Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

outdoor Related Abstracts

4 Airborne Particulate Matter Passive Samplers for Indoor and Outdoor Exposure Monitoring: Development and Evaluation

Authors: Kholoud Abdulaziz, Kholoud Al-Najdi, Abdullah Kadri, Konstantinos E. Kakosimos


The Middle East area is highly affected by air pollution induced by anthropogenic and natural phenomena. There is evidence that air pollution, especially particulates, greatly affects the population health. Many studies have raised a warning of the high concentration of particulates and their affect not just around industrial and construction areas but also in the immediate working and living environment. One of the methods to study air quality is continuous and periodic monitoring using active or passive samplers. Active monitoring and sampling are the default procedures per the European and US standards. However, in many cases they have been inefficient to accurately capture the spatial variability of air pollution due to the small number of installations; which eventually is attributed to the high cost of the equipment and the limited availability of users with expertise and scientific background. Another alternative has been found to account for the limitations of the active methods that is the passive sampling. It is inexpensive, requires no continuous power supply, and easy to assemble which makes it a more flexible option, though less accurate. This study aims to investigate and evaluate the use of passive sampling for particulate matter pollution monitoring in dry tropical climates, like in the Middle East. More specifically, a number of field measurements have be conducted, both indoors and outdoors, at Qatar and the results have been compared with active sampling equipment and the reference methods. The samples have been analyzed, that is to obtain particle size distribution, by applying existing laboratory techniques (optical microscopy) and by exploring new approaches like the white light interferometry to. Then the new parameters of the well-established model have been calculated in order to estimate the atmospheric concentration of particulates. Additionally, an extended literature review will investigate for new and better models. The outcome of this project is expected to have an impact on the public, as well, as it will raise awareness among people about the quality of life and about the importance of implementing research culture in the community.

Keywords: Air Pollution, Interferometry, passive samplers, indoor, outdoor

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3 Indoor and Outdoor Health Risk Factors as a Result of Smoke Emission in Developing Countries: a Case of Nigeria

Authors: Beatrice Adeoye


Background: One of the health challenges developing countries face is air pollution from indoor and outdoor activities. Smoke as a result of cooking, burning wastes and power generators litter the air space on a continual basis due to poverty and governance challenges. The short and long term implications of these actions are enormous and studies have attributed smoke as one of the leading preventable risk factors contributing to global burden of respiratory infections. Design/Methods: The issue at hand therefore includes an exploration of the existing policy frameworks regarding smoke, adherence to international conventions and practices, and more importantly the activities of the government in addressing these issues. Aside this, an understanding of the implications of smoke on peoples’ health and well-being also become crucial. Consequently, this article seeks to interrogate the effect of smoke on the health and well-being of Nigerians and the activities of the policy makers in addressing these challenges. Results (Main Argument): This study reviewed both primary and secondary data on poverty, smoke emission and attendant health risks coupled with existing policies on smoke and air pollution in the country. For instance, over 69% of Nigerians are poor, ranking third in the world; 2.9 billion people live in homes using wood, coal or dung as their primary cooking fuel; equally, 50.6% of Nigerians has no access to regular electricity supply. Further, sustainable policy regarding smoke emission is lacking in the country. This work further submitted that continued low standard of living as a result of governance challenges coupled with a lack of sustainable policy have aggravated the health risks related to smoke in the country. Conclusions: The implication on the health of the children, mothers and vulnerable groups for the future of the country is enormous and may continue if not addressed. Urgent attention therefore needs to be focused on this area considering what this portends for the nation now and in the future.

Keywords: Air Pollution, Respiratory infections, indoor, outdoor

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2 Environmental Awareness on Formal Education Level: A Program Approach through Physical Education Course

Authors: Jocelyn Floresca


This paper aimed to present the by-product of the introduction of environmental ecology awareness on a formal education level utilizing the program course of Physical Education, particularly in the tertiary level. It is based on the premise that the radical need for environmental protection may not only necessarily be the work of people in the pure sciences but also deemed necessary to look into more avenues of the school setting particularly in the field of Physical Education. In the Philippines, most schools’ Physical Education focuses on the advancement of sports, fitness and wellness which are mostly done in the confines of a closed building. The paper dwells into the introduction of Physical Education as an outdoor recreation activity where in the participants of the study had the opportunity to indulge in activities undertaken outside the confines of buildings and going into large areas of the environment. It looked into the individual participant’s environmental social behaviour and effects on the participant’s perceptions in terms of the set objectives of Physical Education before and after the study’s intervention. The study utilized the formal course in Physical Education on nature walks, mountaineering and bird watching as interventions to gain perceptions and understanding. The introduction of the environmental ecology activities as a formal Physical Education course has resulted in deeper awareness that led to understanding the need to protect the environment, appreciation of the value of natural areas and acquiring behaviour for a sustainable use of the environment during the practice of Physical Education. Also, prior to the introduction of environmental ecology in Physical Education as a formal study; participants have no knowledge of what dwells in the identified sites of intervention. Whereas after the study, participants were able to identify various species of birds and plants found in the sites of the study that may lead to further conservation of the particular species.

Keywords: Conservation, outdoor, appreciation, environmental ecology

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1 A Survey to Determine the Incidence of Piglets' Mortality in Outdoor Farms in New Zealand

Authors: Patrick C. H. Morel, Ian W. Barugh, Kirsty L. Chidgey


The aim of this study was to quantify the level of piglet deaths in outdoor farrowing systems in New Zealand. A total of 14 farms were visited, the farmers interviewed, and data collected. A total of 10,154 sows were kept on those farms representing an estimated 33% of the NZ sow herd or 80% of the outdoor sow herd in 2016. Data from 25,911 litters was available for the different analyses. The characteristics and reproductive performance for the years 2015-2016 from the 14 farms surveyed in this study were analysed, and the following results were obtained. The average percentage of stillbirths was 7.1% ranging between 3.5 and 10.7%, and the average pre-weaning live-born mortality was 16.7% ranging between 3.7% and 23.6%. The majority of piglet deaths (89%) occurred during the first week after birth, with 81% of deaths occurring up to day three. The number of piglets born alive was 12.3 (8.0 to 14.0), and average number of piglets weaned per sow per year was 22.4, range 10.5-27.3. The average stocking rate per ha (number of sows and mated gilts) was 15.3 and ranged from 2.8 to 28.6. The sow to boar ratio average was 20.9:1 and the range was 7.1: 1 to 63:1. The sow replacement rate ranged between 37% and 78%. There was a large variation in the piglet live-born mortality both between months within a farm and between farms within a given month. The monthly recorded piglet mortality ranged between 7.7% and 31.5%, and there was no statistically significant difference between months on the number of piglets born, born alive, weaned or on pre-weaning piglet mortality. Twelve different types of hut/farrowing systems were used on the 14 farms. No difference in piglet mortality was observed between A-Frame, A-Frame Modified and for Box-shape huts. There was a positive relationship between the average number of piglets born per litter and the number of piglets born alive (r=0.975) or the number weaned per litter (r=0.845). Moreover, as the average number of piglets born-alive increases, both pre-weaning live-born mortality rate and the number of piglets weaned increased. An increase of 1 piglet in the number born alive corresponds to an increase of 2.9% in live-born mortality and an increase of 0.56 piglets weaned. Farmers reported that staff are the key to success with the key attributes being: good and reliable with attention to detail and skills with the stock.

Keywords: Mortality, outdoor, pig farm, piglets

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