 0/002). After aerobic activity following the consumption of a high protein diet the highest increase in irisin levels, and after aerobic exercise following consumption of high carbohydrate diet the greatest decrease in insulin and glucose levels were observed. Conclusion: It seems that diet alone and exercises following different consumption diets can have a significant effect on Irisin, Insulin, and Glucose serum levels in overweight young men.

Keywords: Overweight, diet, acute aerobic exercise, irisin

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9 Obesity and Cancer: Current Scientific Evidence and Policy Implications

Authors: Martin Wiseman, Rachel Thompson, Panagiota Mitrou, Kate Allen


Since 1997 World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) International and the American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) have been at the forefront of synthesising and interpreting the accumulated scientific literature on the link between diet, nutrition, physical activity and cancer, and deriving evidence-based Cancer Prevention Recommendations. The 2007 WCRF/AICR 2nd Expert Report was a landmark in the analysis of evidence linking diet, body weight and physical activity to cancer and led to the establishment of the Continuous Update Project (CUP). In 2018, as part of the CUP, WCRF/AICR will publish a new synthesis of the current evidence and update the Cancer Prevention Recommendations. This will ensure that everyone - from policymakers and health professionals to members of the public - has access to the most up-to-date information on how to reduce the risk of developing cancer. Overweight and obesity play a significant role in cancer risk, and rates of both are increasing in many parts of the world. This session will give an overview of new evidence relating obesity to cancer since the 2007 report. For example, since the 2007 Report, the number of cancers for which obesity is judged to be a contributory cause has increased from seven to eleven. The session will also shed light on the well-established mechanisms underpinning obesity and cancer links. Additionally, the session will provide an overview of diet and physical activity related factors that promote positive energy imbalance, leading to overweight and obesity. Finally, the session will highlight how policy can be used to address overweight and obesity at a population level, using WCRF International’s NOURISHING Framework. NOURISHING formalises a comprehensive package of policies to promote healthy diets and reduce obesity and non-communicable diseases; it is a tool for policymakers to identify where action is needed and assess if an approach is sufficiently comprehensive. The framework brings together ten policy areas across three domains: food environment, food system, and behaviour change communication. The framework is accompanied by a regularly updated database providing an extensive overview of implemented government policy actions from around the world. In conclusion, the session will provide an overview of obesity and cancer, highlighting the links seen in the epidemiology and exploring the mechanisms underpinning these, as well as the influences that help determine overweight and obesity. Finally, the session will illustrate policy approaches that can be taken to reduce overweight and obesity worldwide.

Keywords: Cancer, Nutrition, Obesity, Mechanisms, Policy, Overweight

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8 Physical Fitness Normative Reference Values among Lithuanian Primary School Students: Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Arunas Emeljanovas, Brigita Mieziene, Vida Cesnaitiene, Ingunn Fjortoft, Lise Kjonniksen


Background. Health-related physical fitness refers to the favorable health status, i.e. ability to perform daily activities with vigor, as well as capacities that are associated with a low risk for development of chronic diseases and premature death. However, in school-aged children it is constantly declining, while some aspects of fitness declined as much as 50 percent during the last two decades, which prognosticates increasingly earlier onset of health problems, decreasing the quality of life of the population and financial burden for the society. Therefore, the goal of the current study was to indicate nationally representative age- and gender-specific reference values of anthropometric measures, musculoskeletal, motor and cardiorespiratory fitness in Lithuanian primary school children from 6 to 10 years. Methods. The study included 3556 students in total, from 73 randomly selected schools. Ethics approval for research by the Kaunas Regional Ethics Committee (No. BE-2-42) was obtained. Physical fitness was measured by the 9-item test battery, developed by Fjørtoft and colleagues. Height and weight were measured and body mass index calculated. Smoothed centile charts were derived using the LMS method. Results. The numerical age- and gender-specific percentile values (3rd, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 97th percentile) for anthropometric measures, musculoskeletal, motor and cardiorespiratory fitness were provided. The equivalent smoothed LMS curves were performed. The study indicated 12.5 percent of overweight and 5 percent of obese children in accordance with international gender and age specific norms of body mass index. This data could be used in clinical and educational settings in order to identify the level of individual physical fitness within its different components.

Keywords: Overweight, Fitness, primary school children, reference values, smoothed percentile curves

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7 Effects of Continuous and Periodic Aerobic Exercises on C Reactive Protein in Overweight Women

Authors: Mohammad Sajadian, Maesoomeh Khorshidi Mehr, Shadi Alipour


The purpose of the present study was to compare the effects of eight weeks of continuous and periodic aerobic exercises on serum levels of CRP in overweight woman. 36 woman aged between 20 and 35 years from the city of Ahwaz were randomly selected as the sample of the study. This sample was further divided into three groups (n= 12) of continuous aerobic exercise, periodic aerobic exercise, and control. Subjects of the groups of continuous and periodic aerobic exercise participated in 8 weeks of specialized exercises while the control group subjects did not take part in any regular physical activity program. Blood samples were collected from subjects in 24 hours prior to and 48 hours past to the intervention period. Afterwards, the serum level of CRP was measured for each blood sample. Results showed that BMI and serum level of CRP both significantly reduced as a result of aerobic exercises. However, no statistically significant difference was recorded between the extent of effects of the former and latter aerobic exercise types. Eight weeks of aerobic exercise will probably result in reduced inflammation and cardiovascular diseases risk in overweight women. The reason for lack of difference between effects of continuous and periodic aerobic exercise may lie in the similarity of average intensity and length of physical administered activities.

Keywords: Overweight, Inflammation, heart diseases, Aerobic Exercise, CRP

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6 The Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity among Adolescents in Public and Private Schools in Two Senatorial Districts of Osun State, Nigeria

Authors: O. Akinola, R. Mustapha


Obesity is the most serious long-term health problem currently facing adolescents and its prevalence increasing worldwide including developing countries. A cross-sectional study was carried out among age 11-19 years in both public and private school in the urban area of the state. The data was collected using pretest self-administered questionnaire; Anthropometric measurement was also used to examine their nutritional status. Obesity status were determined using BMI cut off point, the overweight was found to be 3.06% among female and 0.6% among male whereas the prevalence of obesity was 0.46% in female and non among male. 62.6% snack daily, fruit consumption pattern was low 0.6%, and 43.7% spend between 4-5 hours watching television daily after school. A positive association exists between the lifestyle and nutritional status of the respondents. Education effort to improve nutrition knowledge can be incorporated into course curriculum and focus on various components within the system when implementing preventive measure on obesity.

Keywords: Obesity, Overweight, Adolescent, Prevalence

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5 A Longitudinal Study on the Relationship between Physical Activity and Gestational Weight Gain

Authors: Chia-Ching Sun, Li-Yin Chien, Chun-Ting Hsiao


Background: Appropriate gestation weight gain benefits pregnant women and their children; however, excessive weight gain could raise the risk of adverse health outcomes and chronicle diseases. Nevertheless, there is currently limited evidence on the effect of physical activities on pregnant women’s gestational weight gain. Purpose: This study aimed to explore the correlation between the level of physical activity and gestation weight gain during the second and third trimester of pregnancy. Methods: This longitudinal study enrolled 800 healthy pregnant women aged over 20 from six hospitals in northern Taiwan. Structured questionnaires were used to collect data twice for each participant during 14-27 and 28-40 weeks of gestation. Variables included demographic data, maternal health history, and lifestyle. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire-short form was used to measure the level of physical activity from walking and of moderate-intensity and vigorous-intensity before and during pregnancy. Weight recorded at prenatal checkups were used to calculate average weight gain in each trimester of pregnancy. T-tests, ANOVA, chi-squared tests, and multivariable logistic regression models were applied to determine the predicting factors for weight gain during the second and third trimester. Result: Participants who had achieved recommended physical activity level (150 minutes of moderate physical activity or 75 minutes of vigorous physical activity a week) before pregnancy (aOR=1.85, 95% CI=1.27-2.67) or who achieved recommended walking level (150 minutes a week) during the second trimester of pregnancy (aOR=1.43, 95% CI= 1.00-2.04) gained significantly more weight during the second trimester. Compared with those who did not reach recommended level of moderate-intensity physical activity (150 minutes a week), women who had reached that during the second trimester were more likely to be in the less than recommended weight gain group than in the recommended weight gain group (aOR=2.06, CI=1.06-4.00). However, there was no significant correlation between physical activity level and weight gain in the third trimester. Other predicting factors of excessive weight gain included education level which showed a negative correlation (aOR=0.38, CI=0.17-0.88), whereas overweight and obesity before pregnancy showed a positive correlation (OR=3.97, CI=1.23-12.78). Conclusions/implications for practice: Participants who had achieved recommended physical activity level before pregnancy significantly reduced exercise during pregnancy and gained excessive weight during the second trimester. However, women who engaged in the practice of physical activity as recommended could effectively control weight gain in the third trimester. Healthcare professionals could suggest that pregnant women who exercise maintain their pre-pregnancy level of physical activity, given activities requiring physical contact or causing falls are avoided. For those who do not exercise, health professionals should encourage them to gradually increase the level of physical activity. Health promotion strategies related to weight control and physical activity level achievement should be given to women before pregnancy.

Keywords: Physical Activity, Obesity, Overweight, pregnant woman, gestation weight gain

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4 Causes and Implications of Obesity in Urban School Going Children

Authors: Mohammad Amjad, Muhammad Iqbal Zafar, Ashfaq Ahmed Maan, Muhammad Tayyab Kashif


Obesity is an abnormal physical condition where an increased and undesirable fat accumulates in the human body. Obesity is an international phenomenon. In the present study, 12 schools were randomly selected from each district considering the areas i.e. Elite Private Schools in the private sector, Government schools in urban areas and Government schools in rural areas. Interviews were conducted with male students studying in grade 5 to grade 9 in each school. The sample size was 600 students; 300 from Faisalabad district and 300 from Rawalpindi district in Pakistan. A well-structured and pre-tested questionnaire was used for data collection. The calibrated scales were used to attain the heights and weights of the respondents. Obesity of school-going children depends on family types, family size, family history, junk food consumption, mother’s education, weekly time spent in walking, and sports facility at school levels. Academic performance, physical health and psychological health of school going children are affected with obesity. Concrete steps and policies could minimize the incidence of obesity in children in Pakistan.

Keywords: Overweight, Cardiovascular Disease, morbidity, body mass index, fast food

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3 Effect of Vitamin D3 on Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Prognosis, Anthropometric and Body Composition Parameters of Overweight Women: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

Authors: Nahla Al-Bayyari, Rae’d Hailat


Vitamin D deficiency and overweight are common in women suffering from polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Weight gain in PCOS is an important factor for the development of menstrual dysfunction and signs of hyperandrogenism and alopecia. Features of PCOS such as oligomenorrhea can be predicted by anthropometric measurements as body mass index (BMI). Therefore, the aim of this trial was to study the effect of 50,000 IU/week of vitamin D₃ supplementation on the body composition and on the anthropometric measurements of overweight women with PCOS and to examine the impact of this effect on ovaries ultrasonography and menstrual cycle regularity. The study design was a prospective randomized, double-blinded placebo-controlled clinical trial conducted on 60 overweight Jordanian women aged (18-49) years with PCOS and vitamin D deficiency. The study participants were divided into two groups; vitamin D group (n = 30) who were assigned to receive 50,000 IU/week of vitamin D₃ and placebo group (n = 30) who were assigned to receive placebo tablets orally for 90 days. The anthropometric measurements and body composition were measured at baseline and after treatment for the PCOS and vitamin D deficient women. Also, assessment of the participants’ picture of ovaries by ultrasound and menstrual cycle regulatory were performed before and after treatment. Results showed that there were no significant (p > 0.05) differences between the placebo and vitamin D group basal 25(OH)D levels, body composition and anthropometric parameters. After treatment, vitamin D group serum levels of 25(OH)D increased (12.5 ± 0.61 to 50.2 ± 2.04 ng/mL, (p < 0.001), and decreased (50.2 ± 2.04 to 48.2 ± 2.03 ng/mL, p < 0.001) after 14 days of vitamin D₃ treatment cessation. There were no significant changes in the placebo group. In the vitamin D group, there were significant (p < 0.001) decreases in body weight, BMI, waist, and hip circumferences and fat mass. In addition, there were significant increases (p < 0.05) in fat free mass and total body water. These improvements in both anthropometric and body composition as well as in 25(OH)D concentrations, resulted in significant improvements in the picture of PCOS women ovaries ultrasonography and in menstrual cycle regularity, where nearly most of them (93%) had regular cycles after vitamin D₃ supplementation. In the placebo group, there were only significant decreases (p < 0.05) in waist and hip circumferences. It can be concluded that vitamin D supplementation improving serum 25(OH)D levels and PCOS prognosis by reducing body weight of overweight PCOS women and regulating their menstrual cycle.

Keywords: Overweight, Polycystic ovary syndrome, anthropometric, vitamin D3

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2 Obesity and Bone Mineral Density in Patients with Large Joint Osteoarthritis

Authors: Vladyslav Povoroznyuk, Anna Musiienko, Roksolana Povoroznyuk, Nataliia Zaverukha


Along with the global aging of the population, the number of people with somatic diseases is increasing, including such interrelated pathologies as obesity, osteoarthritis (OA), and osteoporosis (OP). The objective of the study is to examine the connection between body mass index (BMI), OA, and body mass density (BMD) of the lumbar spine, femoral neck, and TBS in postmenopausal women with OA. We have observed 359 postmenopausal women (50-89 years old) and divided them into four groups by age decades: 50-59 yrs, 60-69 yrs, 70-79 yrs, and over 80 years old. In addition, according to the ACR clinical classification criteria for knee and hip OA, we divided them into group I –117 females with symptomatic osteoarthritis (including 89 patients with knee OA, 28 patients with hip OA) and group II –242 women with normal functional activity of large joints. Analysis of data was performed, taking into account their BMI, classified by the World Health Organization (WHO). The diagnosis of obesity was established when BMI was above 30 kg/m². In a woman with obesity, a symptomatic OA was detected in 44 postmenopausal women (41.1%), a normal functional activity of large joints -in 63 women (58.9%). However, in women with normal BMI –73 women, who account for 29.0% of cases, a symptomatic OA was detected. According to a chi-squared (χ²) test, a significantly higher level of BMI was detected in postmenopausal women with OA (χ²=5.05, p=0.02). Women with a symptomatic OA had a significantly higher BMD of lumbar spine compared with women who had a normal functional activity of large joints. No significant differences of BMD of femoral necks or TBS were detected in either the group with OA or with the normal functional activity of large joints.

Keywords: Obesity, Osteoarthritis, Overweight, body mass index, bone mineral density, postmenopausal women

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1 Barriers and Challenges to a Healthy Lifestyle for Postpartum Women and the Possibilities in an Information Technology-Based Intervention: A Qualitative Study

Authors: Pernille K. Christiansen, Mette Maria Skjøth, Line Lorenzen, Eva Draborg, Christina Anne Vinter, Trine Kjær, Mette Juel Rothmann


Background and aims: Overweight and obesity are an increasing challenge on a global level. In Denmark, more than one-third of all pregnant women are overweight or obese, and many women exceed the gestational weight gain recommendations from the Institute of Medicine. Being overweight or obese, is associated with a higher risk of adverse maternal and fetal outcomes, including gestational diabetes and childhood obesity. Thus, it is important to focus on the women’s lifestyles between their pregnancies to lower the risk of gestational weight retention in the long run. The objective of this study was to explorer what barriers and challenges postpartum women experience with respect to healthy lifestyles during the postpartum period and to access whether an Information Technology based intervention might be a supportive tool to assist and motivate postpartum women to a healthy lifestyle. Materials and methods: The method is inspired by participatory design. A systematic text condensation was applied to semi-structured focus groups. Five focus group interviews were carried out with a total of 17 postpartum women and two interviews with a total of six health professionals. Participants were recruited through the municipality in Svendborg, Denmark, and at Odense University Hospital in Odense, Denmark, during a four-month period in early 2018. Results: From the women’s perspective, better assistance is needed from the health professionals to obtain or maintain a healthy lifestyle. The women need tools that inform and help them understand and prioritise their own health-related risks, and to motivate them to plan and take care of their own health. As the women use Information Technology on a daily basis, the solution could be delivered through Information Technology. Finally, there is room for engaging the partner more in the communication related to the baby and family’s lifestyle. Conclusion: Postpartum women need tools that inform and motivate a healthy lifestyle postpartum. The tools should allow access to high-quality information from health care professionals, when the information is needed, and also allow engagement from the partner. Finally, Information Technology is a potential tool for delivering tools.

Keywords: Information Technology, Overweight, Lifestyle, Postpartum

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