Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

origin Related Abstracts

6 Review of the Anatomy of the Middle Cerebral Artery and Its Anomalies

Authors: Karen Cilliers, Benedict John Page


The middle cerebral artery (MCA) is the most complex cerebral artery although few anomalies are found compared to the other cerebral arteries. The branches of the MCA cover a large part of each hemisphere, therefore it is exposed in various operations. Although the segments of the MCA are similarly described by most authors, there is some disagreement on the branching pattern of the MCA. The aim of this study was to review the available literature on the anatomy and variations of the MCA, and to compare this to a pilot study. For the pilot study, 20 hemispheres were perfused with coloured silicone and the MCA was dissected. According to the literature, the two most common branching configurations are the bifurcating and trifurcating patterns. In the pilot study, bifurcation was observed in 19 hemispheres, and in one hemisphere there was no branching (monofurcation). No trifurcation was observed. The most commonly duplicated branch was the anterior parietal artery in 30%, and most commonly absent was the common temporal artery in 65% and the temporal polar artery in 40%. Very few studies describe the origins of the branches of the MCA, therefore a detailed description is given. Middle cerebral artery variations that are occasionally reported in the literature include fenestration, and a duplicated or accessory MCA, although no variations were observed in the pilot study. Aneurysms can frequently be observed at the branching of cerebral vessels, therefore a thorough knowledge of the vascular anatomy is vital. Furthermore, knowledge of possible variations is important since variations can have serious clinical implications.

Keywords: Anatomy, Variation, anomaly, description, middle cerebral artery, origin

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5 Distribution and Historical Trends of PAHs Deposition in Recent Sediment Cores of the Imo River, SE Nigeria

Authors: Miranda I. Dosunmu, Orok E. Oyo-Ita, Inyang O. Oyo-Ita


Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of priority listed organic pollutants due to their carcinogenicity, mutagenity, acute toxicity and persistency in the environment. The distribution and historical changes of PAHs contamination in recent sediment cores from the Imo River were investigated using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometer. The concentrations of total PAHs (TPAHs) ranging from 402.37 ng/g dry weight (dw) at the surface layer of the Estuary zone (ESC6; 0-5 cm) to 92,388.59 ng/g dw at the near surface layer of the Afam zone (ASC5; 5-10 cm) indicate that PAHs contamination was localized not only between sample sites but also within the same cores. Sediment-depth profiles for the four (Afam, Mangrove, Estuary and illegal Petroleum refinery) cores revealed irregular distribution patterns in the TPAH concentrations except the fact that these levels became maximized at the near surface layers (5-10 cm) corresponding to a geological time-frame of about 1996-2004. This time scale coincided with the period of intensive bunkering and oil pipeline vandalization by the Niger Delta militant groups. Also a general slight decline was found in the TPAHs levels from near the surface layers (5-10 cm) to the most recent top layers (0-5 cm) of the cores, attributable to the recent effort by the Nigerian government in clamping down the illegal activity of the economic saboteurs. Therefore, the recent amnesty period granted to the militant groups should be extended. Although mechanism of perylene formation still remains enigmatic, examination of its distributions down cores indicates natural biogenic, pyrogenic and petrogenic origins for the compound at different zones. Thus, the characteristic features of the Imo River environment provide a means of tracing diverse origins for perylene.

Keywords: Distribution, origin, perylene, historical trend, Imo River

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4 Identification and Origins of Multiple Personality: A Criterion from Wiggins

Authors: Brittany L. Kang


One familiar theory of the origin of multiple personalities focuses on how symptoms of trauma or abuse are central causes, as seen in paradigmatic examples of the condition. The theory states that multiple personalities constitute a congenital condition, as babies all exhibit multiplicity, and that generally alters only remain separated due to trauma. In more typical cases, the alters converge and become a single identity; only in cases of trauma, according to this account, do the alters remain separated. This theory is misleading in many aspects, the most prominent being that not all multiple personality patients are victims of child abuse or trauma, nor are all cases of multiple personality observed in early childhood. The use of this criterion also causes clinical problems, including an inability to identify multiple personalities through the variety of symptoms and traits seen across observed cases. These issues present a need for revision in the currently applied criterion in order to separate the notion of child abuse and to be able to better understand the origins of multiple personalities itself. Identifying multiplicity through the application of identity theories will improve the current criterion, offering a bridge between identifying existing cases and understanding their origins. We begin by applying arguments from Wiggins, who held that each personality within a multiple was not a whole individual, but rather characters who switch off. Wiggins’ theory is supported by observational evidence of how such characters are differentiated. Alters of older ages are seen to require different prescription lens, in addition to having different handwriting. The alters may also display drastically varying styles of clothing, preferences in food, their gender, sexuality, religious beliefs and more. The definitions of terms such as 'personality' or 'persons' also become more distinguished, leading to greater understanding of who is exactly able to be classified as a patient of multiple personalities. While a more common meaning of personality is a designation of specific characteristics which account for the entirety of a person, this paper argues from Wiggins’ theory that each 'personality' is in fact only partial. Clarification of the concept in question will allow for more successful future clinical applications.

Keywords: Identification, origin, multiple personalities, Wiggins' theory

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3 Effects of Parental Socio-Economic Status and Individuals' Educational Achievement on Their Socio-Economic Status: A Study of South Korea

Authors: Eun-Jeong Jang


Inequality has been considered as a core issue in public policy. Korea is categorized into one of the countries in the high level of inequality, which matters to not only current but also future generations. The relationship between individuals' origin and destination has an implication of intergenerational inequality. The previous work on this was mostly conducted at macro level using panel data to our knowledge. However, in this level, there is no room to track down what happened during the time between origin and destination. Individuals' origin is represented by their parents' socio-economic status, and in the same way, destination is translated into their own socio-economic status. The first research question is that how origin is related to the destination. Certainly, destination is highly affected by origin. In this view, people's destination is already set to be more or less than a reproduction of previous generations. However, educational achievement is widely believed as an independent factor from the origin. From this point of view, there is a possibility to change the path given by parents by educational attainment. Hence, the second research question would be that how education is related to destination and also, which factor is more influential to destination between origin and education. Also, the focus lies in the mediation of education between origin and destination, which would be the third research question. Socio-economic status in this study is referring to class as a sociological term, as well as wealth including labor and capital income, as an economic term. The combination of class and wealth would be expected to give more accurate picture about the hierarchy in a society. In some cases of non-manual and professional occupations, even though they are categorized into relatively high class, their income is much lower than those who in the same class. Moreover, it is one way to overcome the limitation of the retrospective view during survey. Education is measured as an absolute term, the years of schooling, and also as a relative term, the rank of school. Moreover, all respondents were asked the effort scaled by time intensity, self-motivation, before and during the course of their college based on a standard questionnaire academic achieved model provides. This research is based on a survey at an individual level. The target for sampling is an individual who has a job, regardless of gender, including income-earners and self-employed people and aged between thirties and forties because this age group is considered to reach the stage of job stability. In most cases, the researcher met respondents person to person visiting their work place or home and had a chance to interview some of them. One hundred forty individual data collected from May to August in 2017. It will be analyzed by multiple regression (Q1, Q2) and structural equation modeling (Q3).

Keywords: Class, socio-economic status, Income, effort, educational achievement, origin, destination, South Korea

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2 Evolution of Textiles in the Indian Subcontinent

Authors: Ananya Mitra Pramanik, Anjali Agrawal


The objective of this paper is to trace the origin and evolution of clothing in the Indian Subcontinent. The paper seeks to understand the need for mankind to shed his natural state and adopt clothing as an inseparable accessory for his body. It explores the various theories of the origin of clothing. The known journey of clothing of this region started from the Indus Valley Civilisation which dates back to 2500 BC. Due to the weather conditions of the region, few actual samples have survived, and most of the knowledge of textiles is derived from the sculptures and other remains from this era. The understanding of textiles of the period after the Indus Valley Civilisation (2500-1500 BC) till the Mauryan and the Sunga Period (321-72 BC) comes from literary sources, e.g., Vedas, Smritis, the eminent Indian epics of the Ramayana and the Mahabharata, forest books, etc. Textile production was one of the most important economic activities of this region. It was next only to agriculture. While attempting to trace the history of clothing the paper draws the evolution of Indian traditional fashion through the change of rulers of this region and the development of the modern Indian traditional dress, i.e., sari, salwar kamiz, dhoti, etc. The major aims of the study are to define the different time periods chronologically and to inspect the major changes in textile fashion, manufacturing, and materials that took place. This study is based on secondary research. It is founded on data taken primarily from books and journals. Not much of visuals are added in the paper as actual fabric references are near nonexistent. It gives a brief history of the ancient textiles of India from the time frame of 2500 BC-8th C AD.

Keywords: Evolution, History, Textiles, origin

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1 Zeolite Origin within the Pliocene Sedimentary-Pyroclastic Deposits in the Southwestern Part of Syria

Authors: Abdulsalam Turkmani, Mohammed Khaled Yezbek, Farouk Al Imadi


Geological surveys in the southwestern part of Syria showed the presence of sedimentary-pyroclastic deposits, volcanic tuff, to the age of the Upper Pliocene and contain the following minerals according petrographical study and XRD, SEM, XRF analysis and surface properties. X-Ray diffraction results indicate the presence of analcime, phillipsite and chabazite in in all the studied localities. There are also amorphous materials and clay minerals such as illite and montmorillonite. The non-zeolite constituents include olivine, clinopyroxene orthopyroxene and spinel, and less of magnetite and feldspar. Some major oxides were determined through XRF geochemical analyses which include SiO₂, Al₂O₃, K₂O, Fe₂O₃, and CaO for volcanic tuff and zeolite. The formation of these depositions can be summarized in the following stages during the Pliocene: Volcanic activity at the edges of Al Rutba uplift and Jabal Al Arab depression was a rich by tuff bearing ultra basic and basic xenoliths plus second phase by scoria, during the early Pliocene. Volcanic calm with the activity of erosion and form lakes in which deposition of a set of wastes, including olivine resulting from the disintegration of xenoliths during the middle Pliocene. Zeolites minerals form later, which make up about 15-20% and increase and decrease in reverse relation with the olivine sand. Zeolite is formed from volcanic glass, and the results of SEM show that the zeolites minerals very well crystallized.

Keywords: Minerals, Zeolite, origin, pyroclastic

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