Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

outcome Related Abstracts

13 Clinical Profile and Outcome of Type I Diabetes Mellitus at a Tertiary Care-Centre in Eastern Nepal

Authors: Gauri Shankar Shah

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Objectives: The Type I diabetes mellitus in children is frequently a missed diagnosis and children presents in emergency with diabetic ketoacidosis having significant morbidity and mortality. The present study was done to find out the clinical presentation and outcome at a tertiary-care centre. Methods: This was retrospective analysis of data of Type I diabetes mellitus reporting to our centre during last one year (2012-2013). Results: There were 12 patients (8 males) and the age group was 4-14 years (mean ± 3.7). The presenting symptoms were fever, vomiting, altered sensorium and fast breathing in 8 (66.6%), 6 (50%), 4 (33.3%), and 4 (33.3%) cases, respectively. The classical triad of polyuria, polydypsia, and polyphagia were present only in two patients (33.2%). Seizures and epigastric pain were found in two cases each (33.2%). The four cases (33.3%) presented with diabetic ketoacidosis due to discontinuation of insulin doses, while 2 had hyperglycemia alone. The hemogram revealed mean hemoglobin of 12.1± 1.6 g/dL and total leukocyte count was 22,883.3 ± 10,345.9 per mm3, with polymorphs percentage of 73.1 ± 9.0%. The mean blood sugar at presentation was 740 ± 277 mg/ dl (544–1240). HbA1c ranged between 7.1-8.8 with mean of 8.1±0.6 %. The mean sodium, potassium, blood ph, pCO2, pO2 and bicarbonate were 140.8 ± 6.9 mEq/L, 4.4 ± 1.8mEq/L, 7.0 ± 0.2, 20.2 ± 10.8 mmHg, 112.6 ± 46.5 mmHg and 9.2 ± 8.8 mEq/L, respectively. All the patients were managed in pediatric intensive care unit as per our protocol, recovered and discharged on intermediate insulin given twice daily. Conclusions: Thus, it shows that these patients have uncontrolled hyperglycemia and often presents in emergency with ketoacidosis and deranged biochemical profile. The regular administration of insulin, frequent monitoring of blood sugar and health education are required to have better metabolic control and good quality of life.

Keywords: glycemic control, type I diabetes mellitus, hyperglycemia, outcome

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12 Soccer Match Result Prediction System (SMRPS) Model

Authors: Ajayi Olusola Olajide, Alonge Olaide Moses

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Predicting the outcome of soccer matches poses an interesting challenge for which it is realistically impossible to successfully do so for every match. Despite this, there are lots of resources that are being expended on the correct prediction of soccer matches weekly, and all over the world. Soccer Match Result Prediction System Model (SMRPSM) is a system that is proposed whereby the results of matches between two soccer teams are auto-generated, with the added excitement of giving users a chance to test their predictive abilities. Soccer teams from different league football are loaded by the application, with each team’s corresponding manager and other information like team location, team logo and nickname. The user is also allowed to interact with the system by selecting the match to be predicted and viewing of the results of completed matches after registering/logging in.

Keywords: System, Predicting, model, outcome, soccer match, soccer, matches, result prediction

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11 Long-Term Outcome of Emergency Response Team System in In-Hospital Cardiac Arrest

Authors: Jirapat Suriyachaisawat, Ekkit Surakarn

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Introduction: To improve early detection and mortality rate of in-hospital cardiac arrest, Emergency Response Team (ERT) system was planned and implemented since June 2009 to detect pre-arrest conditons and for any concerns. The ERT consisted of on duty physicians and nurses from emergency department. ERT calling criteria consisted of acute change of HR < 40 or > 130 beats per minute, systolic blood pressure < 90 mmHg, respiratory rate <8 or >28 breaths per minute, O2 saturation <90%, acute change in conscious state, acute chest pain or worry about the patients. From the data on ERT system implementation in our hospital in early phase (during June 2009-2011), there was no statistic significance in difference in in-hospital cardiac arrest incidence and overall hospital mortality rate. Since the introduction of the ERT service in our hospital, we have conducted continuous educational campaign to improve awareness in an attempt to increase use of the service. Methods: To investigate outcome of ERT system in in-hospital cardiac arrest and overall hospital mortality rate, we conducted a prospective, controlled before-and after examination of the long term effect of a ERT system on the incidence of cardiac arrest. We performed chi-square analysis to find statistic significance. Results: Of a total 623 ERT cases from June 2009 until December 2012, there were 72 calls in 2009, 196 calls in 2010, 139 calls in 2011 and 245 calls in 2012. The number of ERT calls per 1000 admissions in year 2009-10 was 7.69; 5.61 in 2011 and 9.38 in 2013. The number of code blue calls per 1000 admissions decreased significantly from 2.28 to 0.99 per 1000 admissions (P value < 0.001). The incidence of cardiac arrest decreased progressively from 1.19 to 0.34 per 1000 admissions and significant in difference in year 2012 (P value < 0.001 ). The overall hospital mortality rate decreased by 8 % from 15.43 to 14.43 per 1000 admissions (P value 0.095). Conclusions: ERT system implementation was associated with progressive reduction in cardiac arrests over three year period, especially statistic significant in difference in 4th year after implementation. We also found an inverse association between number of ERT use and the risk of occurrence of cardiac arrests, but we have not found difference in overall hospital mortality rate.

Keywords: Cardiac Arrest, ERT, outcome, in-hospital

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10 Injury Characteristics and Outcome of Road Traffic Accident among Victims at Adult Emergency Department of Tikur Anbesa Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Authors: Engida Yisma, Mohammed Seid, Aklilu Azazh, Fikre Enquselassie

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Background: Road traffic injuries are the eighth leading cause of death globally, and the leading cause of death for young people. More than a million people die each year on the world’s roads, and the risk of dying as a result of a road traffic injury is highest in the Africa. Methods: A prospective hospital-based study was undertaken to assess injury characteristics and outcome of road traffic accident among victims at Adult Emergency Department of Tikur Anbesa specialized hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A structured pre-tested questionnaire was used to gather the required data. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Results: A total of 230 road traffic accident victims were studied. The majority of the study subjects were men 165 (71.7%) and the male/female ratio was 2.6:1. The victims’ ages ranged from 14 to 80 years with the mean and standard deviations of 32.15 and ± 14.38 years respectively. Daily laborers (95 (41.3%)) and students (28 (12.2%)) were the majority of road traffic accident victims. Long-distance travelling Minibus (16.5%) was responsible for the majority of road traffic crash followed by followed by Taxi (14.8%) and pedestrians (62.6%) accounted for the majority of road traffic accident. Head (50.4%) and musculoskeletal (extremities) (47.0%) were the most common body region injured. Fractures (78.0%) and open wounds (56.5%) were the most common type of injuries sustained. Treatment of fracture was the most common procedure performed in 57.7 % of the victims. The overall length of hospital stay (LOS) ranged from 1 day to 61 days with mean (± standard deviation) of 7.12 ± 10.5 days and the mortality rate was 7.4 %. A significant higher proportion of victims aged 14-55 years were had less likelihood of death compared to those victims aged more than 55 years of age [Adjusted OR = 0.1 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.82)]. Conclusions: This study showed diverse injury characteristics and high morbidity and mortality among the victims attending Adult Emergency Department of Tikur Anbesa specialized hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The findings reflect that road traffic accident is a major public health problem. Urgent road traffic accident preventive measures and prompt treatment of the victims are warranted in order to reduce morbidity and mortality among the victims.

Keywords: Ethiopia, outcome, Addis Ababa, road traffic accident, injury characteristics, Tikur Anbesa specialized hospital

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9 Outcomes in New-Onset Diabetic Foot Ulcers Stratified by Etiology

Authors: Pedro Gomes, Lia Ferreira, Sofia Garcia, Jaime Babulal, Luís Costa, Luís Castelo, José Muras, Isabel Gonçalves, Rui Carvalho

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Introduction: Foot ulcers and their complications are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetes. Objectives: The present study aims to evaluate the outcomes in terms of need for hospitalization, amputation, healing time and mortality in patients with new-onset diabetic foot ulcers in subgroups stratified by etiology. Methods: A retrospective study based on clinical assessment of patients presenting with new ulcers to a multidisciplinary diabetic foot consult during 2012. Outcomes were determined until September 2014, from hospital registers. Baseline clinical examination was done to classify ulcers as neuropathic, ischemic or neuroischemic. Results: 487 patients with new diabetic foot ulcers were observed; 36%, 15% and 49% of patients had neuropathic, ischemic and neuroischemic ulcers, respectively. For analysis, patients were classified as having predominantly neuropathic (36%) or ischemic foot (64%). The mean age was significantly higher in the group with ischemic foot (70±12 vs 63±12 years; p <0.001), as well as the duration of diabetes (18±10 vs 16 ± 10years, p <0.05). A history of previous amputation was also significantly higher in this group (24.7% vs 15.6%, p <0.05). The evolution of ischemic ulcers was significantly worse, with a greater need for hospitalization (27.2% vs 18%, p <0.05), amputation (11.5% vs 3.6% p <0.05) mainly major amputation (3% vs. 0%; p <0.001) and higher mean healing time (151 days vs 89 days, p <0.05). The mortality rate at 18 months, was also significantly higher in the ischemic foot group (7.3% vs 1.8%, p <0.05). Conclusions: All types of diabetic foot ulcers are associated with high morbidity and mortality, however, the presence of arterial disease confers a poor prognosis. Diabetic foot can be successfully treated only by the multidisciplinary team which can provide more comprehensive and integrated care.

Keywords: Diabetes, Etiology, outcome, foot ulcers

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8 Serum Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor is a Potent Stimulator of Hematopoeitic Progenitor Cells Mobilization in Trauma Hemorrhagic Shock

Authors: Sujata MOHANTY, Manoj Kumar, D. N. Rao, Arul Selvi, Sanjeev K. Bhoi

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Background: Hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC) mobilized from bone marrow to peripheral blood has been observed in severe trauma and hemorrhagic shock patients. Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) is a potent stimulator that mobilized HPC from bone marrow to peripheral blood. Objective: Our aim of the study was to investigate the serum G-CSF levels and correlate with HPC and outcome. Methods: Peripheral blood sample from 50 hemorrhagic shock patients was collected on arrival for determination of G-CSF and peripheral blood HPC (PBHPC) and compared with healthy control (n=15). Determination of serum levels of G-CSF by sandwich ELISA and PBHPC by Sysmex XE-2100. Data were categorized by age, sex, Injury Severity Score (ISS), and laboratory data was prospectively collected. Data are expressed as mean±SD and median (min, max). Results: Significantly increased the serum level of G-CSF (264.8 vs. 79.1 pg/ml) and peripheral blood HPC (0.1 vs. 0.01 %) in the T/HS patients when compared with control group. Conclusions: Our studies suggest serum G-CSF elevated in T/HS patients. The elevated in G-CSF was also associated with mobilization of HPC from BM to peripheral blood HPC. Increased the levels of G-CSF in T/HS may play a significant role in the alteration of the hematopoietic compartment.

Keywords: HPC, outcome, granulocyte colony stimulating factor, G-CSF, hematopoietic progenitor cells, trauma hemorrhagic shock, T/HS

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7 Maternal Health Care Utilization and Its Effect on Pregnancy Outcome in Nepal

Authors: Adrita Banerjee, Ajeet Kumar Singh

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Antenatal care (ANC) from a skilled provider is important to monitor the pregnancy and reduce the risk of morbidity for mother and baby during pregnancy and delivery. The quality of antenatal care can be monitored through the content of services received and the kind of information mothers are given during their visit. Objective: The paper tries to examine the association between ANC check-ups and size/ birth weight. It also focuses on investigating the relationship between utilization of recommended prenatal care for mothers and its effect on infant survival in Nepal. Data and methods: This paper uses data from Nepal demographic Health Survey 2011. To understand the relationship bi-variate statistical analysis and logistic regressions has been done. Maternal health care utilization include ANC check-ups i.e. the type of ante-natal care providers, the number and timing of the visit. The various components of the check-ups include intake of iron tablets/syrups, intestinal parasitic drugs, etc. Results: The results show that women who had no antenatal care visits about 40% had small sized babies at the time of birth compared to women to had at least 3 ANC check up. Women who had at least 3 check-ups 17% of the babies have a small size. It has also been found that about 50 % of the women prefer ANC check-ups during pregnancies which have resulted in lowering the infant mortality by about 40% during 1996-2011. Conclusion: Ante natal care check is care and monitoring of the pregnant woman and her foetus throughout pregnancy. ANC checks have an effect on the infant health and child survival. A woman who had at least three check-ups the possibilities of adverse effect on infant health and infant survival was significantly lower. The findings argue for a more enhanced focus on ANC check-ups for improving the maternal and child health in Nepal.

Keywords: Health, pregnancy, Maternal, outcome

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6 Maternal-Fetal Outcome in Pregnant Women with Ebola Virus Disease: A Systematic Review

Authors: Garba Iliyasu, Lamaran Dattijo

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Introduction: Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a disease of humans and other primates caused by Ebola viruses. The most widespread epidemic of EVD in history occurred recently in several West African countries. The burden and outcome of EVD in pregnant women remains uncertain. There are very few studies to date reporting on maternal and fetal outcomes among pregnant women with EVD, hence the justification for this comprehensive review of these published studies. Methods: Published studies in English that reported on maternal and or fetal outcome among pregnant women with EVD up to May 2016 were searched in electronic databases (Google Scholar, Medline, Embase, PubMed, AJOL, and Scopus). Studies that did not satisfy the inclusion criteria were excluded. We extracted the following variables from each study: geographical location, year of the study, settings of the study, participants, maternal and fetal outcome.Result: There were 12 studies that reported on 108 pregnant women and 110 fetal outcomes. Six of the studies were case reports, 3 retrospective studies, 2 cross-sectional studies and 1 was a technical report. There were 91(84.3%) deaths out of the 108 pregnant women, while only 1(0.9%) fetal survival was reported out of 110. Survival rate among the 15 patients that had spontaneous abortion/stillbirth or induced delivery was 100%. Conclusion: There was a poor maternal and fetal outcome among pregnant women with EVD, and fetal evacuation significantly improves maternal survival.

Keywords: Africa, Ebola, outcome, maternofetal

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5 Outcome Analysis of Surgical and Nonsurgical Treatment on Indicated Operative Chronic Subdural Hematoma: Serial Case in Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital Indonesia

Authors: Novie Nuraini, Sari Hanifa, Yetty Ramli

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Chronic subdural hematoma (cSDH) is a common condition after head trauma. Although the size of the thickness of cSDH has an important role in the decision to perform surgery, but the size limit of the thickness is not absolute. In this serial case report, we evaluate three case report of cSDH that indicated to get the surgical procedure because of deficit neurologic and neuroimaging finding with subfalcine herniation more than 0.5 cm and hematoma thickness more than one cm. On the first case, the patient got evacuation hematoma procedure, but the second and third case, we did nonsurgical treatment because the patient and family refused to do the operation. We did the conservative treatment with bed rest and mannitol. Serial radiologic evaluation is done when we found worsening condition. We also reevaluated radiologic examination two weeks after the treatment. The results in this serial case report, the first and second case have a good outcome. On the third case, there was a worsening condition, which in this patient there was a comorbid with type two diabetic mellitus, pneumonie and chronic kidney disease. Some conservative treatment such as bed rest, corticosteroid, mannitol or the other hyperosmolar has a good outcome in patient without neurologic deficits, small hematoma, and or patient without comorbid disease. Evacuate hematome is the best choice in cSDH treatment with deficit neurologic finding. Afterall, there is some condition that we can not do the surgical procedure. Serial radiologic examination needed after two weeks to evaluate the treatment or if there is any worsening condition.

Keywords: Surgical treatment, traumatic brain injury, Nonsurgical Treatment, outcome, chronic subdural hematoma

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4 Outcomes of Pain Management for Patients in Srinagarind Hospital: Acute Pain Indicator

Authors: Darawan Augsornwan, Chalermsri Sorasit, Siriporn Mongkhonthawornchai, Sudthanom Kamollirt

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Background: Although knowledge of pain and pain management is improving, they are still inadequate to patients. The Nursing Division of Srinagarind Hospital is responsible for setting the pain management system, including work instruction development and pain management indicators. We have developed an information technology program for monitoring pain quality indicators, which was implemented to all nursing departments in April 2013. Objective: To study outcomes of acute pain management in process and outcome indicators. Method: This is a retrospective descriptive study. The sample population was patients who had acute pain 24-48 hours after receiving a procedure, while admitted to Srinagarind Hospital in 2014. Data were collected from the information technology program. 2709 patients with acute pain from 10 Nursing Departments were recruited in the study. The research tools in this study were 1) the demographic questionnaire 2) the pain management questionnaire for process indicators, and 3) the pain management questionnaire for outcome indicators. Data were analyzed and presented by percentages and means. Results: The process indicators show that nurses used pain assessment tool and recorded 99.19%. The pain reassessment after the intervention was 96.09%. The 80.15% of the patients received opioid for pain medication and the most frequency of non-pharmacological intervention used was positioning (76.72%). For the outcome indicators, nearly half of them (49.90%) had moderate–severe pain, mean scores of worst pain was 6.48 and overall pain was 4.08. Patient satisfaction level with pain management was good (49.17%) and very good (46.62%). Conclusion: Nurses used pain assessment tools and pain documents which met the goal of the pain management process. Patient satisfaction with pain management was at high level. However the patients had still moderate to severe pain. Nurses should adhere more strictly to the guidelines of pain management, by using acute pain guidelines especially when pain intensity is particularly moderate-high. Nurses should also develop and practice a non-pharmacological pain management program to continually improve the quality of pain management. The information technology program should have more details about non-pharmacological pain techniques.

Keywords: Pain Management, acute pain, outcome, Srinagarind Hospital

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3 Predicting Mortality among Acute Burn Patients Using BOBI Score vs. FLAMES Score

Authors: S. Moustafa El Shanawany, I. Labib Salem, F. Mohamed Magdy Badr El Dine, H. Tag El Deen Abd Allah

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Thermal injuries remain a global health problem and a common issue encountered in forensic pathology. They are a devastating cause of morbidity and mortality in children and adults especially in developing countries, causing permanent disfigurement, scarring and grievous hurt. Burns have always been a matter of legal concern in cases of suicidal burns, self-inflicted burns for false accusation and homicidal attempts. Assessment of burn injuries as well as rating permanent disabilities and disfigurement following thermal injuries for the benefit of compensation claims represents a challenging problem. This necessitates the development of reliable scoring systems to yield an expected likelihood of permanent disability or fatal outcome following burn injuries. The study was designed to identify the risk factors of mortality in acute burn patients and to evaluate the applicability of FLAMES (Fatality by Longevity, APACHE II score, Measured Extent of burn, and Sex) and BOBI (Belgian Outcome in Burn Injury) model scores in predicting the outcome. The study was conducted on 100 adult patients with acute burn injuries admitted to the Burn Unit of Alexandria Main University Hospital, Egypt from October 2014 to October 2015. Victims were examined after obtaining informed consent and the data were collected in specially designed sheets including demographic data, burn details and any associated inhalation injury. Each burn patient was assessed using both BOBI and FLAMES scoring systems. The results of the study show the mean age of patients was 35.54±12.32 years. Males outnumbered females (55% and 45%, respectively). Most patients were accidently burnt (95%), whereas suicidal burns accounted for the remaining 5%. Flame burn was recorded in 82% of cases. As well, 8% of patients sustained more than 60% of total burn surface area (TBSA) burns, 19% of patients needed mechanical ventilation, and 19% of burnt patients died either from wound sepsis, multi-organ failure or pulmonary embolism. The mean length of hospital stay was 24.91±25.08 days. The mean BOBI score was 1.07±1.27 and that of the FLAMES score was -4.76±2.92. The FLAMES score demonstrated an area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of 0.95 which was significantly higher than that of the BOBI score (0.883). A statistically significant association was revealed between both predictive models and the outcome. The study concluded that both scoring systems were beneficial in predicting mortality in acutely burnt patients. However, the FLAMES score could be applied with a higher level of accuracy.

Keywords: burns, Flames, outcome, BOBI, scoring systems

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2 HLA-DPB1 Matching on the Outcome of Unrelated Donor Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

Authors: Shan Zhou, Shi-xia Xu, Zai-wen Zhang, Ru-xue Chen, Xiang-feng Tang

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Objective: The clinical influence of HLA-DPB1 mismatches on clinical outcome of HSCT is less clear. This is the first meta-analysis to study the HLA-DPB1 matching statues on clinical outcomes after unrelated donor HSCT. Methods: We searched the CIBMTR, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and related databases (1995.01–2017.06) for all relevant articles. Comparative studies were used to investigate the HLA-DPB1 loci mismatches on clinical outcomes after unrelated donor HSCT, such as the disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival, GVHD, relapse, and transplant-related mortality (TRM). We performed meta-analysis using Review Manager 5.2 software and funnel plot to assess the bias. Results: At first, 1246 articles were retrieved, and 18 studies totaling 26368 patients analyzed. Pooled comparisons of studies found that the HLA-DPB1 mismatched group had a lower rate of DFS than the DPB1-matched group, and lower OS in non-T cell depleted transplantation. The DPB1 mismatched group has a higher incidence of aGVHD and more severe ( ≥ III degree) aGvHD, lower rate of relapse and higher TRM. Moreover, compared with 1-antigen mismatch, 2-antigen mismatched led to a higher risk of TRM and lower relapse rate. Conclusions: This meta-analysis indicated HLA-DPB1 has important influence on survival and transplant-related complications during unrelated donor HSCT and HLA-DPB1 donor selection strategies have been proposed based on a personalized algorithm.

Keywords: Meta-analysis, outcome, transplant, human leukocyte antigen, DPB1

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1 Assessment of Delirium, It's Possible Risk Factors and Outcome in Patient Admitted in Medical Intensive Care Unit

Authors: Rupesh K. Chaudhary, Narinder P. Jain, Rajesh Mahajan, Rajat Manchanda

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Introduction: Delirium is a complex, multifactorial neuropsychiatric syndrome comprising a broad range of cognitive and neurobehavioral symptoms. In critically ill patients, it may develop secondary to multiple predisposing factors. Although it can be transient and irreversible but if left untreated may lead to long term cognitive dysfunction. Early identification and assessment of risk factors usually help in appropriate management of delirium which in turn leads to decreased hospital stay, cost of therapy and mortality. Aim and Objective: Aim of the present study was to estimate the incidence of delirium using a validated scale in medical ICU patients and to determine the associated risk factors and outcomes. Material and Method: A prospective study in an 18-bed medical-intensive care unit (ICU) was undertaken. A total of 357 consecutive patients admitted to ICU for more than 24 hours were assessed. These patients were screened with the help of Confusion Assessment Method for Intensive Care Unit -CAM-ICU, Richmond Agitation and Sedation Scale, Screening Checklist for delirium and APACHE II. Appropiate statistical analysis was done to evaluate the risk factors influencing mortality in delirium. Results: Delirium occurred in 54.6% of 194 patients. Risk of delirium was independently associated with a history of hypertension, diabetes but not with severity of illness APACHE II score. Delirium was linked to longer ICU stay 13.08 ± 9.6 ver 7.07 ± 4.98 days, higher ICU mortality (35.8% % vs. 17.0%). Conclusion: Our study concluded that delirium poses a great risk factor in the outcome of the patient and carries high mortality, so a timely intervention helps in addressing these issues.

Keywords: Intervention, Delirium, Risk Factors, outcome

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