Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

osteogenesis Related Abstracts

4 The Effects of Separating Inferior Alveolar Neurovascular Bundles on Osteogenesis of Tissue-Engineered Bone and Vascularization

Authors: Lin Feng, E. Lingling, Hongchen Liu

Abstract:

In order to evaluate the effects of autologous blood vessels and nerves on vascularization. A dog model of tissue-engineered bone vascularization was established by constructing inferior alveolar neurovascular bundles through the mandibular canal. Sixteen 12-month-old healthy beagles were randomly divided into two groups (n=8). Group A retained inferior alveolar neurovascular bundles, and Group B retained inferior alveolar nerves. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were injected into β-tricalcium phosphate to prepare internal tissue-engineered bone scaffold. A personalized titanium mesh was then prepared by rapid prototyping and fixed by external titanium scaffold. Two dogs in each group were sacrificed on the 30th, 45th, 60th, and 90th postoperative days respectively. The bone was visually examined, scanned by CT, and subjected to HE staining, immunohistochemical staining, vascular casting and PCR to detect the changes in osteogenesis and vascularization.The two groups had similar outcomes in regard to osteogenesis and vascularization (P>0.05) both showed remarkable regenerative capacities. The model of tissue-engineered bone vascularization is potentially applicable in clinical practice to allow satisfactory osteogenesis and vascularization.

Keywords: vascularization, inferior alveolar neurovascular bundle, osteogenesis, tissue-engineered bone

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3 Plasma Treatment in Conjunction with EGM-2 Medium Can Enhance Endothelial and Osteogenic Marker Expressions of Bone Marrow MSCs

Authors: Chih-Hsin Lin, Shyh-Yuan Lee, Yuan-Min Lin

Abstract:

For many tissue engineering applications, an important goal is to create functional tissues in-vitro, and such tissues to be viable, they have to be vascularized. Endothelial cells (EC) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) are promising candidates for vascularization. However, both of them have limited expansion capacity and autologous cells currently do not exist for either ECs or EPCs. Therefore, we use bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) as a source material for ECs. Growth supplements are commonly used to induce MSC differentiation, and further improvements in differentiation conditions can be made by modifying the cell's growth environment. An example is pre-treatment of the growth dish with gas plasma, in order to modify the surface functional groups of the material that the cells are seeded on. In this work, we compare the effects of different gas plasmas on the growth and differentiation of MSCs. We treat the dish with different plasmas (CO2, N2, and O2) and then induce MSC differentiation with endothelial growth medium-2 (EGM-2). We find that EGM-2 by itself upregulates EC marker CD31 mRNA expression, but not VEGFR2, CD34, or vWF. However, these additional EC marker expressions were increased for cells seeded on plasma treated substrates. Specifically, for EC markers, we found that N2 plasma treatment upregulated CD31 and VEGFR-2 mRNA expressions; CO2 plasma treatment upregulated CD34 and vWF mRNA expressions. The osteogenic markers ALP and osteopontin mRNA expressions were markedly enhanced on all plasma-treated dishes. We also found that plasma treatment in conjunction with EGM-2 growth medium can enhance MSCs differentiation into endothelial-like cells and osteogenic-like cells. Our work shows that the effect of the growth medium (EGM-2) on MSCs differentiation is influenced by the plasma modified surface chemistry of the substrate. In conclusion, plasma surface modification can enhance EGM-2 effectiveness and induced both endothelial and osteogenic differentiation. Our findings provide a method to enhance EGM-2 based cell differentiation, with consequences for tissue engineering and stem cell biology applications.

Keywords: Surface modification, Plasma Treatment, osteogenesis, endothelial differentiation, EGM-2

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2 The Effects of Bisphosphonates on Osteonecrosis of Jaw Bone: A Stem Cell Perspective

Authors: Fikrettin Sahin, Huseyin Apdik, Aysegul Dogan, Selami Demirci, Ezgi Avsar Apdik

Abstract:

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are crucial cell types for bone maintenance and growth along with resident bone progenitor cells providing bone tissue integrity during osteogenesis and skeletal growth. Any deficiency in this regulation would result in vital bone diseases. Of those, osteoporosis, characterized by a reduction in bone mass and mineral density, is a critical skeletal disease for especially elderly people. The commonly used drugs for the osteoporosis treatment are bisphosphonates (BPs). The most prominent role of BPs is to prevent bone resorption arisen from high osteoclast activity. However, administrations of bisphosphonates may also cause bisphosphonate-induced osteonecrosis of the jaw (BIONJ). Up to the present, the researchers have proposed several circumstances for BIONJ. However, effects of long-term and/or high dose usage of BPs on stem cell’s proliferation, survival, differentiation or maintenance capacity have not been evaluated yet. The present study will be held to; figure out BPs’ effects on MSCs in vitro in the aspect of cell proliferation and toxicity, migration, angiogenic activity, lineage specific gene and protein expression levels, mesenchymal stem cell properties and potential signaling pathways affected by BP treatment. Firstly, mesenchymal stem cell characteristics of Dental Pulp Stem Cells (DPSCs) and Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells (PDLSCs) were proved using flow cytometry analysis. Cell viability analysis was completed to determine the cytotoxic effects of BPs (Zoledronate (Zol), Alendronate (Ale) and Risedronate (Ris)) on DPSCs and PDLSCs by the 3-(4,5-di-methyl-thiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxy-phenyl)-2-(4-sulfo-phenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) assay. Non-toxic concentrations of BPs were determined at 24 h under growth condition, and at 21 days under osteogenic differentiation condition for both cells. The scratch assay was performed to evaluate their migration capacity under the usage of determined of BPs concentrations at 24 h. The results revealed that while the scratch closure is 70% in the control group for DPSCs, it was 57%, 66% and 66% in Zol, Ale and Ris groups, respectively. For PDLSs, while wound closure is 71% in control group, it was 65%, 66% and 66% in Zol, Ale and Ris groups, respectively. As future experiments, tube formation assay and aortic ring assay will be done to determinate angiogenesis abilities of DPSCs and PDLSCs treated with BPs. Expression levels of osteogenic differentiation marker genes involved in bone development will be determined using real time-polymerase change reaction (RT-PCR) assay and expression profiles of important proteins involved in osteogenesis will be evaluated using western blotting assay for osteogenically differentiated MSCs treated with or without BPs. In addition to these, von Kossa staining will be performed to measure calcium mineralization status of MSCs.

Keywords: mesenchymal stem cells, osteogenesis, bisphosphonates, bisphosphonate-induced osteonecrosis of the jaw

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1 Improved Mechanical Properties and Osteogenesis in Electrospun Poly L-Lactic Ultrafine Nanofiber Scaffolds Incorporated with Graphene Oxide

Authors: Qian Wang, Jianxin He, Weili Shao

Abstract:

Recently, the applications of graphene oxide in fabricating scaffolds for bone tissue engineering have been received extensive concern. In this work, poly l-lactic/graphene oxide composite nanofibers were successfully fabricated by electrospinning. The morphology structure, porosity and mechanical properties of the composite nanofibers were characterized using different techniques. And mouse mesenchymal stem cells were cultured on the composite nanofiber scaffolds to assess their suitability for bone tissue engineering. The results indicated that the composite nanofiber scaffolds had finer fiber diameter and higher porosity as compared with pure poly l-lactic nanofibers. Furthermore, incorporation of graphene oxide into the poly l-lactic nanofibers increased protein adsorptivity, boosted the Young’s modulus and tensile strength by nearly 4.2-fold and 3.5-fold, respectively, and significantly enhanced adhesion, proliferation, and osteogenesis in mouse mesenchymal stem cells. The results indicate that composite nanofibers could be excellent and versatile scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.

Keywords: Bone Tissue Engineering, Graphene Oxide, osteogenesis, poly l-lactic

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