Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

osmolytes Related Abstracts

3 Extraction of Osmolytes from the Halotolerant Fungus Aspergillus oryzae

Authors: H. Nacef, L. Larous

Abstract:

Salin soils occupy about 7% of land area; they are characterized by unsuitable physical conditions for the growth of living organisms. However, researches showed that some microorganisms especially fungi are able to grow and adapt to such extreme conditions; it is due to their ability to develop different physiological mechanisms in their adaptation. The aim of this study is to identify qualitatively the osmolytes that the biotechnological important fungus A. oryzae accumulated and/or produced in its adaptation, which they were detected by Thin-layer chromatography technique (TLC) using several systems, from different media (Wheat brane, MNM medium and MM medium). The results showed that The moderately halotolerant fungus A. oryzae, accumulates mixture of molecules, containing polyols and sugars , some amino acids in addition to some molecules which were not defined. Wheat bran was the best medium for the extraction of these molecules, where the proportion was 85.71%, followed by MNM medium 64.28%, then the minimum medium MM 14.28%. Properties of osmolytes are becoming increasingly useful in molecular biology, agriculture pharmaceutical, medicinal, and biotechnological interests.

Keywords: Salinity, aspergillus oryzae, halo tolerance, osmolytes, compatible solutes

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2 QSAR Study on Diverse Compounds for Effects on Thermal Stability of a Monoclonal Antibody

Authors: Olubukayo-Opeyemi Oyetayo, Oscar Mendez-Lucio, Andreas Bender, Hans Kiefer

Abstract:

The thermal melting curve of a protein provides information on its conformational stability and could provide cues on its aggregation behavior. Naturally-occurring osmolytes have been shown to improve the thermal stability of most proteins in a concentration-dependent manner. They are therefore commonly employed as additives in therapeutic protein purification and formulation. A number of intertwined and seemingly conflicting mechanisms have been put forward to explain the observed stabilizing effects, the most prominent being the preferential exclusion mechanism. We attempted to probe and summarize molecular mechanisms for thermal stabilization of a monoclonal antibody (mAb) by developing quantitative structure-activity relationships using a rationally-selected library of 120 osmolyte-like compounds in the polyhydric alcohols, amino acids and methylamines classes. Thermal stabilization potencies were experimentally determined by thermal shift assays based on differential scanning fluorimetry. The cross-validated QSAR model was developed by partial least squares regression using descriptors generated from Molecular Operating Environment software. Careful evaluation of the results with the use of variable importance in projection parameter (VIP) and regression coefficients guided the selection of the most relevant descriptors influencing mAb thermal stability. For the mAb studied and at pH 7, the thermal stabilization effects of tested compounds correlated positively with their fractional polar surface area and inversely with their fractional hydrophobic surface area. We cannot claim that the observed trends are universal for osmolyte-protein interactions because of protein-specific effects, however this approach should guide the quick selection of (de)stabilizing compounds for a protein from a chemical library. Further work with a large variety of proteins and at different pH values would help the derivation of a solid explanation as to the nature of favorable osmolyte-protein interactions for improved thermal stability. This approach may be beneficial in the design of novel protein stabilizers with optimal property values, especially when the influence of solution conditions like the pH and buffer species and the protein properties are factored in.

Keywords: Monoclonal Antibodies, Thermal Stability, osmolytes, quantitative structure-activity relationships

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1 Physiological and Biochemical Based Analysis to Assess the Efficacy of Mulch under Partial Root Zone Drying in Wheat

Authors: Muhammad Ali, Muhammad Aown Sammar Raza, Salman Ahmad, Muhammad Farrukh Saleem, Muhammad Saqlain Zaheer, Rashid Iqbal, Imran Haider, Muhammad Usman Aslam, Muhammad Adnan Nazar

Abstract:

Among the various abiotic stresses, drought stress is one of the most challenging for field crops. Wheat is one of the major staple food of the world, which is highly affected by water deficit stress in the current scenario of climate change. In order to ensure food security by depleting water resources, there is an urgent need to adopt technologies which result in sufficient crop yield with less water consumption. Mulching and partial rootzone drying (PRD) are two important management techniques used for water conservation and to mitigate the negative impacts of drought. The experiment was conducted to screen out the best-suited mulch for wheat under PRD system. Two water application techniques (I1= full irrigation I2= PRD irrigation) and four mulch treatments (M0= un-mulched, M1= black plastic mulch, M2= wheat straw mulch and M4= cotton sticks mulch) were conducted in completely randomized design with four replications. The treatment, black plastic mulch was performed the best than other mulch treatments. For irrigation levels, higher values of growth, physiological and water-related parameters were recorded in control treatment while, quality traits and enzymatic activities were higher under partial root zone drying. The current study concluded that adverse effects of drought on wheat can be significantly mitigated by using mulches but black plastic mulch was best suited for partial rootzone drying irrigation system in wheat.

Keywords: Photosynthesis, Antioxidants, osmolytes, partial root zone drying, leaf water relations, Mulches

Procedia PDF Downloads 36